Thinkstock (main); gelsenzentrum.de (inset)
Thinkstock (main); gelsenzentrum.de (inset)

Arthur Eichengrün, Inventor of Aspirin

Thinkstock (main); gelsenzentrum.de (inset)
Thinkstock (main); gelsenzentrum.de (inset)

In 1896, chemist Arthur Eichengrün brought forth a miracle—a pure acetylsalicylic acid with medical applications. This was a few years before Lizzie Magie invented the board game Monopoly, and if only the two knew each other, they might have had a lot to talk about. Just as Parker Brothers stole Monopoly from Magie and whitewashed her from history, so to did Bayer make Eichengrün an unperson and cash in on his invention: the aspirin.

Six years after earning his doctorate from what is today Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University (which is kind of the MIT of Germany), Eichengrün scored a job at Bayer, a German pharmaceutical company. He did some pretty great work there, which included the development of Protargol, a treatment for gonorrhea. This was an especially big deal because antibiotics and penicillin were still decades away. Most careers would peak with beating the Clap, but Eichengrün was just getting started. 

The beneficial properties of salicylic acid were well known when Eichengrün started his research. In 460 BC, Hippocrates himself was grinding up willow tree bark to help treat headaches. Salicylic acid is the active ingredient in such extracts, though it didn’t always go down well, unless you consider “well” to include a bleeding stomach, diarrhea, and, sometimes, death. When Arthur Eichengrün synthesized his pure acetylsalicylic acid, the potential was pretty obvious. He tested the medicine first on himself, and when he didn’t die, began trials through local physicians. According to The Discovery of Aspirin: A Reappraisal, the results were highly encouraging. The medicine seemed to help patients who were suffering from pain, without inducing the generally terrible side effects:

“But there was more—a dentist had given the drug to a patient with a raised temperature as well as toothache. Hardly was he out of the chair before he exclaimed, ‘My toothache's gone!’ Such a rapid onset of analgesia was unique. After a similar response was confirmed in other patients, [Felix Goldmann, an associate of Eichengrün] sent a report to the Bayer management. According to Eichengrün, when [Bayer’s head of the experimental pharmacology, Heinrich] Dreser was asked to comment, he scribbled on it, ‘This is the usual loud-mouthing of Berlin—the product has no value.’”

(So anyway, the potential of aspirin was obvious to almost everyone.)

A few years later, Eichengrün left Bayer and started his own lab. He developed a type of plastic called Cellon, which found a huge demand during World War I for pilots’ goggles and soldiers’ gas masks. The lab also created a cellulose acetate coating for the fabric used on aircraft, making their wings water resistant. Eventually Eichengrün opened his own manufacturing plant, Cellon-Werke, and advanced the science of injection molding, which is still used today in plastics.

In 1933, the Nazis forced Eichengrün to sell his company to “Aryan” Germans. Ten years later, he was imprisoned, and in 1944, was sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp. (Thirty-three thousand Jews died at Theresienstadt, with tens of thousands more loaded onto trains and sent to Treblinka and Auschwitz.) While at Theresienstadt, Eichengrün sent a letter to Bayer asking for help. In the letter, he listed his many contributions to the company, including the invention of aspirin. Help from Bayer never came. He and his fellow captives were freed on May 8, 1945, when Soviet troops liberated the camp. Eichengrün died in Bavaria the following year.

We don’t know why Bayer gave credit to Felix Hoffman, an underling of Eichengrün, for the invention of aspirin (alongside Heinrich Dreser, inexplicably). And it was hard for Eichengrün to prove that he was the scientist responsible for aspirin, seeing as how the Nazis banned Jews from pretty much everything that wasn’t horrible. Maybe Bayer was scared of angering Hitler, and Felix Hoffman was just a safer name to go with. I don’t know. But I do have to wonder why, today, when Hitler is definitely dead, Bayer continues to deny Eichengrün’s rightful claim to have invented aspirin. It’s a great big mystery.

