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From Virgil to Beyoncé: 5 Great Moments of Artistic Patronage

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Throughout the centuries, the patronage system has allowed for the redistribution of wealth from the business class to the creative class—the members of which were often assumed to be starving and in need of such redistribution. The basic conceit is that a wealthy individual, family, or business pays the living wages of a playwright, musician or artist (often providing food and shelter) so that person can concentrate solely on their creation. In return, the artist often dedicates their works to their patron. In this way, the business arrangement has the potential to make both parties immortal.

This week, the New York Times wrote about a modern iteration of patronage—one between a large corporation and an already very successful musical artist. Pepsi and singer Beyoncé have struck a $50 million deal, which includes a “creative content development fund,” for Beyoncé’s various endeavors. Why not just pay Beyoncé for traditional advertising wherein her face appears on billboards and she shakes her booty in a commercial or two? “This way feels less polluting. It feels like there are more good things around it. It creates an all-around good will,” explains behavioral economist Dan Ariely, the author of The Upside of Irrationality.

The downside is, of course, that art and consumerism become intertwined—but history teaches us that, for better or worse, art and business have always been intrinsically combined, often to aid the creation of timeless masterpieces. Here are a few examples.

1. Gaius Maecenas/Horace, Virgil


Virgil. Photo courtesy of Getty Images.

During the golden age of Latin literature, the Roman diplomat Maecenas was a benefactor of poets Horace and Virgil. His endowments to the men allowed for the writing of Virgil’s "The Georgics" and Horace’s "Satires 1," "Epistles 1," and "Odes 1-3." It is unclear how Virgil first came to meet Horace, but scholars believe he was the one who introduced the statesman to Horace, the son of a freed slave. It is also believed that Virgil composed his didactic poem about agriculture and public life, "The Georgics" (a seven-year undertaking), under order from Maecenas, who wished to see the Roman Empire return to a more traditional bucolic lifestyle.

Horace did much of his writing at a small estate with eight slaves and five tenanted properties called the Sabine Farm, gifted to him by Maecenas. The farm gave Horace the security to continue his writings in peace, and in return Horace addressed the first book of each of his series, Satires, Epistles and Odes, to his benefactor.

2. The Medici Family/Michelangelo


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The politician and businessman Lorenzo de' Medici (humbly nicknamed Lorenzo the Magnificent) was famous for inviting artists to live in his Florentine palace while they were under his patronage.

Michelangelo was likely introduced to the patron by his sculpting teacher, who was part of the Medici creative cabal at the time. The 15-year-old, who would later go on to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, moved into the palace in 1490. In addition to giving him housing, Lorenzo provided the teenager with a stipend and gave his dad a job as a house clerk. Michelangelo was raised among Lorenzo’s children and nephews, two of whom later became Popes (Leo X and Clement VII). It is a boon to grow up in proximity to the powerful: both men later employed the artist for various projects around the Vatican.

3. Isabella d’Este/Leonardo da Vinci


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Perhaps the most well-connected woman in Renaissance Italy, Isabella d'Este was the patron of the artists Mantegna, Titian and Leonardo da Vinci. At some point she commissioned each of the men to paint her portrait. She is well known as Leonardo's muse, and her portraits look strikingly similar to his best-known piece, hanging in the Louvre today.

4. Queen Elizabeth/Shakespeare


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Queen Elizabeth’s devotion to England’s most famous playwright is so well known it has become the sub-plot of several award-winning movies. In reality, the Queen was a devoted fan of the theatre and a generous supporter of Shakespeare’s work. In return, he immortalized the virgin Queen in his works, most notably as the “fair vestal throned by the West” in A Midsummer-Night’s Dream.

5. Pepsi/Beyoncé


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Pepsi's $50 million patronage of Beyoncé is expected to provide the singer and clothing designer—who earns approximately $40 million a year—with the ability to pursue creative endeavors free from the shackles and constraints of the market. “Pepsi embraces creativity and understands that artists evolve,” Beyoncé said in a statement to the Times. “As a businesswoman, this allows me to work with a lifestyle brand with no compromise and without sacrificing my creativity.”

