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9 Historical Methods for Determining the Sex of an Unborn Baby

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Are you pregnant? Do you like eating poultry and venison, and talking about jousting and knight stuff? Well, then you’re obviously carrying a boy. Like dancing and music? It’s a girl.

Sure, it’s not the most scientific of determinations, but for women living in a world before ultrasounds, there was no way to tell just what or who or how many were in there. Modern technology has made a window into a place which, for hundreds of thousands of years, only speculation illuminated.

So, if you don’t have the benefit of that window (which, by the way, isn’t always clear), how did you tell whether you were carrying a boy or a girl? And perhaps even more important, could you choose which?

Before we get to the good stuff, here’s a quick Bio 101 primer on how it really works: Human sex differentiation is dictated by the XX/XY system. The egg cell (we’ll call her Sally) contains one lady-making X chromosome; the sperm (let’s call him Harry) can carry either an X or a Y chromosome. When Harry meets Sally (see what we did there?), whether they’ll make a boy or a girl is dependent on which chromosome Harry’s packing. The Y chromosome stimulates testis formation in the fetus, and thus male sexual development; no Y chromosome, the gonads become ovaries and you’ve got yourself a girl. Pretty simple (except when there’s an anomaly, such as Klinefelter’s syndrome, an extra X chromosome attached to the XY that can manifest in decreased fertility, increased breast tissue, and other ways). The sex of the infant is set, though possibly not in stone, as soon as the sperm fertilizes the egg, but the sexual bits don’t develop for several weeks. Most parents don’t find out their baby’s gender until the 20-week scan, if they do find out at all. 

1. Ways to Game the System

So making a boy or a girl the old fashioned way is a bit of a crapshoot—it’s whichever sperm survives the cervical gauntlet. Nowadays, fertility specialists can make and identify embryos of either sex, but it’s generally frowned on (and illegal in the UK, except in cases in which you have a serious genetic condition that you risk passing on to a child of a certain sex).

But not really having a ton of control over the situation didn’t and doesn’t stop women from trying to game the system. The Distaff Gospels is a collection of medieval European women’s medical lore recorded in the late 15th century; it’s also responsible for the above gender stereotyping about jousting and dancing. The Gospels recommended having the man turn his face towards the east during sex if the couple is trying for a boy; to have sex in the morning if you’re aiming for a boy and in the evening and night if you want a girl; or not to have sex right after a meal if you want a boy. Another medieval source recommends that the gentleman quaff a cocktail made of red wine and pulverized rabbit’s womb, while the lady do shots of red wine and dried rabbit’s testicles.

Of course, if you want to try for a particular sex (say, if you’re modern royalty tasked with producing a son and heir), then there are couple things that you can do. There’s the Shettles method, based on the notion that Y-toting sperm are faster swimmers than X-toting sperm, but don’t live as long. If you want a boy, then, you should try to have sex as close as possible to ovulation, to give the male sperm a fighting chance; if you want a girl, you should have sex two to four days before you ovulate. There’s also the Whelan method, which is kind of the opposite: If you want a boy, you should have sex four to six days before you’re about to ovulate and if you want a girl, two to three days before. The Whelan method is predicated on the idea of basal body temperature affecting sex determination.

Once the egg is fertilized, however, how do you know what you’ve got in there without the benefit of a window?

2. The way you walk

Walk with your right foot first, you’re having a boy; the opposite, you’re having a girl. This was according to the Distaff Gospels again—a wonderful source for medically questionable stunners, some of which were, if not exactly prescient or accurate, at least well-intentioned: For example, the Gospels cautioned that if at the hour of conception, “neither feels affectionate love for the other, a female of bitter disposition is born.”

3. The salt test

The Gospels again: “When a woman is carrying a child and she wishes to know whether she is carrying a boy or a girl, you should sprinkle salt on her head while she is sleeping, so gently that she is unaware of it. When she wakes, note what name she says first. If she says a man’s name it will be a boy and if she says a woman’s name it will be a girl.” Or maybe she’ll just wake up saying the name of the weirdo who put salt on her head.

4. Ask Mom

“If a pregnant woman wants to know the gender of the child she is bearing, listen to her and she will reveal it herself,” the Gospels said. “When she asks: ‘What do you think I am carrying?’, if you say: ‘A lovely boy’, and she does not blush, you should know for sure that she will have a girl.”

Blushing aside, there is some evidence that women have a sort of mother’s intuition about what’s going on in there: According to The Sun, a study found that women with no prior knowledge of their baby’s gender guess the sex correctly 71 percent of the time. Presumably, these researchers did not ask the mothers-to-be by using the “key test”—place a key in front an expecting mother and if she grabs it by the fat end, she’s having a boy, and by the narrow end, a girl.

