The World's Shortest War

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons

Dan Lewis runs the popular daily newsletter Now I Know ("Learn Something New Every Day, By Email"). We've invited him to share some of his stories on mental_floss this week. To subscribe to his daily email, click here.

Off the coast of mainland Tanzania is Zanzibar, now a semi-autonomous archipelago but part of Tanzania proper. In 1890, Zanzibar was a British protectorate, but in 1964, after an uprising, it joined with Tanzania (then “Tanganyika”) to form the modern-day country of the same name.

The uprising which led to Zanzibar’s independence from Britain was not the archipelago’s first. On August 27, 1896, the British Empire and Zanzibar went to war—for forty minutes. Before an hour had elapsed, the Anglo-Zanzibar war was over.

Two days prior, Zanzibar’s Sultan, Hamad bin Thuwaini, died suddenly. His would-be successor, his cousin Khalid bin Bargash (whom many believed poisoned Hamad), was disfavored by the British—the Empire wished for Hamoud bin Muhammad to take Hamadi’s place. And, under a treaty signed a decade earlier, the British Empire had to approve of the successor in order for him to successfully accede to the throne. Khalid refused to seek this approval. This British termed this an act of war, and gave Khalid until 9 a.m. local time on the 27th to cede the throne. Khalid responded by barricading himself in the palace, defended by the palace guards.

As 9 a.m. approached, so did the British forces. With more than 1,000 land troops amassed and five ships—two gunboats and three cruisers—the British forces were formidable. The Sultan countered with 2,800 men of his own, albeit not as well armed or trained; a royal yacht and two other boats (akin to large motorboats); and a quartet of artillery batteries. Thirty minutes before the ultimatum struck, the Sultan sent a message to the British diplomatic point of contact, Basil Cave, stating that he had no intention of ceding his throne and did not believe the British would open fire.  Cave responded by reiterating the ultimatum: step down by 9 a.m. or prepare for a rain of artillery.

And at exactly 9 a.m., the gunships received their orders: fire. Within minutes, the royal palace received the promised ammunition. The Zanzibari royal yacht, the HMS Glasgow, did its best to stave off the attacks by firing its weapons at one of the warships—but by 9:15, the British navy sunk the Glasgow and the two other Zanzibari boats. The attacks on the palace killed or wounded more than 500 Zanzibaris in about a half hour, and Sultan Khalid bin Bargash fled for the German consulate, where he successfully sought asylum.

At 9:40, hostilities ceased and the Sultan’s flag atop the palace came down. By most accounts, this 40-minute war is the shortest in human history.

In the end, Britian placed Hamoud bin Muhammad in the throne, a position he would serve in until his death in 1902. During his British-backed reign, Sultan Hamoud, to his credit, ended slavery on the island.

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war

Bran Reveals Meaning of the Three-Eyed Raven and How That Impacts Future of Westeros

Helen Sloan/HBO
Helen Sloan/HBO

Earlier this year, Night King actor Vladimir Furdik confirmed that his Game of Thrones character "has a target he wants to kill," and it appears that last night's episode, "A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms," may have revealed who that person is: Bran Stark, who is now the Three-Eyed Raven. In a meeting before the dead march on Winterfell, Bran says, “He’ll come for me. He’s tried before. Many times, with many Three-eyed Ravens.”

When explaining why it's him the Night King wants, Bran revealed what the Three-Eyed Raven does, and what his death would mean for Westeros.

According to Bran, the Night King's goal is "An endless night. He wants to erase this world." Bran goes on to say, "I am its memory," referring to the fact that he, as the Three-Eyed Raven, knows everything that has happened in the history of Westeros. To this, Sam Tarly replies, "Memories don’t come from books. And your stories aren’t just stories. If I wanted to erase the world of men, I’d start with you.”

The Night King was able to get his hands on Bran in a vision, and Bran is permanently marked from the encounter, which means the Night King always knows where he is. Now, Bran—guarded by Theon—will serve as bait to lure the Night King into Winterfell.

Could this be foreshadowing the fact that Bran won't see the end of the season? We'll just have to wait and see what's coming in episode three and beyond.

Game of Thrones's Episode 3 Teaser May Contain a Hidden Message from Daenerys to Jon

Helen Sloan/HBO
Helen Sloan/HBO

Season 8, episode 2 of Game of Thrones, "A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms," had its fair share of moments that could have given away hints for episodes to come, like in the writers' decision to include "Jenny's Song," or in Jon Snow telling Daenerys Targaryen that they're related.

One fan theory about the fate of Westeros, however, comes from the previews for next week's episode. Posted by Reddit user IgnorantSportsFan, the theory centers around one pivotal line uttered during a conversation between Daenerys and Jon: "The dead are already here."

"That line happens between Dany and Jon, and felt super significant—but we already see the army of the dead, felt it was too obvious to be their reaction to them," the theory begins."Then it clicked: The crypt is full of dead people. All episode they keep repeating and emphasizing how safe it was in the crypt, but its GOT and we cannot have nice things. So is it possible we have old Starks rising from the crypts? Or is that too far fetched?"

The theory certainly adds up, emphasized by the reminder that there were clips included of Arya Stark fighting in the crypts.

Could the dead be rising in the crypts of Winterfell as the White Walkers rapidly approach? We'll find out soon.

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