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How Do Glowsticks Glow?

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Picture an atom. Now picture that atom getting excited. Maybe its birthday is coming up. Anyway, when an atom or a molecule gets excited, its electrons' energy levels go up. When the electrons fall back down to their normal state, they release energy in the form of photons, a basic unit of light.

For most of the lights we make and use, those excited atoms release heat as well as light when they’re coming back down. Sometimes you want the latter without the former, a “cold light” like the kind made by fireflies. In the early 1960s, U.S. military and industry scientists knew that the key to making cold light on their own was chemiluminescence, the emission of light from chemical reactions. They just weren’t sure which materials and reactions they were after (luminol had been around for a little while, but had limited applications).

Edwin Chandross, a chemist at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, N.J., was one of the researchers working on the problem.

He wondered if peroxides – chemical compounds with an oxygen-oxygen single bond that could potentially liberate a lot of energy in some reactions - might do the trick. He tried a few experiments and found that hydrogen peroxide combined with oxalyl chloride and a fluorescent dye produced the cold chemical light he was after. The reaction’s efficiency was only about 0.1% (far short of fireflies’ near 90%), but it was a start.

Chandross began corresponding with Michael Rauhut at American Cyanamid in Stamford, Connecticut, and Rauhut’s team expanded on Chandross’ research, searching for ways to make the light bright enough for practical use. They eventually came up a diphenyl oxalate ester that reacted with hydrogen peroxide to make a bright light, trademarked their creation as Cyalume, and rolled it out on the market.

The reaction that happens inside a glowstick goes a little something like this:

- The typical glowstick contains an oxalate ester and dye solution within a plastic stick, and hydrogen peroxide within a small, fragile vial in the middle of the stick.

- When you bend the stick, the vial breaks open, and all the chemicals come together. The oxalate ester and hydrogen peroxide react, sometimes with the help of a catalyst, to form a peroxyacid ester and phenol.

- The peroxyacid ester decomposes to form more phenol and carbon dioxide, producing energy that excites all the molecules floating around in this little party, which then release photons, making the stick glow.

Since the glowstick’s invention, researchers have been fiddling around with this reaction, searching for fluorescing dyes to make different colors (green and yellow are said to be easy to make, while a good purple is near impossible) and adjusting the concentrations of the chemicals to brighten the glow or prolong its life.

American Cyanamid eventually sold its chemical light division, Omniglow. The R&D department there has continued to expand the uses and capabilities of glowsticks, creating luminescent intubating scopes and researching more efficient reactions and glow sticks that work at below-freezing temperatures.

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Big Questions
Why Do Cats Freak Out After Pooping?
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Cats often exhibit some very peculiar behavior, from getting into deadly combat situations with their own tail to pouncing on unsuspecting humans. Among their most curious habits: running from their litter box like a greyhound after moving their bowels. Are they running from their own fecal matter? Has waste elimination prompted a sense of euphoria?

Experts—if anyone is said to qualify as an expert in post-poop moods—aren’t exactly sure, but they’ve presented a number of entertaining theories. From a biological standpoint, some animal behaviorists suspect that a cat bolting after a deposit might stem from fears that a predator could track them based on the smell of their waste. But researchers are quick to note that they haven’t observed cats run from their BMs in the wild.

Biology also has a little bit to do with another theory, which postulates that cats used to getting their rear ends licked by their mother after defecating as kittens are showing off their independence by sprinting away, their butts having taken on self-cleaning properties in adulthood.

Not convinced? You might find another idea more plausible: Both humans and cats have a vagus nerve running from their brain stem. In both species, the nerve can be stimulated by defecation, leading to a pleasurable sensation and what some have labeled “poo-phoria,” or post-poop elation. In running, the cat may simply be working off excess energy brought on by stimulation of the nerve.

Less interesting is the notion that notoriously hygienic cats may simply want to shake off excess litter or fecal matter by running a 100-meter dash, or that a digestive problem has led to some discomfort they’re attempting to flee from. The fact is, so little research has been done in the field of pooping cat mania that there’s no universally accepted answer. Like so much of what makes cats tick, a definitive motivation will have to remain a mystery.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Big Questions
Why Do Baseball Managers Wear Uniforms?
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Basketball and hockey coaches wear business suits on the sidelines. Football coaches wear team-branded shirts and jackets and often ill-fitting pleated khakis. Why are baseball managers the only guys who wear the same outfit as their players?

According to John Thorn, the official historian of Major League Baseball since 2011, it goes back to the earliest days of the game. Back then, the person known as the manager was the business manager: the guy who kept the books in order and the road trips on schedule. Meanwhile, the guy we call the manager today, the one who arranges the roster and decides when to pull a pitcher, was known as the captain. In addition to managing the team on the field, he was usually also on the team as a player. For many years, the “manager” wore a player’s uniform simply because he was a player. There were also a few captains who didn’t play for the team and stuck to making decisions in the dugout, and they usually wore suits.

With the passing of time, it became less common for the captain to play, and on most teams they took on strictly managerial roles. Instead of suits proliferating throughout America’s dugouts, though, non-playing captains largely hung on to the tradition of wearing a player's uniform. By the early to mid 20th century, wearing the uniform was the norm for managers, with a few notable exceptions. The Philadelphia Athletics’s Connie Mack and the Brooklyn Dodgers’s Burt Shotton continued to wear suits and ties to games long after it fell out of favor (though Shotton sometimes liked to layer a team jacket on top of his street clothes). Once those two retired, it’s been uniforms as far as the eye can see.

The adherence to the uniform among managers in the second half of the 20th century leads some people to think that MLB mandates it, but a look through the official major league rules [PDF] doesn’t turn up much on a manager’s dress. Rule 1.11(a) (1) says that “All players on a team shall wear uniforms identical in color, trim and style, and all players’ uniforms shall include minimal six-inch numbers on their backs" and rule 2.00 states that a coach is a "team member in uniform appointed by the manager to perform such duties as the manager may designate, such as but not limited to acting as base coach."

While Rule 2.00 gives a rundown of the manager’s role and some rules that apply to them, it doesn’t specify that they’re uniformed. Further down, Rule 3.15 says that "No person shall be allowed on the playing field during a game except players and coaches in uniform, managers, news photographers authorized by the home team, umpires, officers of the law in uniform and watchmen or other employees of the home club." Again, nothing about the managers being uniformed.

All that said, Rule 2.00 defines the bench or dugout as “the seating facilities reserved for players, substitutes and other team members in uniform when they are not actively engaged on the playing field," and makes no exceptions for managers or anyone else. While the managers’ duds are never addressed anywhere else, this definition does seem to necessitate, in a roundabout way, that managers wear a uniform—at least if they want to have access to the dugout. And, really, where else would they sit?

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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