5. Morning sickness

This is one of those old wives’ tales that is not only literally an old wives’ tale (the women in the Distaff Gospels were old and wives), but is also believed today—the idea that how and when you are sick when you’re pregnant can give some clue as to whether it’s a boy or a girl. According to the Gospels, you’re sicker in the first three months with a girl than with a boy, but a boy causes pain after the first trimester. But according to current medical professionals, if you suffer badly from morning sickness (a horrible misnomer if there ever was one) or are ill throughout your pregnancy, you’re more likely to be carrying a girl.

6. Fat daddy?

According to myth, if the father piles on the pounds during the mother’s pregnancy, then she’s carrying a girl; interestingly, Danish researchers conducted a study of 100 fathers-to-be and discovered that indeed, those who had little girls were heavier at their births than those who had boys.

7. Sweet or sour?

Because girls are naturally sweet, if you’re carrying one, you’ll crave sweet foods; boys, being made of snips and snails and puppy dogs’ tails, make you crave sour and salty foods. Fact. (Except not really.)

8. One Ring to Bind Them…

When you’re not using your gold ring to enslave Middle Earth, you could possibly use it to determine the sex of your unborn child. Perhaps the most popular gender determination myth is that a gold ring suspended on a string over a pregnant woman’s belly will tell you what she’s carrying by how it swings: Side to side for a boy, circular for a girl. It’s not always accurate, of course, but will be right 50 percent of the time.

9. How you’re carrying

When I was pregnant with my son, we decided not to find out his gender; that occasioned a lot of people to inform me that they could tell whether I was harboring a blue or a pink based on how I was carrying. According to the very ancient lore, if you’re carrying a lower bump, it’s going to be a boy; if it’s higher, it’s a girl. According to the people who predicted my baby’s gender, he had a 50 percent chance of being a boy and 50 percent chance of being a girl, based on their scientific analysis. Thanks. How you’re carrying is not, scientists say now, a good indicator of your baby’s gender—it has more to do with your baby’s muscle tone, your personal shape, and even how old you are when you get pregnant.

Do you know any great baby gender determination old wives’ tales?

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Titanic Museum Attraction
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A 10-Year-Old Built the World's Largest LEGO Replica of the Titanic
Titanic Museum Attraction
Titanic Museum Attraction

The Titanic never completed its voyage across the Atlantic, but a LEGO replica of the infamous ocean liner has officially landed in the U.S. As CNN reports, the model, which was constructed by a 10-year-old boy from Reykjavik, Iceland, holds the record for the largest LEGO replica of the ship ever assembled.

LEGO fans can spot the ambitious creation at the Titanic Museum Attraction in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee starting Monday, April 16. Consisting of 56,000 bricks, the structure is 5 feet tall and 26 feet long. It took Brynjar Karl Bigisson, who's now 15, a total of 700 hours to build it over the course of 11 months.

Ships and LEGO bricks are two of Brynjar Karl's greatest interests. When he was 10 he set out to construct a LEGO Titanic that would be proportional to his minifigures. His engineer grandfather helped him convert the original Titanic blueprints to LEGO-size and calculate how many bricks the model would require. With support from a crowdfunding campaign set up by his mom, Brynjar Karl was able to purchase the tens of thousands of LEGO blocks needed to complete the project.

Brynjar Karl is also an outspoken supporter of kids on the autism spectrum like himself. He has given talks about living with the disorder and has even written a book on the subject. "The LEGO Titanic project has taken me on a new exciting journey," he says on his website. "It's about shedding light on the positive side of autism."

After showcasing his replica Titanic in Iceland, Sweden, Norway, and Germany, Brynjar Karl is bringing his model to America for the first time. The LEGO Titanic will be displayed at the Titanic Museum Attraction through December 2019.

[h/t CNN]

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15 Things You Might Not Know About The Sandlot
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment

What, you haven’t seen The Sandlot? You’re killing me, Smalls.

OK, now that we’ve gotten that out of the way, let’s get down to business. Roger Ebert got it right: The Sandlot is like the summer version of A Christmas Story. They’re not penned by the same screenwriter and they don’t share a director or even actors, but both make you feel nostalgic for a childhood you probably didn’t even have.

No matter how many times you’ve watched Squints execute his plan to get to first base with Wendy Peffercorn, there’s bound to be something you don’t know about this modern classic. On the 25th anniversary of the movie's release, here are 15 of our favorite The Sandlot secrets.

1. IT WAS ORIGINALLY CALLED THE BOYS OF SUMMER.

Originally called The Boys of Summer, the film's name had to be changed because there was already a famous baseball book by the same title.

