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It's Not Easy Potty Training A Cow

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Cows poop. No kidding, right? It’s news to me, and probably to a lot of other city slickers out there, though, that they poop between 10 and 15 times a day. Plus, they pee around 10 times a day.

All that waste adds up pretty quickly (and piles up, too, if the cow doesn’t move around a lot), and causes some significant health and environmental problems on dairy farms. Ammonia and nitrogen get released and contribute to air pollution. Standing in their own filth can make the cows sick or give them hoof problems. Dirty, poop-crusted cows also mean that the farmer loses time cleaning them off before each milking. If he doesn’t at least keep the udders clean, then there’s the risk of milk contamination or lower milk quality.

Training the cows to go in a certain spot or at a certain time would go a long way towards controlling all that poop and curbing these problems. And that’s just what three Canadian scientists set out to do in a study published earlier this month. They knew that dairy farmers often had problems cleaning their cows’ feet because as soon as the animals stepped into the footbath, they’d go to the bathroom and contaminate the water. They also knew that some cows kept in barn stalls had been successfully conditioned, with mild electric jolts, to back up before pooping to keep the waste out of the stall. They combined these two ideas and wondered if water could be used as a stimulus to get cows kept in more open housing systems or in pastures to only do their business in specific places.

They ran four different tests with 12 Holstein dairy cows. In the first, the cows walked through either an empty or full footbath while their “eliminative behavior” was dutifully recorded. In the second, the cows stood still in either an empty footbath, a full one, or one with running water. In the third, the cows stood in an empty bath and either had water, air, or nothing sprayed at their feet. The fourth test was a repeat of the first.

Overall, none of the stimuli reliably got the cows to relieve themselves. More cows went in the full footbath (67 percent) than the empty one (42 percent) in the first test, but there was almost no difference between the two when the test was repeated at the end of the experiment. The researchers also noticed that defecation and urination generally decreased in each test as the days wore on. All this leads them to think that the cows pooped not so much because of the water itself but because the novel experience of getting in the footbath was frightening. The trick to getting cows to go on command, then, might be scaring the crap out of them.

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holidays
Bleat Along to Classic Holiday Tunes With This Goat Christmas Album
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Feeling a little Grinchy this month? The Sweden branch of ActionAid, an international charity dedicated to fighting global poverty, wants to goat—errr ... goad—you into the Christmas spirit with their animal-focused holiday album: All I Want for Christmas is a Goat.

Fittingly, it features the shriek-filled vocal stylings of a group of festive farm animals bleating out classics like “Jingle Bells,” “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer,” and “O Come All Ye Faithful.” The recording may sound like a silly novelty release, but there's a serious cause behind it: It’s intended to remind listeners how the animals benefit impoverished communities. Goats can live in arid nations that are too dry for farming, and they provide their owners with milk and wool. In fact, the only thing they can't seem to do is, well, sing. 

You can purchase All I Want for Christmas is a Goat on iTunes and Spotify, or listen to a few songs from its eight-track selection below.

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Animals
If You Want Your Cat to Poop Out More Hairballs, Try Feeding It Beets
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Have you ever wondered if there’s a way to get your cat to poop out its hairballs instead of hacking them up? If so, you’re likely a seasoned cat owner whose tolerance for gross stuff has reached the point of no return. Luckily, there may be an easy way to get your cat to dispose of hairballs in the litter box instead of on your carpet, according to one study.

The paper, published in the Journal of Physiology and Animal Nutrition, followed the diets of 18 mixed-breed short-haired cats over a month. Some cats were fed straight kibble, while others were given helpings of beet pulp along with their regular meals. The researchers suspected that beets, a good source of fiber, would help move any ingested hair through the cats’ digestive systems, thus preventing it from coming back up the way it went in. Following the experiment, they found that the cats with the beet diet did indeed poop more.

The scientists didn’t measure how many hairballs the cats were coughing up during this period, so it's possible that pooping out more of them didn’t stop cats from puking them up at the same rate. But considering hairballs are a matter of digestive health, more regular bowel movements likely reduced the chance that cats would barf them up. The cat body is equipped to process large amounts of hair: According to experts, healthy cats should only be hacking hairballs once or twice a year.

If you find them around your home more frequently than that, it's a good idea to up your cat's fiber intake. Raw beet pulp is just one way to introduce fiber into your pet's diet; certain supplements for cats work just as well and actually contain beet pulp as a fiber source. Stephanie Liff, a veterinarian at Pure Paws Veterinary Care in New York, recommends psyllium powder to her patients. Another option for dealing with hairballs is the vegetable-oil based digestive lubricant Laxatone: According to Dr. Liff, this can "help to move hairballs in the correct direction."

[h/t Discover]

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