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11 Strange Things You Might Put In Your Gas Tank

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With gas prices continuing to jump up and down, there's increasing attention on finding viable alternative fuels. You may know all about electric cars or natural gas, but what about the coffee car? Here are some unusual alternative fuels that could find their way into your gas tank -- and a few that shouldn't.

1. Coffee

A British team (the same people behind the BBC show Bang Goes The Theory) outfitted a 1988 Volkswagen Scirocco to run on coffee grounds, arguing that because coffee contains some carbon it would make a viable fuel. Hopped up on java, the car ended up breaking a speed record for organic waste vehicles, but was not the most efficient vehicle available. It cost far more than simply powering with gasoline and the drivers had to stop every 30 to 45 minutes to clear out filters in the engine.

2. Water

A Pakistani scientist made waves earlier this month by claiming to have developed a car that runs only on water, by splitting the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The revelation could be huge for clean-fuel cars and for Pakistan's energy crisis. The only problem? Scientists say it can't be true. The claim has been widely debunked as untrue, essentially because extracting energy from just water requires another powerful energy source. It's far from the first time somebody's claimed to have built a water-powered car -- similar boasts have been made since at least the 1930s, but none have been borne out.

3. Chocolate

Finally, a car Cathy can get behind. Bacteria can use fuel from a variety of sugar waste, including chocolate, to produce hyrdrogen and generate power. That theory has even been put to the test, when a group of researchers at England's University of Warwick built a racing car that ran on chocolate and was built entirely from recycled sources. The WorldFirst Formula 3 car -- which also used components from vegetables in the body -- used a biodiesel engine that ran on chocolate waste and vegetable oil.

4. Nothing but Air

Compressed air cars work much the same way as a steam engine, but using electric power to push the compressed air through a piston engine. With refueling only involving replacing an air tank, and no emissions, the cars may sound like a great alternative. But researchers say that the energy process isn't efficient and ends up losing enough energy that it's not more effective than an electric vehicle (and powering the electricity with a coal mix ends up producing more emissions than a gas-powered car). Still, a number of automakers are working on air-powered cars, notably Honda and India's Tata Motors.

5. Sawdust

Sawdust is one of the many potential feedstocks for biofuels, because it can be heated into liquid form before it starts to burn. With a few additions or a gasifier attached to an engine, sawdust can effectively power a car. However, the process is still years away and researchers say it would take far more supply than is currently available to make sawdust viable as a fuel source.

6. Straw

Like sawdust, straw is another potential biofuel source that wouldn't compete with existing food stock -- a constant concern for corn-based ethanol. Researchers are also looking at woodchips, corn stalks and grass as other possible sources.

7. Styrofoam

A team at Iowa State University is studying a way to turn plastic waste into fuel by dissolving the polystyrene in Styrofoam and other plastics into biodiesel. At low concentrations, the plastic-blended fuel worked well in engines for electricity generation, although at a certain point it got too thick and caused overheating. The emissions from the engine were also dirtier than normal because of the polymers in the plastic, so researchers are working to refine the process and clean the fuel up.

8. Cooking Grease

The idea of using vegetable oil as a biodiesel has been around for a long time. Even Rudolf Diesel intended for his engine to someday run on vegetable oil so farmers would have a regular supply. Nowadays, vegetable oil would be plentiful from restaurants, which are already discarding used cooking oils, and would burn far cleaner than petroleum. But outside of some self-modified cars, so-called "french fry cars" have not made much headway because the oil can be volatile in extreme temperatures.

9. Diapers

Any manner of garbage could be used to create fuel during the pyrolysis process (similar to incineration, except instead of burning the waste it is instead heated until it breaks down into byproducts), but disposable diapers offer a plentiful and never-ending supply. Quebec company AMEC is already working on using diapers in its power plants because of the plentiful supply and the ability to fine-tune machines to use every part of the diaper.

10. Human Fat

In 2008, Beverly Hills cosmetic surgeon Dr. Craig Alan Bittner claimed that he had figured out an unusual use for the discarded fat from liposuctions -- he was using it to power his SUV and his girlfriend's Lincoln Navigator. While human fat could be tweaked to become biodiesel, most questioned Bittner's claims. WIred pointed out that to use fat, there would need to be a diesel engine and the Navigator did not have a diesel option. The state of California ended up investigating (gas replacement isn't an authorized use for human waste) and Bittner ended up facing lawsuits alleging that unauthorized staff had worked on patients.

