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6 Other Major Discoveries by the U.S. Geological Survey

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Yesterday, the U.S. Geological Survey registered a 4.9 tremor in North Korea that originated roughly one kilometer underground, suggesting the test of a nuclear bomb. Detecting nuclear tests is one of a wide range of missions for the USGS. The Survey was founded in 1879 in part to take full measure of the Louisiana Purchase and lands conquered during the Mexican-American war. Today it charts and measures not only the lands and resources of the United States, but also the Moon and Mars and beyond. Here are a few things discovered by the U.S. Geological Survey.

1. The Moon’s Face

In 1892, Grove Karl Gilbert, Chief Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, tested samples at what is now Barringer Crater in Arizona, and reported that the crater was the result of volcanic activity. (His report is famous for its meticulous scientific methodology—Gilbert himself believed the crater had celestial origins, but deferred to the science.) The findings were wrong, but they got him thinking about the craters on the Moon. He believed that they were caused by impacts by meteoroids. From the naval observatory in Washington, he studied the surface of the Moon for eighteen nights over the course of three months. (Senator Edward Wolcott of Colorado didn’t care for such tomfoolery, complaining during a Congressional session, “So useless has the Survey become that one of its most distinguished members has no better way to employ his time than to sit up all night gaping at the Moon.”) In a paper titled The Moon’s Face, Gilbert presented the first scientific arguments for impact origins of craters on Moon. (Previously, volcanoes were widely believed to be responsible for the Moon’s features, and guesses that impacts might be responsible for the craters had no scientific backing.) His research was fifty years ahead of its time, and a milestone in lunar geoscience.

2. One trillion dollars in Afghanistan

Afghanistan has seen decades of war, tyrannical rulers, Mad Max frontiers, and a grim future. There is hope, though. In 2006, a U.S. Geological Survey study found evidence of $1,000,000,000,000 in lithium, gold, niobium, and other valuable metals. (The Pentagon would call Afghanistan the “Saudi Arabia of Lithium.”) The discovery was made after a USGS team arrived to help with the reconstruction effort. They came across old charts from the Afghan Geological Service created by Soviet miners during the occupation. The USGS proceeded to conduct aerial surveys with equipment designed to measure gravity and magnetic fluctuations. They surveyed seventy-percent of the country and were astonished with their findings. In 2007, they returned, this time with scanning devices capable of rendering three-dimensional portraits of the country’s mineral deposits. It is the most comprehensive geologic study of Afghanistan ever recorded, and is a measure of hope in an often-hopeless land.

3. An explanation for life on inhospitable worlds

Most life on Earth requires oxygen to breathe and carbon to eat. The best guess, then, has been that life on other planets would require the same setup. In 2002, Nature published the findings of Frank Chapelle of the U.S. Geological Survey. He discovered a community of microscopic organisms called Archaea located beneath a hot spring in Idaho. Unlike your average dog or monkey, Archaea survive on hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The microbes had long been found in sparse numbers, but Chapelle’s massive, exclusive community of Archaea in such inhospitable conditions give scientists reason to believe that such organisms might exist on Mars or Europa.

4. Rising sea levels on the east coast

When we think of melting ice caps, we tend to think of water everywhere rising at once and at the same rate. That's not exactly what happens. Because of currents, regional oceanographic temperatures, and land movements, water rises in some places faster than others. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, each year since 1990, the global sea level has risen 0.6 to 1.0 millimeter globally. On the east coast of the United States, however, the rise has been 2.0 to 3.7 millimeters annually. The upshot is that if something doesn’t change, by 2100, the sea level on the coast will rise 8 to 11.4 inches above the already significant global increase of two to three feet. This will make flooding, already a serious concern for New York and Boston, significantly worse.

5. A landing spot for Curiosity

Taking up where Grove Carl Gilbert left off, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Astrogeology Research Program maps celestial objects and studies their features. The program also develops sensors and scanning techniques to beam images back to Earth for processing. The USGS mapped and selected the landing site on Mars for the Curiosity rover, and USGS scientists analyze collected data and help plan each day’s mission.

