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Chasing Bookworms: What Missing Art Can Tell You About Insects

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"The Rich Man" by Cornelis Anthonisz (1541), courtesy Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Between the 15th and 19th centuries, Europeans illustrated their books mainly with woodcuts. A woodcutter would etch a block of wood with an image so that when the block was dipped in ink and then stamped on a page, the areas that were cut away would leave just the white paper, and the remaining raised parts would pick up the ink and create black lines. (Here’s Albrecht Dürer’s Samson Rending the Lion as woodblock and ink-on-paper).

Those carved-out parts of the blocks and the white spaces on the paper were just as important to the art as the untouched wood and lines of ink. Empty spaces can say a lot. That’s why Blair Hedges, an evolutionary biologist at Pennsylvania State University, is so interested in certain holes that appear in many of these old books.

Bugging Out

These aren’t holes in the plots, but the artwork. Called wormholes, they’re actually the handiwork of beetles which came from eggs laid in trees and then emerged from the wood as adults, sometimes after the trees were turned into lumber—and sometimes even after a piece of wood had been carved with an image for printing. Hiring an illustrator to remake blocks affected by the bugs was expensive, so printers often went ahead and used them anyway, and many woodcut illustrations in older books are pockmarked with small circles that interrupt the ink lines. You can see some in the image above.

To biologists, those circles are trace fossils. Like a tooth mark or a footprint, they provide evidence that an animal was in a given place at one time. In this case, they pinpoint where a beetle once burst forth into the world. Hedges has used wormhole fossils from old books, maps, and art prints to study the distribution of certain wood-boring beetles over the hundreds of years when woodcuts were at the height of their use.

For a recently published study, he examined some 3000 wormholes in woodcut illustrations made between 1462 and 1899. He found that the wormholes in illustrations printed in northern Europe were round and, on average, 1.4 millimeters across. The wormholes from southern Europe were about twice as large, averaging 2.3 mm across. Many southern holes were also pill-shaped, or had “tracks” instead of being a a circle, shaped by the beetle exiting its nursery in a diagonal path instead of digging straight up and out (shown below).

Woodcut (1606) by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, courtesy Library of Congress

Going by the size and shape of the holes and what’s known about beetles’ wood preferences (some, for example, only lay their eggs in damp, rotting wood, which is not something that would be used in printing), Hedges was able to pin the holes in the illustrations on two species. He thinks the common furniture beetle (Anobium punctatum) is the likely culprit for the northern European works, and the Mediterranean furniture beetle (Oligomerus ptilinoides) for the southern ones.

Drawing the Line

The woodcut holes suggest a clear geographic divide between the beetles. Through hundreds of years of European literature and art, the two species’ ranges appear to have butted up against one another, but never overlapped.

This stark division is shocking because, today, both beetles are widely distributed through western, central, and southern Europe. There’s a lot of overlap in their ranges, and no one knew until now how their distribution was in the past, or if or how it had changed.

By looking at where and when the books were printed, Hedges was able to plot the historical dividing line between the two beetles (shown in the map below with each species’ current European range). Characteristics of its shape—like the curve south as it approaches France’s humid west coast—and the northern beetle’s sensitivity to certain environmental factors—like a combination of low humidity and high temperature—suggested to Hedges that the boundary between the two species was partly a matter of climate. As the climate changed over the centuries, though, the border might have held because both beetles prefer the same kind of wood, and they were avoiding competition with each other for it.

Broadening their Horizons

Top: historic range of two wood-boring beetles. Bottom L: modern range of the common furniture beetle. Bottom R: modern range of the Mediterranean furniture beetle. Hedges, 2012

The beetles expanded their range in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which means that people are one reason for the fall of the dividing line, Hedges says. The beetles' expansion came during a time when increasing global trade, travel, and commerce moved infested wood around Europe and to other continents, and modern homes with carefully controlled climates might have allowed the bugs to acclimate to new areas and eventually colonize them.

And all that comes from some blank spaces in old drawings.

While the books told Hedges a lot about the beetles, he says that the beetles can teach us something about books. In situations where a book’s point of origin is unclear, he says, historians could now use the known historical range of these two beetles to determine whether a book was from northern or southern Europe, just by examining and measuring what the insects left behind.

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Words
15 Subatomic Word Origins
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In July 2017, researchers at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) found evidence for a new fundamental particle of the universe: Ξcc++, a special kind of Xi baryon that may help scientists better understand how quarks are held together. Is that Greek to you? Well, it should be. The names for many of the particles that make up the universe—as well as a few that are still purely theoretical—come from ancient Greek. Here’s a look at 15 subatomic etymologies.

1. ION

An ion is any atom or molecule with an overall electric charge. English polymath William Whewell suggested the name in an 1834 letter to Michael Faraday, who made major discoveries in electromagnetism. Whewell based ion on the ancient Greek verb for “go” (ienai), as ions move towards opposite charges. Faraday and Whewell had previously considered zetode and stechion.

2. ELECTRON

George Stoney, an Anglo-Irish physicist, introduced the term electron in 1891 as a word for the fundamental unit of charge carried by an ion. It was later applied to the negative, nucleus-orbiting particle discovered by J. J. Thomson in 1897. Electron nabs the -on from ion, kicking off the convention of using -on as an ending for all particles, and fuses it with electric. Electric, in turn, comes from the Greek for “amber,” in which the property was first observed. Earlier in the 19th century, electron was the name for an alloy of gold and silver.

3. PROTON

The electron’s counterpart, the positively charged proton in the nuclei of all atoms, was named by its discoverer, Ernest Rutherford. He suggested either prouton or proton in honor of William Prout, a 19th-century chemist. Prout speculated that hydrogen was a part of all other elements and called its atom protyle, a Greek coinage joining protos ("first") and hule ("timber" or "material") [PDF]. Though the word had been previously used in biology and astronomy, the scientific community went with proton.

