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The History And Impact Of The Red Cross

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In honor of the founding of the Red Cross on October 29, 1863, here's a closer look at the organization, how it works, and its greatest triumphs.

How It Works

There is no international Red Cross. Instead, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) oversees and approves national Red Cross organizations, ensuring those local organizations always live up to the committee’s objectives. The ICRC also handles a small number of issues that arise during international conflicts which require the oversight of a neutral humanitarian committee.

The International Committee operates out of Geneva, Switzerland (the building pictured above is its headquarters), and all of the people involved in this highest level of the organization must be of Swiss nationality. While this seems to be a little odd given the multi-cultural objectives of the group, the assembly believes the permanent neutrality of their country will ensure that no one ever questions the political motives of the decision makers. They say this way no one will ever feel high-level decisions affecting their country will be made by enemies of their country.

On the other hand, National Red Cross organizations are operated by people from all over the world. There are currently 186 national societies that are officially recognized by the ICRC; almost every country in the world has its own Red Cross society. These organizations provide emergency services, malaria eradication programs, blood drives, and local first aid training programs. The International Committee largely limits its services to investigating the condition of prisoners of war. Both groups help families get in touch with relatives who are separated and lost during global conflicts.

While other groups, like Doctors Without Borders and Amnesty International, release their records regarding the conditions of prisoners of war, the Red Cross generally does not release their findings to anyone except the government involved. While this means they cannot push for more humane treatment of prisoners, it does allow them access to many locations that are off limits for similar groups. If the Committee finds that prisoners are being mistreated, they try to arrange low-key negotiations with the relevant government that will remain confidential.

History

In 1859, Henry Dunant, a Swiss businessman, traveled to Italy to discuss business with Napoleon III. On his way, he witnessed the Battle of Solferino, where 40,000 soldiers from both sides were wounded or killed. Dunant was shocked at the atrocities he saw and immediately set about helping the wounded soldiers who received practically no medical attention after the battle was over. In the end, he ended up abandoning the original motivation for his trip, focusing instead on care for the wounded soldiers. He motivated the local residents to help, too, regardless of their military affiliation.

When Dunant returned to Geneva, he wrote A Memory of Solferino. After sending the book to leading political and military figures in Europe, Dunant began advocating the creation of voluntary relief organizations to help care for wounded soldiers in war. He also pushed for international treaties to assure protection of these relief organizations.

In 1863, Dunant gathered other leading figures from Geneva to discuss the feasibilities of his ideas and how to best implement them. Eight days later, they decided to name the committee the “International Committee for Relief to the Wounded.”

In October of that year, the committee held an international conference to develop measures that would improve battlefield medical services; it was attended by more than 30 representatives from countries throughout Europe. The resolutions adopted from this first meeting included the creation of relief societies, protection for wounded soldiers, and the introduction of a distinctive protection symbol for medics in the field. The symbol chosen at the conference was a white arm band with a red cross—the first official use of the Red Cross logo (although they didn’t start to use that name until 3 years later).

The following year, the Swiss government invited all European governments, the United States, Brazil, and Mexico to attend an official diplomatic conference regarding those resolutions. Sixteen governments sent delegates to this first Geneva Convention, and 12 countries signed the convention binding rules for neutrality and protection for wounded soldiers, field medical personnel, and humanitarian institutions. The convention also defined two requirements for the recognition of a national relief society as defined by the International Committee: A society must be recognized by their own national government, and the country involved must be a party in the Geneva Convention.

Immediately after the Geneva Convention, the first national relief societies were formed in Belguim, Denmark, France, Oldenburg, Prussia, Spain, and Württemberg. Within a few years, almost every country created a relief society—including the American Red Cross, started by Clara Barton.

Major Conflicts

While Red Cross agencies dealt with a number of conflicts after their initial creation, the first major test of their effectiveness was during the first World War. Immediately after the war broke out, the ICRC set up an international Prisoners of War (POW) Agency. By the end of the war, the group transferred about 20 million letters and 18 million Swiss francs worth of donations to POWs in all affected countries. The agency also helped safely exchange 200,000 prisoners, allowing them to return to their home countries.