As for aspirin itself, because 70,000 metric tons of it are consumed a year, everyone knows a bit about what it can do. Headaches and fevers are the obvious ones. Studies also suggest that it can reduce the risk of death from heart attacks and help treat Kawasaki disease. It can help prevent colorectal cancer. It can sometimes help prevent strokes. It can even remove sweat stains from your t-shirts. No research has yet found a connection between Arthur Eichengrün’s invention and spontaneous unicorn-and-rainbow generation, but you have to figure it’s not far off.

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College Board Wants to Erase Thousands of Years From AP World History, and Teachers Aren't Happy
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One would be forgiven for thinking that the Ides of March are upon us, because Julius Caesar is being taken out once again—this time from the Advanced Placement World History exam. The College Board in charge of the AP program is planning to remove the Roman leader, and every other historical figure who lived and died prior to 1450, from high school students’ tests, The New York Times reports.

The nonprofit board recently announced that it would revise the test, beginning in 2019, to make it more manageable for teachers and students alike. The current exam covers over 10,000 years of world history, and according to the board, “no other AP course requires such an expanse of content to be covered over a single school year.”

As an alternative, the board suggested that schools offer two separate year-long courses to cover the entirety of world history, including a Pre-AP World History and Geography class focusing on the Ancient Period (before 600 BCE) up through the Postclassical Period (ending around 1450). However, as Politico points out, a pre-course for which the College Board would charge a fee "isn’t likely to be picked up by cash-strapped public schools," and high school students wouldn't be as inclined to take the pre-AP course since there would be no exam or college credit for it.

Many teachers and historians are pushing back against the proposed changes and asking the board to leave the course untouched. Much of the controversy surrounds the 1450 start date and the fact that no pre-colonial history would be tested.

“They couldn’t have picked a more Eurocentric date,” Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks, who previously helped develop AP History exams and courses, told The New York Times. “If you start in 1450, the first thing you’ll talk about in terms of Africa is the slave trade. The first thing you’ll talk about in terms of the Americas is people dying from smallpox and other things. It’s not a start date that encourages looking at the agency and creativity of people outside Europe.”

A group of teachers who attended an AP open forum in Salt Lake City also protested the changes. One Michigan educator, Tyler George, told Politico, “Students need to understand that there was a beautiful, vast, and engaging world before Europeans ‘discovered’ it.”

The board is now reportedly reconsidering its decision and may push the start date of the course back some several hundred years. Their decision will be announced in July.

[h/t The New York Times]

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Nate D. Sanders Auctions
Sylvia Plath's Pulitzer Prize in Poetry Is Up for Auction
Nate D. Sanders Auctions
Nate D. Sanders Auctions

A Pulitzer Prize in Poetry that was awarded posthumously to Sylvia Plath in 1982 for her book The Collected Poems will be auctioned on June 28. The Los Angeles-based Nate D. Sanders Auctions says bidding for the literary document will start at $40,000.

The complete book of Plath’s poetry was published in 1981—18 years after her death—and was edited by her husband, fellow poet Ted Hughes. The Pulitzer Prize was presented to Hughes on Plath’s behalf, and one of two telegrams sent by Pulitzer President Michael Sovern to Hughes read, “We’ve just heard that the Collected Plath has won the Pulitzer Prize. Congratulations to you for making it possible.” The telegrams will also be included in the lot, in addition to an official congratulatory letter from Sovern.

The Pultizer’s jury report from 1982 called The Collected Poems an “extraordinary literary event.” It went on to write, “Plath won no major prizes in her lifetime, and most of her work has been posthumously published … The combination of metaphorical brilliance with an effortless formal structure makes this a striking volume.”

Ted Hughes penned an introduction to the poetry collection describing how Plath had “never scrapped any of her poetic efforts,” even if they weren’t all masterpieces. He wrote:

“Her attitude to her verse was artisan-like: if she couldn’t get a table out of the material, she was quite happy to get a chair, or even a toy. The end product for her was not so much a successful poem, as something that had temporarily exhausted her ingenuity. So this book contains not merely what verse she saved, but—after 1956—all she wrote.”

Also up for auction is Plath’s Massachusetts driver’s license from 1958, at which time she went by the name Sylvia P. Hughes. Bidding for the license will begin at $8000.

Plath's driver's license
Nate D. Sanders Auctions

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