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Dog Naming Trends Through the Ages

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2012: Bye Bye, Max. Hello, Bella!

According to the yearly roundup of popular pet names in the database of Veterinary Pet Insurance, the 10 most popular dog names for 2012 were Bella, Bailey, Max, Lucy, Molly, Buddy, Daisy, Maggie, Charlie, and Sophie. It was the third straight year Bella came in at number 1, after unseating Max in 2009. A company spokesman thought the ascendancy of Bella might have had to do with "the name of the heroine in a certain vampire book/film series that’s pretty popular these days."

2008: Sorry, Jake and Rocky—Here come Chloe and Sophie.

The year before Max lost the top spot, Jake and Rocky dropped of the top 10, replaced by newcomers Chloe and Sophie. Is there an "end of men" situation happening in the canine world too? Someone get the trend piece writers on that!

1985: Nipper is now George.

In 1985, New York Times columnist William Safire asked readers to submit stories of how they named their dogs, and in return got a list of over 12,000 dog names from all over the country. He noted a few trends. People tended to name their dogs after food (Cookie, Candy, Taffy, Peaches), disposition (Rascal, Bandit, Crab), color (Blackie, Amber, Midnight), and owner occupation ("Lawyers like Shyster and Escrow; doctors prefer Bones.") But the most noticeable trend was that people were using human names for their dogs more than they used to: "Instead of turning verbs and adjectives into proper nouns (for example, by calling a puppy that likes to nip your finger Nipper), we are using proper nouns directly, calling the little nipper George, Daisy or Charley."

1960s-1980s: Getting gender specific.

Anthropologist Stanley Brandes published a 2009 study of pet name trends as revealed by the gravestones at Hartsdale, America's first pet cemetery. He noticed the trend toward human names for pets develop slowly from the 1960s to the 1980s when names like Riko, Ginny, Francois, Samantha, Daniel and Venus started to pop up among names like Freckles, Snowy, Clover, Spaghetti, Champ, Happy, Rusty and Taka. One consequence of this shift was that names started to entail information about the sex of the animal. This was not merely a consequence of a switch to human naming, though. Even non-human names started to show sex distinctions. Note, for example, the graves of Cha Cha Man, Candy Girl, Mr. Cat, and Dot-Z-Girl.

1896-WWII: Hobo, Jaba, Boogles.

Hartsdale Pet Cemetery, just outside of New York City, was established in 1896. Brandes notes that in the earliest monuments, the names of the pets might not even appear at all. Many of the early graves leave it at "Pets" or "My Pet." The family name of the owner is sometimes the only identifier. A well-known dancer of the time, Irene Castle, buried five dogs and a pet monkey under a monument engraved simply "Castle." Most of the graves do show pet names, but before WWII, they are almost never human names. The first half century at Hartsdale is represented by the likes of Brownie, Laddie, Hobo, Trixie, Rags, Jaba, Bunty, Boogles, Teko, Dicksie, Snap, Punch, Bébé and Pippy.

1800s: Semper Fido.

Abraham Lincoln had a dog named Fido, and this is often cited as the reason the name became the quintessential dog's name, but Fido was popular before Lincoln even became president. A favorite children's book of 1845 was called "Fido or the Faithful Friend," and told of the quintessential adventures of the quintessential boy and his dog. It's rather too bad presidents' dogs aren't the source of lasting naming fashions. We could be calling our dogs Sweetlips, Scentwell, Vulcan, Drunkard, Taster, Tipler and Tipsy like George Washington did!

Medieval: Mopsus and Mopsulus

Kathleen Walker-Meikle's book Medieval Pets shows that people gave a wide range of creative names to their pets then, despite the general objection that indulging pets was "an extravagance and a distraction from one's duties and obligations, in particular charity to the poor." Just as in Safire's 1985 survey, dogs were named for characteristics (Sturdy, Whitefoot, Hardy) and owner occupation – Stosel (Pestle) for an apothecary, Hemmerli (Little Hammer) for a locksmith, Speichli (Little Spoke) for a wagoner. They could even have human names like Jakke and Parceval. However, the most popular human names given to dogs were not the same as the most popular names given to babies, as they are today. For dog owners looking to buck the trends (or for that matter, baby-havers looking to buck the trends), here's a list of awesome medieval dog names: Blawnche, Nosewise, Smylfeste, Bragge, Holdfast, Zaphyro, Zalbot, Mopsus and Mopsulus.

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Oakley Originals, Flickr Creative Commons // CC BY 2.0
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Animals
Could Imported Sperm Help Save America’s Bees?
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Oakley Originals, Flickr Creative Commons // CC BY 2.0

It might be time to call in some sexual backup for male American bees. Scientists have started impregnating domestic honeybees with foreign sperm in the hopes that enlarging the gene pool will give our bees a fighting chance.