During the war, they also monitored the fighting countries for compliance with the Geneva Conventions and forwarded their complaints to the countries responsible. When chemical weapons were used for the first time ever, the ICRC fought their use immediately.

While the Geneva Conventions did not dictate that the ICRC should help civilian populations, the committee also helped residents who were suffering from the war. A year before WWI ended, the ICRC received a Nobel Peace Prize for its wartime work. It was the only prize awarded during the conflict.

In 1925, another Geneva Convention was held, and the use of chemical and biological weapons was outlawed. The committee also drafted a new set of rules dictating the proper treatment for prisoners of war.

When WWII started, the ICRC faced quite a challenge: getting access to Nazi concentration camps. It tried applying pressure to the country, but eventually quit pushing so that efforts could be focused on helping POWs from all countries. In 1943, the group finally achieved permission to send parcels to the concentration camp detainees with known names and locations. Because many packages were signed for by persons other than those to whom the package was addressed, the group managed to use these signatures to register the names of around 105,000 detainees in the camps.

(c) Benoit Junod, Switzerland

In March of 1945, the SS allowed delegates to visit concentration camps with the condition that the delegates had to stay in the camps until the war ended. Ten delegates volunteered. One was able to prevent the blasting of Mauthausen-Gusen by American troops, saving 60,000 lives. Unfortunately, this went against the ICRC’s neutrality policy and circumvented their authority, so he was condemned by the organization. They did not apologize until 1990.

The ICRC received a second Nobel Peace Prize in 1944 for its work during the war: once again, the only prize awarded during that period. After the war, the ICRC worked with local Red Cross societies to help provide assistance to the countries most severely affected.

After the war, another convention was held to discuss international laws regarding civil populations during times of war. After all of the conventions and additional protocols were added, the Geneva Convention treaties contain over 600 articles. In around 150 years, the ideas of a Genevan businessman have helped rewrite the acceptable behaviors of countries at war and have saved hundreds of thousands of lives, while improving millions more.

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Ramones Karaoke, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0
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Fake It Until You Make It: 10 Artificial Ruins
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Ramones Karaoke, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

The love of ruins, sometimes called ruinophilia, has for centuries inspired the creation of clever fakes—a host of sham facades and hollowed-out castle shells found on grand English, European, and even American estates. The popularity of constructing artificial ruins was at its peak during the 18th and 19th centuries, but architects occasionally still incorporate them today.

Why build a structure that is already crumbling? Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the popularity of counterfeit ruins was influenced by two factors—a classical education that enforced the ideals of ancient Greece and Rome, and the extended tour of Europe (known as The Grand Tour) that well-to-do young men and women took after completing their education. Travelers might start in London or France and roam as far as the Middle East, but the trip almost always included Italy and a chance to admire Roman ruins. More than a few wealthy travelers returned home longing to duplicate those ruins, either to complement a romantic landscape, to demonstrate wealth, or to provide a pretense of family history for the newly rich.

Here are a few romantic ruins constructed between the 18th and 21st centuries.

1. SHAM CASTLE // BATHAMPTON, ENGLAND

Sham Castle (shown above) is aptly named—it’s only a façade. The "castle," overlooking the English city of Bath, was created in 1762 to improve the view for Ralph Allen, a local entrepreneur and philanthropist as well as to provide jobs for local stonemasons. From a distance it looks like a castle ruin, but it's merely a wall that has two three-story circular turrets and a two-story square tower at either end. The castle is not the only folly (as such purely decorative architecture is often called) that Allen built. He also constructed a sham bridge on Serpentine Lake in what is now Prior Park Landscape Garden—the bridge can't be crossed, but provides a nice focal point for the lake. Today, Sham Castle is part of a private golf course.