In return for their generosity, the soda brand has already announced they will put the singer’s face on a series of limited edition soda cans and that she will appear in a new television ad.

Other things that could be financed through Pepsi’s “Beyoncé fund” could include live events, videos, or a “cool photo shoot,” as Lee Anne Callahan-Longo, the general manager of Beyoncé’s company Parkwood Entertainment, told the Times.

Instead of a farm or a roof over her head, Beyoncé is getting the gift of limited but generous resources and the ability to get a little bit wacky with how she represents Pepsi. You’re in good company in the annals of history, B. We’re expecting no less than a 21st Century Mona Lisa in sequins.

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15 Things You Didn't Know About The Persistence Of Memory

Salvador Dalì's The Persistence of Memory is the eccentric Spanish painter's most recognizable work. You have probably committed its melting clocks to memory—but you may not know all that went into its making.

1. THE PERSISTENCE OF MEMORY WAS PAINTED IN THE MIDST OF A HALLUCINATION.

Around the time of the painting’s 1931 creation, Dalì perfected his "paranoiac-critical method." The artist would attempt to enter a meditative state of self-induced psychotic hallucinations so that he could make what he called "hand-painted dream photographs."

“I am the first to be surprised and often terrified by the images I see appear upon my canvas," Dalì wrote, referring to his unusual routine. "I register without choice and with all possible exactitude the dictates of my subconscious, my dreams.”

2. IT'S SMALLER THAN YOU MIGHT EXPECT.

The Persistence of Memory is one of Dalì's philosophical triumphs, but the actual oil-on-canvas painting measures only 9.5 inches by 13 inches.

3. THE PAINTING MADE THE 28-YEAR-OLD ARTIST FAMOUS.

Dalì began painting when he was 6 years old. As a young man, he flirted with fame, working with Spanish filmmaker Luis Buñuel on his groundbreaking shorts Un Chien Andalou and L'Age d'Or. But Dalì’s big break didn’t come until he created his signature surrealist work. The press and the public went mad for him when The Persistence of Memory was shown at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York City in 1932.

4.THE PERSISTENCE OF MEMORY STAYED IN NEW YORK THANKS TO AN ANONYMOUS DONOR.

After its gallery show, a patron bought the piece and donated it to the Museum of Modern Art in 1934. It’s been a highlight of MoMA's collection for more than 80 years.

5. OTHER SURREALISTS PUT HIM ON TRIAL.

Though Dalì had become the most famous surrealist painter in the world, André Breton, the founder of surrealism, gave him the boot over concerns about Dalì’s alleged support of fascism. At his ousting from the Bureau for Surrealist Research, the loose network of surrealist artists and philosophers headed by Breton, Dalì declared, "I myself am surrealism."

6. EINSTEIN'S THEORIES MAY HAVE INFLUENCED DALÌ.

The Persistence of Memory has sparked considerable academic debate as scholars interpret the painting. Some critics believe the melting watches in the piece are a response to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. In her book Dalì and Surrealism, critic Dawn Ades writes, "the soft watches are an unconscious symbol of the relativity of space and time."

7. DALÌ'S EXPLANATION WAS CHEESIER.

Dalì declared that his true muse for the deformed clocks was a wheel of Camembert cheese that had melted in the sun. As Dalì considered himself and his persona an extension of his work, the truthfulness of his response is also up for debate.

8. ITS LANDSCAPE COMES FROM DALÌ'S CHILDHOOD.

Dalì's native Catalonia had a major influence on his works. His family's summer house in the shade of Mount Pani (also known as Mount Panelo) inspired him to integrate its likeness into his paintings again and again, like in View of Cadaqués with Shadow of Mount Pani. In The Persistence of Memory, the shadow of Mount Pani drapes the foreground, while Cape Creus and its craggy coast lie in the background.

9. THE PAINTING HAS A SEQUEL (SORT OF).

In 1954, Dalì revisited the composition of The Persistence of Memory for a new work, The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory. Alternately known as The Chromosome of a Highly-coloured Fish's Eye Starting the Harmonious Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory, the oil-on-canvas piece is believed to represent Dalì's prior work being broken down to its atomic elements.