These days, the bees need all the help they can get. Colonies across the globe are disappearing and dying off, partly due to the increased use of neonicotinoid pesticides and partly from a parasite called the varroa mite. The invasive mite first landed on American shores in 1987, and it's been spreading and sickening and devouring our bees ever since.

Part of the problem, researchers say, is that the American bee gene pool has gone stagnant. We stopped importing live honeybees in 1922, which means that all the bees we've got are inbred and, therefore, all alike. They lack the genetic diversity that allows species to adapt to changing conditions or new threats. So when the mites come, they all get hit.

Many apiarists now rely on anti-mite pesticides to keep their charges safe. While these treatments may help keep the mites away, they aren't great for the bees, either—and the mites have begun to develop a resistance. But beekeepers feel like their hands are tied.

"I lost 40 percent of my colonies to varroa last fall," Matthew Shakespear of Olson's Honeybees told NPR. "I'm not taking any more chances. We've already done five treatments, compared with the two treatments we applied this time last year."

But there might be another way. Experts at the University of Washington have started to—how can we put this delicately?—manually encourage drones (male bees) in Europe and Asia to give up their sperm. All it takes is a little belly rub, and the drone, er, donates 1 microliter of fluid, or one-tenth of the amount needed to inseminate a queen bee.

Fortunately, the bees don't mind at all. "They're really accommodating," bee breeder and researcher Susan Cobey told NPR.

So far, the scientists' attempts to crossbreed foreign and domestic bees have been successful. Within their test colonies, genetic diversity is up.

"This doesn't mean they are superior in performance to the other bees," researcher Brandon Hopkins said. "It means we have a better chance of finding rare and unique traits." Traits, Hopkins says, like genetic resistance to the varroa mites—a quality shared by donor bees in Italy, Slovenia, Germany, Kazakhstan, and the Republic of Georgia.

Other beekeepers are opting for a more hands-off approach, introducing imported queens to their domestic hives. Shakespear bought his from Cobey, who reared them from bees she collected in Slovenia.

"Maybe these new genetics can deal with the varroa mites naturally," Shakespear said, "rather than having to rely on chemicals. It's time to start widening our gene pool."

[h/t The Salt]

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Natural History Museum
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Animals
London's Natural History Museum Has a New Star Attraction: An Amazing Blue Whale Skeleton
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Natural History Museum

In January 2017, London’s Natural History Museum said goodbye to Dippy, the Diplodocus dinosaur skeleton cast that had presided over the institution’s grand entrance hall since 1979. Dippy is scheduled to tour the UK from early 2018 to late 2020—and taking his place in Hintze Hall, The Guardian reports, is a majestic 82-foot blue whale skeleton named Hope.

Hope was officially unveiled to the public on July 14. The massive skeleton hangs suspended from the hall’s ceiling, providing visitors with a 360-degree view of the largest animal ever to have lived on Earth.

Technically, Hope isn’t a new addition to the Natural History Museum, which was first established in 1881. The skeleton is from a whale that beached itself at the mouth of Ireland's Wexford Harbor in 1891 after being injured by a whaler. A town merchant sold the skeleton to the museum for just a couple of hundred pounds, and in 1934, the bones were displayed in the Mammal Hall, where they hung over a life-size blue whale model.

The whale skeleton remained in the Mammal Hall until 2015, when museum workers began preparing the skeleton for its grand debut in Hintze Hall. "Whilst working on the 221 bones we uncovered past conservation treatments, such as the use of newspaper in the 1930s to fill the gaps between the vertebrae," Lorraine Cornish, the museum's head of conservation, said in a statement. "And we were able to use new methods for the first time, including 3D printing a small number of bones missing from the right flipper."

Once restoration was complete, Hope was suspended above Hintze Hall in a diving position. There she hangs as one of the museum’s new major attractions—and as a reminder of humanity’s power to conserve endangered species.

"The Blue Whale as a centerpiece tells a hopeful story about our ability to create a sustainable future for ourselves and other species," according to a museum press release. "Humans were responsible for both pushing the Blue Whale to the brink of extinction but also responsible for its protection and recovery. We hope that this remarkable story about the Blue Whale will be told by parents and grandparents to their children for many years to come, inspiring people to think differently about the natural world."

Check out some pictures of Hope below.

 “Hope,” a blue whale skeleton suspended from the ceiling of Hintze Hall in London’s Natural History Museum.
Natural History Museum

“Hope,” a blue whale skeleton suspended from the ceiling of Hintze Hall in London’s Natural History Museum.
Natural History Museum

“Hope,” a blue whale skeleton suspended from the ceiling of Hintze Hall in London’s Natural History Museum.
Natural History Museum

“Hope,” a blue whale skeleton suspended from the ceiling of Hintze Hall in London’s Natural History Museum.
Natural History Museum

[h/t Design Boom]

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