CLOSE

New Research Shows Mars-Bound Astronauts Need Their Sleep

It might not be one giant leap for mankind, but a mission completed on November 4, 2011, is definitely one small step toward sending men to Mars. On that date, a team of six international volunteers finished a 520-day simulated trip to our red neighbor that included more than 90 experiments and realistic scenarios astronauts might encounter on the journey. The goal of the simulation was to gather psychological and medical data on the effects of long-term deep space flight, and yesterday, a team of researchers led by faculty at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Baylor College of Medicine released the results of their study, which looked at the impact of prolonged confinement on sleep, performance, and mood in astronauts.

"The success of human interplanetary spaceflight, which is anticipated to be in this century, will depend on the ability of astronauts to remain confined and isolated from Earth much longer than previous missions or simulations," said Dr. David F. Dinges, professor and chief, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology in the Department of Psychiatry at the Perelman School of Medicine, and co-lead author of the new study. "This is the first investigation to pinpoint the crucial role that sleep-wake cycles will play in extended space missions."

The mission, developed by the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was broken into three phases: 250 days for the journey to Mars, 30 days on the surface, and 240 days for the return to Earth. The astronauts were confined in a 723 square foot spacecraft-like facility in Russia for the duration of the simulated mission. During that time, the U.S. research team continuously monitored the crew’s rest-activity patterns, monitored light exposure, and administered weekly, computer-based neurobehavioral assessments to determine the extent that sleep loss, fatigue, stress, mood changes, and conflicts occurred in the 17 months of confinement.

The data gathered by the researchers, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, revealed that as the mission progressed, the crew grew more sedentary; there was less waking movement and more sleep and rest time. Most crewmembers had one or more disturbances of sleep and altered sleep-wake intervals, which suggests a disruption of circadian rhythm. Crewmembers also showed decreased alertness.

Preventing these types of disturbances will be a matter of building the right kind of spacecraft, one that artificially mimics Earth’s sleep-wake cycles using light exposure. Appropriate nutrition and exercise will also be factors in keeping crewmembers on circadian rhythm.

This research doesn’t just have takeaways for people hoping to take a trip to Mars; in fact, it underscores how important getting a good night’s sleep is for everyone. “As a global society, we need to reevaluate how we view sleep as it relates to our overall health and ability to lead productive lives,” Dinges said. “Whether it is an astronaut being challenged to reach another planet or a newborn baby just learning to walk, the human body's need for sleep is as essential as our need for food and water and integral to our ability to thrive."

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
arrow
science
What Pop Culture Gets Wrong About Dissociative Identity Disorder
iStock
iStock

From the characters in Fight Club to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, popular culture is filled with "split" personalities. These dramatic figures might be entertaining, but they're rarely (if ever) scientifically accurate, SciShow Psych's Hank Green explains in the channel's latest video. Most representations contribute to a collective misunderstanding of dissociative identity disorder, or DID, which was once known as multiple personality disorder.

Experts often disagree about DID's diagnostic criteria, what causes it, and in some cases, whether it exists at all. Many, however, agree that people with DID don't have multiple figures living inside their heads, all clamoring to take over their body at a moment's notice. Those with DID do have fragmented personalities, which can cause lapses of memory, psychological distress, and impaired daily function, among other side effects.

Learn more about DID (and what the media gets wrong about mental illness) by watching the video below.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
arrow
History
Scientists Reveal Long-Hidden Text in Alexander Hamilton Letter
iStock
iStock

Age, deterioration, and water damage are just a few of the reasons historians can be short on information that was once readily available on paper. Sometimes, it’s simply a case of missing pages. Other times, researchers can see “lost” text right under their noses.

One example: a letter written by Alexander Hamilton to his future wife, Elizabeth Schuyler, on September 6, 1780. On the surface, it looked very much like a rant about a Revolutionary War skirmish in Camden, South Carolina. But Hamilton scholars were excited by the 14 lines of writing in the first paragraph that had been crossed out. If they could be read, they might reveal some new dimension to one of the better-known Founding Fathers.

Using the practice of multispectral imaging—sometimes called hyperspectral imaging—conservationists at the Library of Congress were recently able to shine a new light on what someone had attempted to scrub out. In multispectral imaging, different wavelengths of light are “bounced” off the paper to reveal (or hide) different ink pigments. By examining a document through these different wavelengths, investigators can tune in to faded or obscured handwriting and make it visible to the naked eye.

A hyperspectral image of Alexander Hamilton's handwriting
Hyperspectral imaging of Hamilton's handwriting, from being obscured (top) to isolated and revealed (bottom).
Library of Congress

The text revealed a more emotional and romantic side to Hamilton, who had used the lines to woo Elizabeth. Technicians uncovered most of what he had written, with words in brackets still obscured and inferred:

Do you know my sensations when I see the
sweet characters from your hand? Yes you do,
by comparing [them] with your [own]
for my Betsey [loves] me and is [acquainted]
with all the joys of fondness. [Would] you
[exchange] them my dear for any other worthy
blessings? Is there any thing you would put
in competition[,] with one glowing [kiss] of
[unreadable], anticipate the delights we [unreadable]
in the unrestrained intercourses of wedded love,
and bet your heart joins mine in [fervent]
[wishes] to heaven that [all obstacles] and [interruptions]
May [be] speedily [removed].

Hamilton and Elizabeth Schuyler married on December 14, 1780. So why did Hamilton try and hide such romantic words during or after their courtship? He probably didn’t. Historians believe that his son, John Church Hamilton, crossed them out before publishing the letter as a part of a book of his father’s correspondence. He may have considered the passage a little too sexy for mass consumption.

[h/t Library of Congress]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios