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Chasing Bookworms: What Missing Art Can Tell You About Insects

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"The Rich Man" by Cornelis Anthonisz (1541), courtesy Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Between the 15th and 19th centuries, Europeans illustrated their books mainly with woodcuts. A woodcutter would etch a block of wood with an image so that when the block was dipped in ink and then stamped on a page, the areas that were cut away would leave just the white paper, and the remaining raised parts would pick up the ink and create black lines. (Here’s Albrecht Dürer’s Samson Rending the Lion as woodblock and ink-on-paper).

Those carved-out parts of the blocks and the white spaces on the paper were just as important to the art as the untouched wood and lines of ink. Empty spaces can say a lot. That’s why Blair Hedges, an evolutionary biologist at Pennsylvania State University, is so interested in certain holes that appear in many of these old books.

Bugging Out

These aren’t holes in the plots, but the artwork. Called wormholes, they’re actually the handiwork of beetles which came from eggs laid in trees and then emerged from the wood as adults, sometimes after the trees were turned into lumber—and sometimes even after a piece of wood had been carved with an image for printing. Hiring an illustrator to remake blocks affected by the bugs was expensive, so printers often went ahead and used them anyway, and many woodcut illustrations in older books are pockmarked with small circles that interrupt the ink lines. You can see some in the image above.

To biologists, those circles are trace fossils. Like a tooth mark or a footprint, they provide evidence that an animal was in a given place at one time. In this case, they pinpoint where a beetle once burst forth into the world. Hedges has used wormhole fossils from old books, maps, and art prints to study the distribution of certain wood-boring beetles over the hundreds of years when woodcuts were at the height of their use.

For a recently published study, he examined some 3000 wormholes in woodcut illustrations made between 1462 and 1899. He found that the wormholes in illustrations printed in northern Europe were round and, on average, 1.4 millimeters across. The wormholes from southern Europe were about twice as large, averaging 2.3 mm across. Many southern holes were also pill-shaped, or had “tracks” instead of being a a circle, shaped by the beetle exiting its nursery in a diagonal path instead of digging straight up and out (shown below).

Woodcut (1606) by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, courtesy Library of Congress

Going by the size and shape of the holes and what’s known about beetles’ wood preferences (some, for example, only lay their eggs in damp, rotting wood, which is not something that would be used in printing), Hedges was able to pin the holes in the illustrations on two species. He thinks the common furniture beetle (Anobium punctatum) is the likely culprit for the northern European works, and the Mediterranean furniture beetle (Oligomerus ptilinoides) for the southern ones.

Drawing the Line

The woodcut holes suggest a clear geographic divide between the beetles. Through hundreds of years of European literature and art, the two species’ ranges appear to have butted up against one another, but never overlapped.

This stark division is shocking because, today, both beetles are widely distributed through western, central, and southern Europe. There’s a lot of overlap in their ranges, and no one knew until now how their distribution was in the past, or if or how it had changed.

By looking at where and when the books were printed, Hedges was able to plot the historical dividing line between the two beetles (shown in the map below with each species’ current European range). Characteristics of its shape—like the curve south as it approaches France’s humid west coast—and the northern beetle’s sensitivity to certain environmental factors—like a combination of low humidity and high temperature—suggested to Hedges that the boundary between the two species was partly a matter of climate. As the climate changed over the centuries, though, the border might have held because both beetles prefer the same kind of wood, and they were avoiding competition with each other for it.

Broadening their Horizons

Top: historic range of two wood-boring beetles. Bottom L: modern range of the common furniture beetle. Bottom R: modern range of the Mediterranean furniture beetle. Hedges, 2012

The beetles expanded their range in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which means that people are one reason for the fall of the dividing line, Hedges says. The beetles' expansion came during a time when increasing global trade, travel, and commerce moved infested wood around Europe and to other continents, and modern homes with carefully controlled climates might have allowed the bugs to acclimate to new areas and eventually colonize them.

And all that comes from some blank spaces in old drawings.

While the books told Hedges a lot about the beetles, he says that the beetles can teach us something about books. In situations where a book’s point of origin is unclear, he says, historians could now use the known historical range of these two beetles to determine whether a book was from northern or southern Europe, just by examining and measuring what the insects left behind.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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8 Common Dog Behaviors, Decoded
May 25, 2017
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Dogs are a lot more complicated than we give them credit for. As a result, sometimes things get lost in translation. We’ve yet to invent a dog-to-English translator, but there are certain behaviors you can learn to read in order to better understand what your dog is trying to tell you. The more tuned-in you are to your dog’s emotions, the better you’ll be able to respond—whether that means giving her some space or welcoming a wet, slobbery kiss. 

1. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with his legs and body relaxed and tail low. His ears are up, but not pointed forward. His mouth is slightly open, he’s panting lightly, and his tongue is loose. His eyes? Soft or maybe slightly squinty from getting his smile on.

What it means: “Hey there, friend!” Your pup is in a calm, relaxed state. He’s open to mingling, which means you can feel comfortable letting friends say hi.

2. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with her body leaning forward. Her ears are erect and angled forward—or have at least perked up if they’re floppy—and her mouth is closed. Her tail might be sticking out horizontally or sticking straight up and wagging slightly.

What it means: “Hark! Who goes there?!” Something caught your pup’s attention and now she’s on high alert, trying to discern whether or not the person, animal, or situation is a threat. She’ll likely stay on guard until she feels safe or becomes distracted.

3. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing, leaning slightly forward. His body and legs are tense, and his hackles—those hairs along his back and neck—are raised. His tail is stiff and twitching, not swooping playfully. His mouth is open, teeth are exposed, and he may be snarling, snapping, or barking excessively.

What it means: “Don’t mess with me!” This dog is asserting his social dominance and letting others know that he might attack if they don’t defer accordingly. A dog in this stance could be either offensively aggressive or defensively aggressive. If you encounter a dog in this state, play it safe and back away slowly without making eye contact.

4. What you’ll see: As another dog approaches, your dog lies down on his back with his tail tucked in between his legs. His paws are tucked in too, his ears are flat, and he isn’t making direct eye contact with the other dog standing over him.

What it means: “I come in peace!” Your pooch is displaying signs of submission to a more dominant dog, conveying total surrender to avoid physical confrontation. Other, less obvious, signs of submission include ears that are flattened back against the head, an avoidance of eye contact, a tongue flick, and bared teeth. Yup—a dog might bare his teeth while still being submissive, but they’ll likely be clenched together, the lips opened horizontally rather than curled up to show the front canines. A submissive dog will also slink backward or inward rather than forward, which would indicate more aggressive behavior.

5. What you’ll see: Your dog is crouching with her back hunched, tail tucked, and the corner of her mouth pulled back with lips slightly curled. Her shoulders, or hackles, are raised and her ears are flattened. She’s avoiding eye contact.

What it means: “I’m scared, but will fight you if I have to.” This dog’s fight or flight instincts have been activated. It’s best to keep your distance from a dog in this emotional state because she could attack if she feels cornered.

6. What you’ll see: You’re staring at your dog, holding eye contact. Your dog looks away from you, tentatively looks back, then looks away again. After some time, he licks his chops and yawns.

What it means: “I don’t know what’s going on and it’s weirding me out.” Your dog doesn’t know what to make of the situation, but rather than nipping or barking, he’ll stick to behaviors he knows are OK, like yawning, licking his chops, or shaking as if he’s wet. You’ll want to intervene by removing whatever it is causing him discomfort—such as an overly grabby child—and giving him some space to relax.

7. What you’ll see: Your dog has her front paws bent and lowered onto the ground with her rear in the air. Her body is relaxed, loose, and wiggly, and her tail is up and wagging from side to side. She might also let out a high-pitched or impatient bark.

What it means: “What’s the hold up? Let’s play!” This classic stance, known to dog trainers and behaviorists as “the play bow,” is a sign she’s ready to let the good times roll. Get ready for a round of fetch or tug of war, or for a good long outing at the dog park.

8. What you’ll see: You’ve just gotten home from work and your dog rushes over. He can’t stop wiggling his backside, and he may even lower himself into a giant stretch, like he’s doing yoga.

What it means: “OhmygoshImsohappytoseeyou I love you so much you’re my best friend foreverandeverandever!!!!” This one’s easy: Your pup is overjoyed his BFF is back. That big stretch is something dogs don’t pull out for just anyone; they save that for the people they truly love. Show him you feel the same way with a good belly rub and a handful of his favorite treats.

The best way to say “I love you” in dog? A monthly subscription to BarkBox. Your favorite pup will get a package filled with treats, toys, and other good stuff (and in return, you’ll probably get lots of sloppy kisses). Visit BarkBox to learn more.

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