6. Earthquakes, everywhere, all the time

According to the U.S. Geological Survey, in the past week there were 375 detected earthquakes. It is estimated that each year there are several million earthquakes, though not all are felt, and many occur in remote areas. Although it seems like the number of earthquakes is on the rise, the USGS reports that the number of earthquakes magnitude 7.0 and up remains constant. The number just seems worse because geologists have become much more skilled at detecting them.

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History
Civilian Researchers Discover Wreckage of the USS Indianapolis
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On July 30, 1945, the cruiser USS Indianapolis sank in the Pacific Ocean after it was torpedoed by the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-58. More than 70 years after the historic naval tragedy— which claimed the lives of nearly 900 crew—The New York Times reports that the ship’s mysterious final resting place has been found.

The discovery came courtesy of a team of civilian researchers, led by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen. His state-of-the-art research vessel, Petrel, located the wreck 18,000 feet below the Pacific’s surface, the team announced on Saturday, August 19.

"To be able to honor the brave men of the USS Indianapolis and their families through the discovery of a ship that played such a significant role in ending World War II is truly humbling,” Allen said in a statement. “As Americans, we all owe a debt of gratitude to the crew for their courage, persistence, and sacrifice in the face of horrendous circumstances."

Before it sank, the USS Indianapolis had just completed a top-secret mission to a naval base on the Northern Mariana island of Tinian. After delivering enriched uranium and components for Little Boy— the atomic bomb that the U.S. would drop on the Japanese city of Hiroshima about a week later—the cruiser forged ahead to Guam, and then to the Philippines. It was supposed to meet the battleship USS Idaho at Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to prepare to attack Japan.

The USS Indianapolis never made it to Leyte Gulf. Shortly after midnight on July 30, the Japanese submarine I-58 spotted the cruiser and fired six torpedoes. The USS Indianapolis—which was hit twice—sank within 12 minutes. Around 300 to 400 sailors and Marines were killed in the attack; the rest were stranded in the Pacific Ocean for several days.

Many of these survivors would ultimately lose their lives to sharks, a grisly scene that would be famously (albeit semi-accurately) recounted in the 1975 movie Jaws. Others died from drowning, heat stroke, thirst, burns and injuries, swallowing salt water or fuel oil, and suicide. More than 300 crew members were rescued after a bomber pilot accidently sighted the imperiled men while on a routine antisubmarine patrol.

The mass tragedy—which wouldn’t be announced to the public until August 15, 1945—sparked controversy: Charles B. McVay III, captain of the USS Indianapolis, was found guilty in a court martial of failing to steer the ship on a “zigzag” course to elude Japanese submarines. A Japanese submarine captain testified that this precautionary measure wouldn’t have thwarted the enemy, but McVay was charged nonetheless. The captain died by suicide in 1968, and wouldn’t be officially exonerated by the Navy until 2001.

For decades, the remains of the USS Indianapolis were lost to the ravages of time and nature. But in 2016, naval historian Richard Hulver found a historic ship log that mentioned a sighting of the USS Indianapolis. Allen’s search team used this information to locate the ship, which was west of where experts assumed it had gone down.

Allen’s crew took pictures of the wreckage, including a piece of its hull, and will search for more of the ship. They plan to keep the exact location of the USS Indianapolis a secret, however, to honor the sunken ship as a war grave.

"While our search for the rest of the wreckage will continue, I hope everyone connected to this historic ship will feel some measure of closure at this discovery so long in coming,” Allen said.

[h/t The New York Times]

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entertainment
The Time That Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis Opened Competing Restaurants on the Sunset Strip
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From 1946 to 1956, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis were show business supernovas. With an act that combined singing, slapstick, and spontaneous hijinks, the duo sold out nightclubs coast to coast, then went on to conquer radio, television, and film. Long before Elvis and The Beatles came along, Dean and Jerry  were rock stars of comedy.