2. WIMPOLE FOLLY // CAMBRIDGESHIRE, ENGLAND

Building a structure that looks as if it's crumbling does not preclude having to perform regular maintenance. The four-story Gothic tower known as Wimpole Folly in Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, was built 1768-72 for Philip Yorke, first Earl of Hardwicke and owner of the Wimpole Estate. Owned by Britain’s National Trust, the ruin threatened to truly crumble a few years ago, so restoration efforts were needed. The last restoration was so well done it won the 2016 European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage. The Wimpole Estate is now open to the public for walks and hikes.

3. CAPEL MANOR FOLLY // ENFIELD, ENGLAND

Capel Manor at Bulls Cross, Enfield, England has been the site of several grand homes since the estate’s first recorded mention in the 13th century, so visitors might be tempted to believe that the manor house's ruins date back at least a few centuries. But that sense of history is an illusion: The faux 15th-century house was built in 2010 to add visual appeal to the manor gardens, which have been open to the public since the 1920s.

4. ROMAN RUIN // SCHONBRUNN PALACE, VIENNA, AUSTRIA

The Roman Ruin was built as a garden ornament for the 1441-room Schonbrunn Palace in Vienna, one of the most important monuments in Austria. The ruin was once called The Ruins of Carthage, after the ancient North African city defeated by Roman military force. But despite the illusion of antiquity, the ruins were created almost 2000 years after Carthage fell in 146 B.C.E. The ruin’s rectangular pool, framed by an intricate semi-circle arch, was designed in 1778 by the architect Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg, who modeled it on the Ancient Roman temple of Vespasian and Titus, which he had seen an engraving of.

5. THE RUINEBERG // POTSDAM, GERMANY

One of the earliest examples of artificial ruins in Germany was the complex of structures known as The Ruinenberg. Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, had a summer palace in Potsdam, near Berlin, that was said to rival Versailles. In 1748 Frederick commissioned a large fountain for the palace complete with artificial ruins. The waterworks part of his plan proved too difficult and was soon abandoned, but not before designer Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff constructed the ruins. The complex includes Roman pillars, a round temple, and the wall of a Roman theatre. Since 1927 the site has belonged to the Prussian Gardens and Palaces Foundation, Berlin-Brandenburg.

6. PARC MONCEAU // PARIS, FRANCE

Elegant Parc Monceau is located in the fashionable 8th arrondissement of Paris near the Champs-Elysees and Palais de l’Elysée. In 1778, the Duke of Chartres decided to build a mansion on land previously used for hunting. He loved English architecture and gardens, including the notion of nostalgic ruins, so he hired the architect Louis Carrogis Carmontelle to create an extravagant park complete with a Roman temple, antique statues, a Chinese bridge, a farmhouse, a Dutch windmill, a minaret, a small Egyptian pyramid, and some fake gravestones. The most notable feature of the park is a pond surrounded by Corinthian columns, now known as Colonnade de Carmontelle.

7. HAGLEY PARK CASTLE // WORCESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND

The ruins of the medieval castle at Hagley Park in Worcestershire are definitely fake, but they were built with debris from the real ruin of a neighboring abbey. The folly was commissioned by Sir George Lyttelton in 1747 and designed by Sanderson Miller, an English pioneer of Gothic revival architecture. The castle has a round tower at each corner, but by design only one is complete and decorated inside with a coat of arms. The grounds, which also feature a temple portico inspired by an ancient Greek temple, some urns, and obelisks, are now privately owned and not open to the public.

8. TATA CASTLE RUINS // TATA, HUNGARY

French architect Charles de Moreau (1758-1841) was a scholar of classical Roman architecture known for his ability to counterfeit impressive ruins. Nicholas I, Prince Esterhazy of Hungary, hired him to work on Tata Castle and to create the ruins of a Romanesque church for the palace’s English Garden. Even though the ruin Moreau created was fake, he built it with the stones of a real ruin, the remnants of the early-12th-century Benedictine and later Dominican abbey of Vértesszőlős. A third-century ancient Roman tombstone and relief were placed nearby.