11. Ammonia

Anhydrous ammonia, which can be used as a fertilizer, also has the potential to be burned in an internal combustion engine with little or no emissions. However, ammonia's energy density is less than half that of gasoline, so the range would be quite limited, and there are concerns about any emissions it does produce being potentially harmful when inhaled. Still, that hasn't stopped researchers from trying to figure out a way to use it. Even the Defense Department was experimenting with ammonia-fueled vehicles in the 1960s.

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Feeling Down? Lifting Weights Can Lift Your Mood, Too
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There’s plenty of research that suggests that exercise can be an effective treatment for depression. In some cases of depression, in fact—particularly less-severe ones—scientists have found that exercise can be as effective as antidepressants, which don’t work for everyone and can come with some annoying side effects. Previous studies have largely concentrated on aerobic exercise, like running, but new research shows that weight lifting can be a useful depression treatment, too.

The study in JAMA Psychiatry, led by sports scientists at the University of Limerick in Ireland, examined the results of 33 previous clinical trials that analyzed a total of 1877 participants. It found that resistance training—lifting weights, using resistance bands, doing push ups, and any other exercises targeted at strengthening muscles rather than increasing heart rate—significantly reduced symptoms of depression.

This held true regardless of how healthy people were overall, how much of the exercises they were assigned to do, or how much stronger they got as a result. While the effect wasn’t as strong in blinded trials—where the assessors don’t know who is in the control group and who isn’t, as is the case in higher-quality studies—it was still notable. According to first author Brett Gordon, these trials showed a medium effect, while others showed a large effect, but both were statistically significant.

The studies in the paper all looked at the effects of these training regimes on people with mild to moderate depression, and the results might not translate to people with severe depression. Unfortunately, many of the studies analyzed didn’t include information on whether or not the patients were taking antidepressants, so the researchers weren’t able to determine what role medications might play in this. However, Gordon tells Mental Floss in an email that “the available evidence supports that [resistance training] may be an effective alternative and/or adjuvant therapy for depressive symptoms that could be prescribed on its own and/or in conjunction with other depression treatments,” like therapy or medication.

There haven’t been a lot of studies yet comparing whether aerobic exercise or resistance training might be better at alleviating depressive symptoms, and future research might tackle that question. Even if one does turn out to be better than the other, though, it seems that just getting to the gym can make a big difference.

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Uncombable Hair Syndrome Is a Real—and Very Rare—Genetic Condition
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Everyone has bad hair days from time to time, but for roughly 100 people around the world, unmanageable hair is an actual medical condition.

Uncombable hair syndrome, also known as spun glass hair syndrome, is a rare condition caused by a genetic mutation that affects the formation and shape of hair shafts, BuzzFeed reports. People with the condition tend to have dry, unruly hair that can't be combed flat. It grows slower than normal and is typically silver, blond, or straw-colored. For some people, the symptoms disappear with age.

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Although there have been only about 100 documented cases worldwide, one of the world's leading researchers on the condition, Regina Betz, of Germany's University of Bonn, believes there could be thousands of others who have it but have not been diagnosed. Some have speculated that Einstein had the condition, but without a genetic test, it's impossible to know for sure.

An 18-month-old American girl named Taylor McGowan is one of the few people with this syndrome. Her parents sent blood samples to Betz to see if they were carriers of the gene mutation, and the results came back positive for variations of PADI3, one of three genes responsible for the syndrome. According to IFL Science, the condition is recessive, meaning that it "only presents when individuals receive mutant gene copies from both parents." Hence it's so uncommon.

Taylor's parents have embraced their daughter's unique 'do, creating a Facebook page called Baby Einstein 2.0 to share Taylor's story and educate others about the condition.

"It's what makes her look ever so special, just like Albert Einstein," Taylor's mom, Cara, says in a video uploaded to YouTube by SWNS TV. "We wanted to share her story with the world in hopes of spreading awareness."

[h/t BuzzFeed]

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