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The 16-Year-Old Who's Smarter than Einstein

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SWNS

A 16-year-old girl from Essex, England made headlines in February for a shocking scandal of the academic variety: After a wild weekend out with some friends from school taking the Mensa IQ test, she came away with an intelligence score a single point higher than Albert Einstein’s.

Lauren Marbe, self-professed normal teenager with a fondness for acrylic nails and getting dressed up for nights out, tested with an IQ of 161—higher than Nobel Prize-winning theoretical physicist Albert Einstein, Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient and celebrated cosmologist Stephen Hawking, and both Microsoft CEO Bill Gates and co-founder Paul Allen, all of whom are estimated by experts to have IQs topping out at 160. Despite maintaining a consistent record of straight-A grades and acing her science GCSE—a British standardized test—a year before her peers were scheduled to take it, Marbe surprised her parents, teachers, and herself by so thoroughly bucking both the “Essex girl” and dumb blonde stereotypes.

With her new membership in Mensa and certified intelligence, this teenage genius can be confident that she has a wealth of potential at her disposal, which she hopes to put to use either as a singer and actress on London’s West End or in studying for an architecture degree at the University of Cambridge, consistently ranked one of the best educational institutions in the world. She’ll be able to wear her 161 score as a badge of honor, and there has to be some thrill in thinking, “I’m smarter than Einstein!”

Detractors, however, point out that IQ scores are poor measures of actual intelligence, failing to account for all of its often untestable dimensions. While high-IQ individuals like Einstein, Charles Darwin, and chess Grandmasters Garry Kasparov and Bobby Fischer may go on to successful, celebrated careers as intellectuals, others may as easily fade quietly into the woodwork. Dr. Evangelos Katsioulis of Greece, currently the living holder of the highest IQ in the world at 198, signs off as “MD, MSc, PhD,” emphasizing to the world that he is all kinds of smart. Nevertheless, his achievements are relatively modest compared to evolution and E=mc2. (He doesn’t even have a Wikipedia page.)

It’s also important to note that Einstein’s 160 IQ was never official—that is, he was never tested for it. Today’s standardized intelligence tests did not exist at the time Einstein was living; his supposed IQ is an estimate based on his achievements, much like the supposedly high IQs of fellow historical “geniuses” like Descartes, Mozart, Galileo Galilei, and Immanuel Kant, some of whom were estimated to have higher scores than Einstein. In that case, Lauren Marbe’s achievement isn’t the one point she has over Einstein, but what she eventually does with it. After all, IQ ain’t nothing but a number.

Curious how you might stack up against the geniuses of yesterday and today? Check out the IQ Test Gift Box in the Mental Floss store—get one for yourself and one for a friend, and fight over who gets to be Einstein and who gets to be Lauren Marbe.

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Land Cover CCI, ESA
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European Space Agency Releases First High-Res Land Cover Map of Africa
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Land Cover CCI, ESA

This isn’t just any image of Africa. It represents the first of its kind: a high-resolution map of the different types of land cover that are found on the continent, released by The European Space Agency, as Travel + Leisure reports.

Land cover maps depict the different physical materials that cover the Earth, whether that material is vegetation, wetlands, concrete, or sand. They can be used to track the growth of cities, assess flooding, keep tabs on environmental issues like deforestation or desertification, and more.

The newly released land cover map of Africa shows the continent at an extremely detailed resolution. Each pixel represents just 65.6 feet (20 meters) on the ground. It’s designed to help researchers model the extent of climate change across Africa, study biodiversity and natural resources, and see how land use is changing, among other applications.

Developed as part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Land Cover project, the space agency gathered a full year’s worth of data from its Sentinel-2A satellite to create the map. In total, the image is made from 90 terabytes of data—180,000 images—taken between December 2015 and December 2016.

The map is so large and detailed that the space agency created its own online viewer for it. You can dive further into the image here.

And keep watch: A better map might be close at hand. In March, the ESA launched the Sentinal-2B satellite, which it says will make a global map at a 32.8 feet-per-pixel (10 meters) resolution possible.

[h/t Travel + Leisure]

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Scientists May Have Found the Real Cause of Dyslexia—And a Way to Treat It
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Dyslexia is often described as trying to read letters as they jump around the page. Because of its connections to reading difficulties and trouble in school, the condition is often blamed on the brain. But according to a new study published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the so-called learning disability may actually start in the eyes.

As The Guardian reports, a team of French scientists say they've discovered a key physiological difference between the eyes of those with dyslexia and those without it. Our eyes have tiny light-receptor cells called rods and cones. The center of a region called the fovea is dominated by cones, which are also responsible for color perception.

Just as most of us have a dominant hand, most have a dominant eye too, which has more neural connections to the brain. The study of 60 people, divided evenly between those with dyslexia and those without, found that in the eyes of non-dyslexic people, the arrangement of the cones is asymmetrical: The dominant eye has a round, cone-free hole, while the other eye has an unevenly shaped hole. However, in people with dyslexia, both eyes have the same round hole. So when they're looking at something in front of them, such as a page in a book, their eyes perceive exact mirror images, which end up fighting for visual domination in the brain. This could explain why it's sometimes impossible for a dyslexic person to distinguish a "b" from a "d" or an "E" from a "3".

These results challenge previous research that connects dyslexia to cognitive abilities. In a study published earlier this year, people with the condition were found to have a harder time remembering musical notes, faces, and spoken words. In light of the new findings, it's unclear whether this is at the root of dyslexia or if growing up with vision-related reading difficulties affects brain plasticity.

If dyslexia does come down to some misarranged light-receptors in the eye, diagnosing the disorder could be as simple as giving an eye exam. The explanation could also make it easy to treat without invasive surgery. In the study, the authors describe using an LED lamp that blinks faster than the human eye can perceive to "cancel out" one of the mirror images perceived by dyslexic readers, leaving only one true image. The volunteers who read with it called it a "magic lamp." The researchers hope to further experiment with it to see see if it's a viable treatment option for the millions of people living with dyslexia.

[h/t The Guardian]

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