2. IT WAS PARTLY AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL.

The movie was inspired in part by a childhood experience co-writer/director David Mickey Evans’s brother had. Some older boys wouldn’t let Evans play baseball with him. When they lost a ball over a brick wall, he thought he could get on their good side by retrieving it for them. When he hopped the wall, however, he found a giant dog named Hercules waiting for him—and he was bitten.

3. IT WAS A QUICK SHOOT.

It was shot in just 42 days.

4. THE KIDS WERE SUPPOSED TO BE MUCH YOUNGER.

Casting directors originally wanted the kids to be 9 to 10 years old, but as they began casting, "it became obvious real fast the kids were much too young," Evans told Sports Illustrated. "So I said, 'We've got to make them 12 or 13.' We knew it was the right decision instantly, because the first kid that we interviewed was Mike Vitar [who played Benny Rodriguez]."

5. THE GIANT OAK TREE THAT HOLDS THE TREEHOUSE WAS SALVAGED.

The cast of 'The Sandlot' (1993)
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment

The production crew had been agonizing over how they were going to pull off a tree that size—"We were looking at having to buy an oak tree, and a specimen that big, if you can even find one, is hundreds of thousands of dollars," Evans told Sports Illustrated—when they happened to notice one being chopped down not far from the production offices. The 100-year-old oak was interfering with the foundation of the house it was planted next to. The man removing it agreed to give it to the crew, and Salt Lake City’s utility companies took down power and telephone lines on certain streets so the tree could be hauled safely to the empty lot where filming was taking place. It was cemented into the ground there and became an iconic part of the movie.

6. YEAH-YEAH ORIGINALLY READ FOR BERTRAM.

Marty York, the actor who played Alan “Yeah-Yeah” McClennan, originally read for Bertram. Not only did York not get the Bertram role, he wasn’t the first choice for Yeah-Yeah, either. The kid cast for Yeah-Yeah got sick just as the movie was scheduled to start filming, and York replaced him.

7. THE CHEWING TOBACCO WAS MADE OF LICORICE AND BACON BITS.

The chewing tobacco from the carnival scene was really made out of licorice and bacon bits—and that, the actors later said, combined with riding the carnival rides for so many takes, made them as sick as their fictional counterparts got. (The vomit from that scene, by the way, was a mixture of split pea soup, baked beans, oatmeal, water, and gelatin.)

8. IT WAS DANGEROUSLY HOT.

It was so hot during the daytime shoots—upwards of 110 degrees—that the actor who played Scotty Smalls, Tom Guiry, got weak from running around in the heat and fell into one of the cameramen.

9. IT WAS ALSO REALLY COLD.

On the other hand, the famous pool scene was actually freezing. The day was overcast and the water was just 56 degrees. Evans says you can actually see Squints’s teeth chattering while he’s staring longingly at Wendy Peffercorn from the pool.

10. SQUINTS WAS GIVEN A STERN REMINDER.

Speaking of the Squints scam: Evans had to give actor Chauncey Leopardi a stern reminder before the scene was shot: “You keep your tongue in your mouth, you understand?”

11. WENDY PEFFERCORN WAS BASED ON A GIRL NAMED BUNNY.

Wendy was partly based on a girl Evans remembers from his childhood—a lifeguard in a red bathing suit named Bunny.

12. THE KIDS WERE EXCITED TO MEET DARTH VADER.

The kids were super impressed that Darth Vader was on set—James Earl Jones, of course, played junkyard owner Mr. Mertle. (They were almost as taken with Marley Shelton, who played Wendy.)

13. THE CAST SNUCK INTO A SCREENING OF BASIC INSTINCT.

When the young cast wasn’t acting, they were getting into the kind of shenanigans that their Sandlot alter egos surely would have been proud of—they snuck in to see Basic Instinct.

14. THE BEAST WAS PARTLY PUPPET.

The Beast—a.k.a. Hercules, an English Mastiff—was played, in part, by a puppet. It took two people to operate. If you don’t mind ruining the movie magic, you can see the behind-the-scenes photos on Evans’s blog.

Some scenes with the Beast called for a real dog (two, actually). When Smalls and Hercules make friends at the end, they got the dog to lick his face by smearing baby food on one half of Tom Guiry’s face. "That scene where I’m looking to the side, the other half of me is just slathered in this baby goo. That dog had a field day on my face," Guiry told Time. "I’m a dog-lover though, so it didn’t really bother me.”

15. THE MOVIE WAS AT THE CENTER OF A MAJOR LAWSUIT.

The Sandlot was at the center of a lawsuit that eventually had a major impact on Hollywood. A man named Michael Polydoros sued 20th Century Fox, claiming that his former classmate, David Mickey Evans, had based the character of Michael “Squints” Palledorous on him, and that it caused him embarrassment and humiliation. A judge decided that there wasn’t enough similarity to justify the lawsuit, meaning that movie studios could continue using characters inspired in part by real-life people.

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