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4 Animals That Change in Captivity

Put a wild animal in a cage, and it’s bound to act differently. Zoologists and vets have many strategies to help an animal get settled and normalize its behavior in captivity. Psychological changes can be overcome with animal enrichment programs that keep creatures entertained and mentally stimulated—but some of the internal and physical changes in these four animals are more difficult to tackle.

1. Koalas

Image courtesy of jsteel's Flickr stream.

While some animals eagerly engage in free love (deep sea squid, bonobos, and penguins have all been found to have bisexual tendencies), koalas are a more conservative bunch. These eucalyptus-munching marsupials are strictly heterosexual—at least in the wild. Once in captivity, female koalas participate in lesbian orgies. According to scientists at the University of Queensland, who monitored 130 koalas using digital cameras, female koalas in captivity engage in homosexual acts three times as often as they participate in heterosexual activities. The orgies often include up to five females at a time. (They don’t count the males out, though: The females' heterosexual activities lasted twice as long as their homosexual encounters.)

Scientists remain uncertain about the cause of these encounters. Some believe that female koalas use the orgies as a method of attracting males, while others think it’s a hormonal behavior. Still others believe it serves to release stress.

2. Komodo Dragons

Image courtesy of vsellis' Flickr stream.

Don’t get bitten by a wild Komodo dragon: Their mouths contain 57 septic pathogens including e. coli and Staphylococcus which, according to some scientists, cause horrible infections in the creatures’ victims. (Lucky for the dragons, they’re immune to all the bacteria.) Once in captivity, however, Komodo dragons lose their filthy mouths thanks to cleaner diets and antibiotics which kill the pathogens.

Why give Komodos antibiotics when they’re immune to the bacteria? Once taken from the wild, the dragons are highly susceptible to infection and disease. This may be because the animals have a lower core temperature in captivity, but no one knows for certain.

3. Poison Dart Frogs

Image courtesy of e_monk's Flickr stream.

The bright color of a poison dart frog’s skin is a loud warning: Don’t touch me! The poison secreted by these paper-clip-sized amphibians is so deadly that indigenous tribes in South America coat their hunting darts with it. (According to National Geographic, the Golden poison dart frog has enough venom to take out 10 men.) But the frogs generally stop being poisonous once removed from the wild .

As with the Komodo dragon, this change comes down to diet. Poison dart frogs derive toxins from what they eat: Some get their poison from ants, others from beetles, a few from spiders. The toxins are collected in glands in the frogs’ skins and secreted through it, which is what makes them poisonous to the touch. It’s practically impossible for zookeepers and others who take care of the animals to obtain these toxic food sources.

Frogs taken from the wild can hold on to their poison for a long time, sometimes years. But eventually they lose their toxicity, and captive bred frogs will never become poisonous (unless, of course, they’re fed the specific insects that result in that species’ toxicity).

There is one exception to this no-toxin rule: Australia’s corroboree frog, the only species known to produce its own poison rather than deriving it through diet. These creatures maintain their poison no matter how many generations are raised in captivity—a very good thing because captive breeding and eventual release into the wild is the only hope of survival for the critically endangered frogs.

4. Japanese Fire Belly Newts

Image courtesy of Eric Michon's Flickr stream.

Like poison dart frogs, these newts are highly toxic in the wild; they secrete Tetrodotoxin, a neurotoxin for which there is no antidote. But in captivity, the animals may lose their toxicity. The key word here is “may”: Some newts born in captivity actually hold on to their poison instead of losing it. While scientists are unclear about the reason for this occasional biological change, many speculate that the animal’s toxicity is formed through contact with an environmental bacteria that is sometimes, but not always, passed to the next generation.

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Animals
The UK’s First Polar Bear Cub in 25 Years Was Just Born in Scotland
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The polar bear population at Highland Wildlife Park in Kincraig, Scotland grew by one this past holiday season. Victoria, a female polar bear who arrived at the park last year, has just given birth to a cub—the UK’s first in 25 years.

According to the BBC, park officials heard "promising noises" emitting from Victoria’s enclosure beginning in December. She had been introduced to Arktos, one of two male bears at the facility, for mating purposes. The two apparently hit it off, as staff believe Victoria is now looking after at least one offspring.

Why aren't they sure? Because polar bears can be quick to kill or abandon cubs if their bonding time is interrupted, park officials are giving her a wide berth. They can't see directly into her cubbing box, which was prepared specifically to give her privacy. Victoria even managed to dislodge a security camera, leaving only audio evidence of the cub's existence.

Officials believe mother and child will emerge on their own sometime in March. If the cub survives, it's expected to bring increased attention to the facility. When the London Zoo debuted a polar bear cub in 1949, attendance went from 1.1 million to over 3 million annually. Knut, a star at the Berlin Zoo, sold millions in merchandise at the height of his fame in 2007.

[h/t BBC]

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Courtesy of The National Aviary
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Animals
Watch This Live Stream to See Two Rare Penguin Chicks Hatch From Their Eggs
Courtesy of The National Aviary
Courtesy of The National Aviary

Bringing an African penguin chick into the world is an involved process, with both penguin parents taking turns incubating the egg. Now, over a month since they were laid, two penguin eggs at the National Aviary in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania are ready to hatch. As Gizmodo reports, the baby birds will make their grand debut live for the world to see on the zoo's website.

The live stream follows couple Sidney and Bette in their nest, waiting for their young to emerge. The first egg was laid November 7 and is expected to hatch between December 14 and 18. The second, laid November 11, should hatch between December 18 and 22.

"We are thrilled to give the public this inside view of the arrival of these rare chicks," National Aviary executive director Cheryl Tracy said in a statement. "This is an important opportunity to raise awareness of a critically endangered species that is in rapid decline in the wild, and to learn about the work that the National Aviary is doing to care for and propagate African penguins."

African penguins are endangered, with less than 25,000 pairs left in the wild today. The National Aviary, the only independent indoor nonprofit aviary in the U.S., works to conserve threatened populations and raise awareness of them with bird breeding programs and educational campaigns.

After Sidney and Bette's new chicks are born, they will care for them in the nest for their first three weeks of life. The two penguins are parenting pros at this point: The monogamous couple has already hatched and raised three sets of chicks together.

[h/t Gizmodo]

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