Offstage, there was a cordial but cool friendship between the laidback Martin and the more neurotic Lewis. But as the pressures of their success increased, so did the tensions between them. Martin grew tired of playing the bland romantic straight man to Lewis’s manic monkey boy. And when Lewis started to grab more headlines and write himself bigger parts in their movies, Martin decided to quit the act. In an angry moment, he told Lewis that he was “nothing to me but a f**king dollar sign.”

After the split, both men went on with their individual careers, though it took Martin a few years before he regained his footing. One of his ventures during that transitional period was a Hollywood eatery called Dino’s Lodge.

DINO'S LODGE

In the summer of 1958, Martin and his business partner, Maury Samuels, bought a controlling interest in a restaurant called The Alpine Lodge, at 8524 Sunset Boulevard. They hired Dean’s brother Bill to manage the place, and renamed it Dino’s Lodge.

Outside they put up a large neon sign, a likeness of Dean’s face. The sign turned into a national symbol of hip and cool, thanks to appearances on TV shows like Dragnet, The Andy Griffith Show, and most prominently, in the opening credits of 77 Sunset Strip.

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Dino’s Lodge was popular from the get-go, serving home-style Italian food and steaks in an intimate, candlelit, wood-paneled room meant to replicate Martin’s own den. In the first year, Dean himself frequented the place, signing autographs and posing for photos with starstruck diners. He also occasionally brought along famous friends like Frank Sinatra and Shirley MacLaine. To promote the idea of the swingin’ lifestyle that Martin often sang about, Dino’s served “an early morning breakfast from 1 to 5 a.m.” The restaurant also had a lounge that featured singers, though only females. Dean apparently didn’t want any male vocalists encroaching on his turf.

But as with many a celebrity venture into the food business, this one soon turned sour. And most of that was due to the jealousy of Jerry Lewis.

JERRY'S

In late 1961, Lewis wooed Martin’s business partner Maury Samuels away, ponied up some $350,000, and opened his own copycat restaurant three blocks down Sunset. It was called Jerry’s. To make it clear he was out for top billing, Lewis had his own likeness rendered in neon, then mounted it on a revolving pole 100 feet above his restaurant. In contrast to Dino’s Italian-based menu, Jerry’s would serve “American and Hebrew viands.” Lewis didn’t stop there. Within a few months, he’d hired away Dino’s top two chefs, his maître d', and half his waitstaff.

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When Lewis was in Los Angeles, he made of point of table-hopping and schmoozing with his guests at his restaurant, and he occasionally brought in a few of his celebrity friends, like Peggy Lee and Steve McQueen.

FOOD FOR THOUGHT

By the following year, a disgusted Dean Martin was fed up with the restaurant business and cut ties with Dino’s Lodge. Much to his aggravation, he lost a motion in court to have his likeness and name removed from the sign. So the new owners carried on as Dino’s Lodge, with the big neon head staring down on Sunset for another decade before the place finally went bust.

Jerry’s lost steam long before that, folding in the mid-1960s.

For the rest of the 1960s and the early 1970s, Martin and Lewis avoided each other. “Jerry’s trying hard to be a director,” Dean once told a reporter. “He couldn’t even direct traffic.”

In 1976, Frank Sinatra famously engineered an onstage reunion of the pair during The Jerry Lewis Telethon. While the audience roared their approval, Sinatra said, “I think it’s about time, don’t you?” And to Sinatra, Lewis said under his breath, “You son of a bitch.”

What followed was an awkward few moments of shtick between the former partners. Reportedly, Martin was drunk and Lewis was doped up on painkillers. There was a quick embrace, Martin sang with Sinatra, then blew Lewis a kiss and disappeared from his life for good. Martin died in 1995. Lewis passed away today, at the age of 91.

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