4. NEUTRON

Joining the proton in the nucleus is the neutron, which is neither positive nor negative: It’s neutral, from the Latin neuter, “neither.” Rutherford used neutron in 1921 when he hypothesized the particle, which James Chadwick didn’t confirm until 1932. American chemist William Harkins independently used neutron in 1921 for a hydrogen atom and a proton-electron pair. Harkins’s latter application calls up the oldest instance of neutron, William Sutherland’s 1899 name for a hypothetical combination of a hydrogen nucleus and an electron.

5. QUARK

Protons and neutrons are composed of yet tinier particles called quarks. For their distinctive name, American physicist Murray Gell-Mann was inspired in 1963 by a line from James Joyce’s Finnegan’s Wake: “Three quarks for Muster Mark.” Originally, Gell-Mann thought there were three types of quarks. We now know, though, there are six, which go by names that are just as colorful: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom.

6. MESON

Made up of a quark and an antiquark, which has identical mass but opposite charge, the meson is a short-lived particle whose mass is between that of a proton and an electron. Due to this intermediate size, the meson is named for the ancient Greek mesos, “middle.” Indian physicist Homi Bhabha suggested meson in 1939 instead of its original name, mesotron: “It is felt that the ‘tr’ in this word is redundant, since it does not belong to the Greek root ‘meso’ for middle; the ‘tr’ in neutron and electron belong, of course, to the roots ‘neutr’ and ‘electra’.”

7., 8., AND 9. BOSON, PHOTON, AND GLUON

Mesons are a kind of boson, named by English physicist Paul Dirac in 1947 for another Indian physicist, Satyendra Nath Bose, who first theorized them. Bosons demonstrate a particular type of spin, or intrinsic angular momentum, and carry fundamental forces. The photon (1926, from the ancient Greek for “light”) carries the electromagnetic force, for instance, while the gluon carries the so-called strong force. The strong force holds quarks together, acting like a glue, hence gluon.

10. HADRON

In 2012, CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) discovered a very important kind of boson: the Higgs boson, which generates mass. The hadrons the LHC smashes together at super-high speeds refer to a class of particles, including mesons, that are held together by the strong force. Russian physicist Lev Okun alluded to this strength by naming the particles after the ancient Greek hadros, “large” or “bulky,” in 1962.

11. LEPTON

Hadrons are opposite, in both makeup and etymology, to leptons. These have extremely tiny masses and don’t interact via the strong force, hence their root in the ancient Greek leptos, “small” or “slender.” The name was first suggested by the Danish chemist Christian Møller and Dutch-American physicist Abraham Pais in the late 1940s. Electrons are classified as leptons.

12. BARYON

Another subtype of hadron is the baryon, which also bears the stamp of Abraham Pais. Baryons, which include the more familiar protons and neutrons, are far more massive, relatively speaking, than the likes of leptons. On account of their mass, Pais put forth the name baryon in 1953, based on the ancient Greek barys, “heavy” [PDF].

13. AXION

Quirky Murray Gell-Mann isn't the only brain with a sense of humor. In his 2004 Nobel Prize lecture, American physicist Frank Wilczek said he named a “very light, very weakly interacting” hypothetical particle the axion back in 1978 “after a laundry detergent [brand], since they clean up a problem with an axial current” [PDF].

14. TACHYON

In ancient Greek, takhys meant “swift,” a fitting name for the tachyon, which American physicist Gerald Feinberg concocted in 1967 for a hypothetical particle that can travel faster than the speed of light. Not so fast, though, say most physicists, as the tachyon would break the fundamental laws of physics as we know them.

15. CHAMELEON

In 2003, the American physicist Justin Khoury and South African-American theoretical physicist Amanda Weltman hypothesized that the elusive dark energy may come in the form of a particle, which they cleverly called the chameleon. Just as chameleons can change color to suit their surroundings, so the physical characteristics of the chameleon particle change “depending on its environment,” explains Symmetry, the online magazine dedicated to particle physics. Chameleon itself derives from the ancient Greek khamaileon, literally “on-the-ground lion.”

For more particle names, see Symmetry’s “A Brief Etymology of Particle Physics,” which helped provide some of the information in this list.

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Space
Look Up! The Orionid Meteor Shower Peaks This Weekend
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October is always a great month for skywatching. If you missed the Draconids, the first meteor shower of the month, don't despair: the Orionids peak this weekend. It should be an especially stunning show this year, as the Moon will offer virtually no interference. If you've ever wanted to get into skywatching, this is your chance.

The Orionids is the second of two meteor showers caused by the debris field left by the comet Halley. (The other is the Eta Aquarids, which appear in May.) The showers are named for the constellation Orion, from which they seem to originate.

All the stars are lining up (so to speak) for this show. First, it's on the weekend, which means you can stay up late without feeling the burn at work the next day. Tonight, October 20, you'll be able to spot many meteors, and the shower peaks just after midnight tomorrow, October 21, leading into Sunday morning. Make a late-night picnic of the occasion, because it takes about an hour for your eyes to adjust to the darkness. Bring a blanket and a bottle of wine, lay out and take in the open skies, and let nature do the rest.

Second, the Moon, which was new only yesterday, is but a sliver in the evening sky, lacking the wattage to wash out the sky or conceal the faintest of meteors. If your skies are clear and light pollution low, this year you should be able to catch about 20 meteors an hour, which isn't a bad way to spend a date night.

If clouds interfere with your Orionids experience, don't fret. There will be two more meteor showers in November and the greatest of them all in December: the Geminids.

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