CLOSE
Original image
Wikimedia Commons

The Idea for the Fax Machine Has Been Around for 170 Years

Original image
Wikimedia Commons

We joke about the fax machine being ancient history—a relic of the late 20th century and the dark ages before email attachments and cloud-based storage—but it really is pretty old. 

Fathers of Invention

The earliest facsimile (from the Latin fac simile, “make alike”) device was invented in 1843 by Scotsman Alexander Bain. A clockmaker by trade, he used clock parts to synchronize the movement of a transmitter and a receiver for line-by-line "scanning" of messages and images. While Bain’s lab experiments were promising, Englishman Frederick Bakewell beat him to the patent office with his “image telegraph,” and Bain’s machine never took off. 

Bakewell’s machine sent the first successful “telefax” transmission in 1847. It could transmit handwritten words and simple drawings, but was of little use beyond demonstrations at the the Great Exhibition in London in 1851 because of long transmission times and unreliable synchronization.

The first practical fax machine that saw sustained use was the pantelegraph, built in the 1850s by Giovanni Caselli, an Italian priest, physicist, and inventor (and a bit of a rabblerouser—while living in Modena as a tutor, he participated in demonstrations demanding the annexation of Modena to Piedmont and was tossed out by its duke). 

How it Worked

To use Caselli’s machine, the fax sender wrote a message or drew an image on a sheet of tin in non-conductive ink. The sheet was then placed on a plate where a transmitting stylus, in a circuit with it, scanned across it in a series of parallel passes. On the receiving end, another stylus, connected by telegraph lines, moved in synchronicity across a chemically-treated piece of paper. 

As it scanned, the transmitter would conduct an electrical signal when the stylus ran over the blank parts of the tin sheet and cut the current when the stylus hit the ink. The spatial pattern of the original message, translated into the starts and stops of the current, went over the wire to the synced receiver, and the chemical paper changed color where the current went through. The result: a perfect copy of the original.

Image Courtesy Wikimedia Commons.

Caselli overcame Bain and Bakewell’s syncing problems with two regulating clocks and a pendulum that provided a time base for the parts that moved the styluses. If 20th century fax machines were bulky, Caselli’s pantelegraph prototype was monstrous. The pendulum alone weighed 18 pounds and hung in a 6-foot-tall frame made of cast iron. 

Rise of the Machine

At a demonstration in Paris, the pantelegraph wowed not only the French scientific community, but also Emperor Napoleon III, who gave Caselli access to state-owned telegraph lines for long-distance transmission experiments. Using the Paris-Amiens line, Caselli sent an image of composer Gioachino Rossini’s signature over a distance of 87 miles. Soon after, the French government installed a permanent pantelegraph system on the Paris-Lyons telegraph line for public use, and later extended it to Marseille. In the UK, the system was added to the London-Liverpool line, and in Russia, Emperor Nicholas I used it on the telegraph line between his palaces in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

The pantelegraph’s time in the limelight didn’t last long. The company that formed to operate the system in Paris failed to promote its services, instead thinking that investors and customers would simply be drawn by the novel technology. It didn’t help that, at such long distances, the pantelegraph succumbed to the same problems as Bakewell’s machine. Its slow transmission rate—roughly 12 words per minute—limited it to applications like verifying signatures for business transactions. Caselli’s improved synchronization method also faltered with the added miles, and the transmissions often came out illegible.

As the pantelegraph faded out in Europe, it sparked curiosity elsewhere. The Chinese had little use for the conventional telegraph and Morse code since their language is made up of logograms instead of letters, but the pantelegraph provided a way to transmit their language and gave them an entry to the world of long-distance telecommunication. Chinese officials attempted to bring a pantelegraph system to Peking, but negotiations with Caselli fell through. A century later the same problem would spur fast and widespread adoption of the modern fax machine in Japan and the proliferation of Japanese-made machines in the world market. 

Primary image courtesy Wikimedia Commons.

Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
arrow
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

Original image
iStock
Sponsor Content: BarkBox
arrow
8 Common Dog Behaviors, Decoded
May 25, 2017
Original image
iStock

Dogs are a lot more complicated than we give them credit for. As a result, sometimes things get lost in translation. We’ve yet to invent a dog-to-English translator, but there are certain behaviors you can learn to read in order to better understand what your dog is trying to tell you. The more tuned-in you are to your dog’s emotions, the better you’ll be able to respond—whether that means giving her some space or welcoming a wet, slobbery kiss. 

1. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with his legs and body relaxed and tail low. His ears are up, but not pointed forward. His mouth is slightly open, he’s panting lightly, and his tongue is loose. His eyes? Soft or maybe slightly squinty from getting his smile on.

What it means: “Hey there, friend!” Your pup is in a calm, relaxed state. He’s open to mingling, which means you can feel comfortable letting friends say hi.

2. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with her body leaning forward. Her ears are erect and angled forward—or have at least perked up if they’re floppy—and her mouth is closed. Her tail might be sticking out horizontally or sticking straight up and wagging slightly.

What it means: “Hark! Who goes there?!” Something caught your pup’s attention and now she’s on high alert, trying to discern whether or not the person, animal, or situation is a threat. She’ll likely stay on guard until she feels safe or becomes distracted.

3. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing, leaning slightly forward. His body and legs are tense, and his hackles—those hairs along his back and neck—are raised. His tail is stiff and twitching, not swooping playfully. His mouth is open, teeth are exposed, and he may be snarling, snapping, or barking excessively.

What it means: “Don’t mess with me!” This dog is asserting his social dominance and letting others know that he might attack if they don’t defer accordingly. A dog in this stance could be either offensively aggressive or defensively aggressive. If you encounter a dog in this state, play it safe and back away slowly without making eye contact.

4. What you’ll see: As another dog approaches, your dog lies down on his back with his tail tucked in between his legs. His paws are tucked in too, his ears are flat, and he isn’t making direct eye contact with the other dog standing over him.

What it means: “I come in peace!” Your pooch is displaying signs of submission to a more dominant dog, conveying total surrender to avoid physical confrontation. Other, less obvious, signs of submission include ears that are flattened back against the head, an avoidance of eye contact, a tongue flick, and bared teeth. Yup—a dog might bare his teeth while still being submissive, but they’ll likely be clenched together, the lips opened horizontally rather than curled up to show the front canines. A submissive dog will also slink backward or inward rather than forward, which would indicate more aggressive behavior.

5. What you’ll see: Your dog is crouching with her back hunched, tail tucked, and the corner of her mouth pulled back with lips slightly curled. Her shoulders, or hackles, are raised and her ears are flattened. She’s avoiding eye contact.

What it means: “I’m scared, but will fight you if I have to.” This dog’s fight or flight instincts have been activated. It’s best to keep your distance from a dog in this emotional state because she could attack if she feels cornered.

6. What you’ll see: You’re staring at your dog, holding eye contact. Your dog looks away from you, tentatively looks back, then looks away again. After some time, he licks his chops and yawns.

What it means: “I don’t know what’s going on and it’s weirding me out.” Your dog doesn’t know what to make of the situation, but rather than nipping or barking, he’ll stick to behaviors he knows are OK, like yawning, licking his chops, or shaking as if he’s wet. You’ll want to intervene by removing whatever it is causing him discomfort—such as an overly grabby child—and giving him some space to relax.

7. What you’ll see: Your dog has her front paws bent and lowered onto the ground with her rear in the air. Her body is relaxed, loose, and wiggly, and her tail is up and wagging from side to side. She might also let out a high-pitched or impatient bark.

What it means: “What’s the hold up? Let’s play!” This classic stance, known to dog trainers and behaviorists as “the play bow,” is a sign she’s ready to let the good times roll. Get ready for a round of fetch or tug of war, or for a good long outing at the dog park.

8. What you’ll see: You’ve just gotten home from work and your dog rushes over. He can’t stop wiggling his backside, and he may even lower himself into a giant stretch, like he’s doing yoga.

What it means: “OhmygoshImsohappytoseeyou I love you so much you’re my best friend foreverandeverandever!!!!” This one’s easy: Your pup is overjoyed his BFF is back. That big stretch is something dogs don’t pull out for just anyone; they save that for the people they truly love. Show him you feel the same way with a good belly rub and a handful of his favorite treats.

The best way to say “I love you” in dog? A monthly subscription to BarkBox. Your favorite pup will get a package filled with treats, toys, and other good stuff (and in return, you’ll probably get lots of sloppy kisses). Visit BarkBox to learn more.

SECTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
WEATHER WATCH
BE THE CHANGE
JOB SECRETS
QUIZZES
WORLD WAR 1
SMART SHOPPING
STONES, BONES, & WRECKS
#TBT
THE PRESIDENTS
WORDS
RETROBITUARIES