9. BELVEDERE CASTLE // MANHATTAN, NEW YORK

Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux designed Central Park in the mid-1800s, and their plan for creating romantic vistas included the construction of a folly known as Belvedere Castle. The Gothic-Romanesque style hybrid, overlooking Central Park’s Great Lawn, was completed in 1869. Although the folly was designed as a hollow shell and meant to be a ruin, it eventually served a practical purpose, housing a weather bureau and exhibit space. The castle also provides a beautiful backdrop for Shakespeare in the Park productions, evoking the royal homes that play prominent roles in the Bard’s works.

10. FOLLY WALL IN BARKING TOWN SQUARE // LONDON

In a borough known for its real historic buildings, the ancient wall found in London’s Barking Town Square might look centuries old. It’s not, and ironically, the wall is part of the square’s renovation efforts. The wall was built by bricklaying students at Barking College using old bricks and crumbling stone items found at salvage yards. Known as the "Secret Garden," named after the children’s book about a walled garden, the wall was designed to screen a nearby supermarket and was unveiled in 2007.

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IA Collaborative
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Lovely Vintage Manuals Show How to Design for the Human Body
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IA Collaborative

If you're designing something for people to hold and use, you probably want to make sure that it will fit a normal human. You don't want to make a cell phone that people can't hold in their hands (mostly) or a vacuum that will have you throwing out your back every time you clean the house. Ergonomics isn't just for your office desk setup; it's for every product you physically touch.

In the mid-1970s, the office of legendary industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss created a series of manuals for designers working on products that involved the human body. And now, the rare Humanscale manuals from Henry Dreyfuss Associates are about to come back into print with the help of a Kickstarter campaign from a contemporary design firm. Using the work of original Henry Dreyfuss Associates designers Niels Diffrient and Alvin R. Tilley, the guides are getting another life with the help of the Chicago-based design consultancy IA Collaborative.

A Humanscale page illustrates human strength statistics.

The three Humanscale Manuals, published between 1974 and 1981 but long out-of-print, covered 18 different types of human-centric design categories, like typical body measurements, how people stand in public spaces, how hand and foot controls should work, and how to design for wheelchair users within legal requirements. In the mid-20th century, the ergonomics expertise of Dreyfuss and his partners was used in the development of landmark products like the modern telephones made by Bell Labs, the Polaroid camera, Honeywell's round thermostat, and the Hoover vacuum.

IA Collaborative is looking to reissue all three Humanscale manuals which you can currently only find in their printed form as historic documents in places like the Cooper Hewitt design museum in New York. IA Collaborative's Luke Westra and Nathan Ritter worked with some of the original designers to make the guides widely available again. Their goal was to reprint them at a reasonable price for designers. They're not exactly cheap, but the guides are more than just pretty decor for the office. The 60,000-data-point guides, IA Collaborative points out, "include metrics for every facet of human existence."

The manuals come in the form of booklets with wheels inside the page that you spin to reveal standards for different categories of people (strong, tall, short, able-bodied, men, women, children, etc.). There are three booklets, each with three double-sided pages, one for each category. For instance, Humanscale 1/2/3 covers body measurements, link measurements, seating guide, seat/table guide, wheelchair users, and the handicapped and elderly.

A product image of the pages from Humanscale Manual 1/2/3 stacked in a row.

"All products––from office chairs to medical devices—require designs that 'fit' the end user," according to Luke Westra, IA Collective's engineering director. "Finding the human factors data one needs to achieve these ‘fits' can be extremely challenging as it is often scattered across countless sources," he explains in a press release, "unless you've been lucky enough to get your hands on the Humanscale manuals."

Even setting aside the importance of the information they convey, the manuals are beautiful. Before infographics were all over the web, Henry Dreyfuss Associates were creating a huge compendium of visual data by hand. Whether you ever plan to design a desk chair or not, the manuals are worthy collectors' items.

The Kickstarter campaign runs from July 25 to August 24. The three booklets can be purchased individually ($79) or as a full set ($199).

All images courtesy IA Collaborative

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