10. BETWEEN PAINTING THESE TWO WORKS, DALÌ'S OBSESSIONS SHIFTED.

Though the subjects of The Persistence of Memory and The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory are the same, their differences illustrated the shifts that took place between periods of Dalì's career. The first painting was created in the midst of his Freudian phase, when Dalì was fascinated by the dream analysis pioneered by Sigmund Freud. By the 1950s, when the latter was painted, Dalì's dark muse had become the science of the atomic age.

"In the surrealist period, I wanted to create the iconography of the interior world—the world of the marvelous, of my father Freud," Dalì explained. "I succeeded in doing it. Today the exterior world—that of physics—has transcended the one of psychology. My father today is [theoretical physicist] Dr. Heisenberg."

11. FREUD RECIPROCATED DALÌ'S ADMIRATION.

Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, was not a fan of the surrealists, whom he felt were too conscious of the art they were making and didn't understand his theories. Dalì was the exception. When the two met in 1938, Dalì was giddily sketching a portrait of his 82-year-old idol when Freud whispered, "That boy looks like a fanatic." The comment delighted Dalì, as did Freud's suggestion that his The Metamorphosis of Narcissus would be of value to the study of psychoanalysis. Freud later said, "I have been inclined to regard the surrealists as complete fools, but that young Spaniard with his candid, fanatical eyes and his undeniable technical mastery, has changed my estimate."

12.THE PERSISTENCE OF MEMORY MAY BE A SELF-PORTRAIT.

The floppy profile at the painting's center might be meant to represent Dalì himself, as the artist was fond of self-portraits. Previously painted self-portraits include Self-Portrait in the Studio, Cubist Self-Portrait, Self-Portrait with "L' Humanité" and Self-Portrait (Figueres).

13. THERE WERE MORE MELTING CLOCKS TO COME.

In the 1970s, Dalì revisited his squishy timepieces in sculptures like Dance of Time I, II, & III; Nobility of Time, and Profile of Time. He also included them in lithographs.

14. THE PERSISTENCE OF MEMORY HAS ALIASES.

The masterpiece is also known as Soft Watches, Droopy Watches, The Persistence of Time, and Melting Clocks.

15. THE PAINTING HAS BECOME INGRAINED IN POP CULTURE.

The Persistence of Memory has been referenced on television in The Simpsons, Futurama, Hey Arnold, Doctor Who, and Sesame Street. Likewise, it's been alluded to in the animated movie Looney Tunes: Back in Action, in the comic strip The Far Side, and in videogames like EarthBound and Crash Bandicoot 2: N-Tranced. It was even parodied to mock the NFL’s DeflateGate scandal.

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LaGuardia Airport Is Serving Up Personalized Short Stories to Passengers
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In between purchasing a neck pillow and a bag full of snacks, guests flying out of the Marine Air Terminal at New York City's LaGuardia Airport can now order up an impromptu short story. As Hyperallergic reports, Landing Pages is an art project that connects writers to travelers looking for short fiction written in the time it takes to reach their destination.

The kiosk was set up as part of the ArtPort Residency, a new collaboration between the Queens Council on the Arts and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which sponsors different art projects at the Marine Air Terminal for a few months at a time.

Artists Lexie Smith and Gideon Jacobs set up the inaugural project at the terminal earlier this month. To request a story from Landing Pages, travelers can visit the kiosk and leave their flight number and contact information. While the passenger is in the air, Smith and Jacobs churn out a custom story, in the form of poetry, illustration, or prose, from their airport terminal workspace and send it out in time for it to reach the reader's phone before he or she lands.

The word count depends on the duration of the flight, and the subject matter often touches upon themes of travel and adventure. As Smith and Jacobs continue their residency through June 30, the pieces they complete will be made available at Landingpages.nyc and in hard copy form at the airport kiosk.

Landing Pages isn't the first airport service to offer à la carte short stories. In 2011, a French startup debuted its short story-dispensing vending machine at Paris's Charles de Gaulle Airport. Those stories come in three categories—one-minute, three-minute, and five-minute reads—and are printed out immediately so travelers can read them during their flight.

[h/t Hyperallergic]

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