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Why Does Skin Get Pruney in the Tub?

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For a long time, scientists thought that pruning of the skin after spending time in the water was simply a matter of fingers being a little spongey. The outermost layer (the stratum corneum) of the outermost layer (the epidermis) of our skin is mostly made up of cells called corneocytes. These cells are filled with keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by absorbing water and preventing its evaporation. When you hang out in the pool or the bathtub for a while, the keratin absorbs a lot of water, and the cells swell up. While the thin stratum corneum swells with water, the lower layers of skin that it is attached to don’t, so that outermost layer has to buckle and bend to accommodate its relatively larger size, sort of like a too-big shirt that wrinkles and bunches together when it's tucked in.

Another, more recent explanation is that the wrinkles come from vasoconstriction, or the narrowing of blood vessels. The idea is that hot water makes the blood vessels in the fingers tighten and the surrounding tissue contract, causing the skin to fold.

But the explanation might be more complicated than either one of those potential causes—especially when you consider how the phenomenon occurs in people with nerve damage.

So Unnerving

In the 1930s, two scientists examined a boy whose median nerve was severed, leaving his thumb, index, and middle fingers numb. When they soaked his hand in water, the ring and pinkie fingers wrinkled but the fingers affected by the damaged nerve stayed smooth.

And in 2001, researchers at Tel Aviv University found that nervous system malfunctions caused by Parkinson’s disease also interfered with finger wrinkling. In their study, Parkinson’s patients’ fingers wrinkled less on one side of the body than the other, and wrinkled less overall than the fingers of healthy subjects. Going by the common explanations, the wrinkles were a local phenomenon happening in very small bits of flesh. The involvement of the nervous system, though, suggests that something else is going on.

Getting a Grip

Mark Changizi, neuroscientist and the Director of Human Cognition at 2AI Labs in Boise, Idaho, thinks that the wrinkles’ neural factor is a clue that they’re adaptive. Rather than being a mere side effect of water-logged digits, he says, they’re a functional response to wet conditions: The wrinkles act like drainage networks or tire treads on our fingers and toes, channeling water away and giving skin more contact with, and a better grip on, wet surfaces.

Analyzing the wrinkles on various soaked fingers, Changizi and his team found that they all had similar shapes and characteristics—with disconnected channels that moved away from each other as they got farther from the fingertip—consistent with what is expected in a drainage network. That wasn’t much evidence for Changizi’s hypothesis, but it got the ball rolling. (Update: 11/30/2012, 1:25 pm) While that doesn't seem like much, Changizi points out that the "morphology prediction is actually very strong."

"Of the infinitely many wrinkle patterns that are possible," he says, "[the] drainage hypothesis predicts [the] actual [pattern]."

Since publishing the idea and the initial data last year, he and his team have been looking for evidence of finger-wrinkling in other primates that live in wet environments (they’d already found it happens in Japanese macaques) and are setting up experiments to directly test the wrinkles' effects on grips, While the results aren't ready to be published yet and the pilot studies so far suggest that pruney fingers do help improve grip.

(Update: 11/30/2012, 1:25 pm) Changizi has filled me in on that pilot data. The experiment was conducted Changizi and undergraduate student Joseph Palazzo. They had subjects carry out a timed task of moving objects, including bottles, stones, logs and other items, from one place on a table top to another, and back again. They did this in wet-pruney, dry-pruney (dry objects, and fingers dried after they had wrinkled), wet-nonpruney (wet fingers, but not yet wrinkled) and dry-nonpruney conditions. Wet-pruney performance was better than wet-nonpruney, with the subjects being faster and making fewer mistakes.

Changizi would like to see more behavioral studies like this carried out, and see more data from other species for further tests, but  probably won’t carry out any of these studies himself. "A more sophisticated next experiment would be version-2.0 of this sort of thing, in my mind," he says. "But not my forte." He thinks that other scientists would be much better at that kind of experiment.

"In terms of the categories of test, then," he says. "There's morphology, behavior, and phylogeny, and at this point we've done the first, poked at the second, and only wondered about the third."

