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11 Words That Don't Mean What They Sound Like

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1. Bodkin must mean "little body." Didn’t Hamlet say something about a “bare bodkin”? He did. But he was talking about taking the “not to be” option, ending his suffering with a bodkin, or dagger. (Origin unknown.)

2. Crapulous sounds cruddy. After all if Bart Simpson uses craptastic to mean the opposite of fantastic, crapulous must be the opposite of fabulous; right? Wrong. It means "characterized by gross excess in drinking or eating" or "hung over." (From Latin crapula, "inebriation," and Greek kraipalē, "drunken headache.")

3. Crepuscular refers not to an oozing skin ailment but to twilight or to creatures active at twilight, like bats, mosquitoes, and vampires. (Mid 17th cent.: from Latin crepusculum, meaning "twilight.")

4. Formication may sound sexy, but it means "an abnormal sensation as of ants creeping over the skin." (From Latin formīcāre, meaning "to crawl like ants.")

5. Funambulist sounds like it should be the driver of an ambulance decorated with happy faces, but it’s actually a tightrope walker. (From Latin fūnambul-us—fūn-is, "rope," plus ambul-āre, "to walk’" plus the -ist suffix, "designating a person who practices some art or method.")

6. Fungible sounds like it describes a squishy, spongy fungus, but it’s a legal term describing goods or money that can replace or be replaced by equivalent items. (From medieval Latin fungibilis; from fungi, meaning "perform, enjoy," with the same sense as fungi vice, "serve in place of." It’s not related to fungus, which is related to sponge.)

7. Noisome doesn’t mean noisy, but stinky or otherwise disagreeable or offensive. (From the obsolete late Middle English word noy, a shortened form of annoy, plus -some, an adjective-forming suffix.)

8. Nugatory sounds creamy and delicious but it means unimportant, of no value or useless; futile. (From Latin nugatorius; from nugari "to trifle"; from nugae, or "jests.")

9. Pulchritude sounds like the ineptness exhibited by a lurching klutz, but it’s a highfalutin word for "beauty." (From Latin pulchritūdō, "beauty" by way of Middle French.)

10. Plethora may sound like an ancient Greek musical instrument, but it means an excess of something. When it entered English in the mid 16th century, it was a medical term for an excess of a bodily fluid, particularly blood. Although modern medicos have given up leech therapy, plethora is still used to mean an excessive volume of blood. (Via late Latin from Greek plēthōrē, and from plēthein, meaning "be full.")

11. Callipygian sounds like a bird with a suntan and a laid-back attitude, but it means "having shapely buttocks." (From Greek kallipūgos, which was used to describe a famous statue of Venus, and from kallos, or "beauty," and pūgē, or "buttocks," plus -ian.)

Sources: Oxford English Dictionary Online, New Oxford American Dictionary (Second Ed.), The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fifth ed.)

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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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What Happened to Jamie and Aurelia From Love Actually?
May 26, 2017
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Nick Briggs/Comic Relief

Fans of the romantic-comedy Love Actually recently got a bonus reunion in the form of Red Nose Day Actually, a short charity special that gave audiences a peek at where their favorite characters ended up almost 15 years later.

One of the most improbable pairings from the original film was between Jamie (Colin Firth) and Aurelia (Lúcia Moniz), who fell in love despite almost no shared vocabulary. Jamie is English, and Aurelia is Portuguese, and they know just enough of each other’s native tongues for Jamie to propose and Aurelia to accept.

A decade and a half on, they have both improved their knowledge of each other’s languages—if not perfectly, in Jamie’s case. But apparently, their love is much stronger than his grasp on Portuguese grammar, because they’ve got three bilingual kids and another on the way. (And still enjoy having important romantic moments in the car.)

In 2015, Love Actually script editor Emma Freud revealed via Twitter what happened between Karen and Harry (Emma Thompson and Alan Rickman, who passed away last year). Most of the other couples get happy endings in the short—even if Hugh Grant's character hasn't gotten any better at dancing.

[h/t TV Guide]

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