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Big Questions
Who Was Chuck Taylor?
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From Betty Crocker to Tommy Bahama, plenty of popular labels are "named" after fake people. But one product with a bona fide backstory to its moniker is Converse's Chuck Taylor All-Star sneakers. The durable gym shoes are beloved by everyone from jocks to hipsters. But who's the man behind the cursive signature on the trademark circular ankle patch?

As journalist Abraham Aamidor recounted in his 2006 book Chuck Taylor, All Star: The True Story of the Man behind the Most Famous Athletic Shoe in History, Chuck Taylor was a former pro basketball player-turned-Converse salesman whose personal brand and tireless salesmanship were instrumental to the shoes' success.

Charles Hollis Taylor was born on July 24, 1901, and raised in southern Indiana. Basketball—the brand-new sport invented by James Naismith in 1891—was beginning to take the Hoosier State by storm. Taylor joined his high school team, the Columbus High School Bull Dogs, and was named captain.

After graduation, instead of heading off to college, Taylor launched his semi-pro career playing basketball with the Columbus Commercials. He’d go on to play for a handful of other teams across the Midwest, including the the Akron Firestone Non-Skids in Ohio, before finally moving to Chicago in 1922 to work as a sales representative for the Converse Rubber Shoe Co. (The company's name was eventually shortened to Converse, Inc.)

Founded in Malden, Massachusetts, in 1908 as a rubber shoe manufacturer, Converse first began producing canvas shoes in 1915, since there wasn't a year-round market for galoshes. They introduced their All-Star canvas sports shoes two years later, in 1917. It’s unclear whether Chuck was initially recruited to also play ball for Converse (by 1926, the brand was sponsoring a traveling team) or if he was simply employed to work in sales. However, we do know that he quickly proved himself to be indispensable to the company.

Taylor listened carefully to customer feedback, and passed on suggestions for shoe improvements—including more padding under the ball of the foot, a different rubber compound in the sole to avoid scuffs, and a patch to protect the ankle—to his regional office. He also relied on his basketball skills to impress prospective clients, hosting free Chuck Taylor basketball clinics around the country to teach high school and college players his signature moves on the court.

In addition to his myriad other job duties, Taylor played for and managed the All-Stars, a traveling team sponsored by Converse to promote their new All Star shoes, and launched and helped publish the Converse Basketball Yearbook, which covered the game of basketball on an annual basis.

After leaving the All-Stars, Taylor continued to publicize his shoe—and own personal brand—by hobnobbing with customers at small-town sporting goods stores and making “special appearances” at local basketball games. There, he’d be included in the starting lineup of a local team during a pivotal game.

Taylor’s star grew so bright that in 1932, Converse added his signature to the ankle patch of the All Star shoes. From that point on, they were known as Chuck Taylor All-Stars. Still, Taylor—who reportedly took shameless advantage of his expense account and earned a good salary—is believed to have never received royalties for the use of his name.

In 1969, Taylor was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame. The same year, he died from a heart attack on June 23, at the age of 67. Around this time, athletic shoes manufactured by companies like Adidas and Nike began replacing Converse on the court, and soon both Taylor and his namesake kicks were beloved by a different sort of customer.

Still, even though Taylor's star has faded over the decades, fans of his shoe continue to carry on his legacy: Today, Converse sells more than 270,000 pairs of Chuck Taylors a day, 365 days a year, to retro-loving customers who can't get enough of the athlete's looping cursive signature.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Big Questions
What Is the Difference Between Generic and Name Brand Ibuprofen?
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What is the difference between generic ibuprofen vs. name brands?

Yali Friedman:

I just published a paper that answers this question: Are Generic Drugs Less Safe than their Branded Equivalents?

Here’s the tl;dr version:

Generic drugs are versions of drugs made by companies other than the company which originally developed the drug.

To gain FDA approval, a generic drug must:

  • Contain the same active ingredients as the innovator drug (inactive ingredients may vary)
  • Be identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration
  • Have the same use indications
  • Be bioequivalent
  • Meet the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality
  • Be manufactured under the same strict standards of FDA's good manufacturing practice regulations required for innovator products

I hope you found this answer useful. Feel free to reach out at www.thinkbiotech.com. For more on generic drugs, you can see our resources and whitepapers at Pharmaceutical strategic guidance and whitepapers

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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