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Who Invented the Knuckleball?

RAY STUBBLEBINE/Reuters/Landov

New York Mets pitcher R.A. Dickey, the only active major leaguer who throws a knuckleball, hasn’t allowed an earned run in 42 2/3 innings and recently became the first pitcher since 1988 to throw back-to-back one-hitters. The 37-year-old, who looks to continue his mastery of opposing hitters on Sunday against the Yankees, is reinventing himself with a pitch that dates back more than a century. The question of who invented the knuckleball, though, is the subject of some debate.

Just Another Slow Ball?

Pitchers have used a variety of slow pitches and deceptive deliveries to fool batters for as long as the game has been played. Old Hoss Radbourn, who had an impressive fastball, perfected his slow delivery during the 1881 season and taught it to Clark Griffith. Christy Mathewson’s repertoire included a devastating slow ball called a fadeaway, which helped him win 373 games with the New York Giants from 1900-1916.

In 1908, around the time that knuckle ball (two words initially) entered the baseball lexicon, a reporter for the Reading Eagle argued that the hubbub was much ado about nothing. “While the evolution of the ‘knuckle ball’ is claimed for Nap Rucker, of Brooklyn, Lew Moren, of the Phila. Nationals, and Cicotte, of Boston, it is asserted that the ‘knuckle’ is nothing more or less than the old ‘floater,’ or ice cream ball, that melted before it reached the plate.”

In the Neyer/James Guide to Pitchers, baseball historians Rob Neyer and Bill James recognize the knuckleball, which was thrown off the knuckles or with the fingers dug into the cover of the ball, as something new. Neyer and James identify all three of the aforementioned knuckleballers – Nap Rucker, Lew Moren and Eddie Cicotte – and a fourth, Ed Summers, as the players most often credited with inventing the pitch. It might be worth adding a fifth man to that list.

Nap Rucker
George Napoleon “Nap” Rucker made his major league debut with the Brooklyn Superbas in 1907 and won 15 games as a rookie. The lefty had a blazing fastball and only occasionally used his knuckleball as a change-of-pace pitch early on. By the end of his 10-year career, Rucker, who tossed 38 shutouts, relied almost exclusively on his knuckleball.

Eddie “Knuckles” Cicotte
Born in Detroit to French parents, Cicotte appeared in three games with the Tigers in 1905. The 5-foot-9 hurler spent most of that season in Augusta, Ga., where his minor league teammates included Ty Cobb and, more important to this debate, Nap Rucker. Cicotte returned to the majors for good in 1908 with the Boston Americans. During spring training of that year, a report emerged from the Americans’ camp in Little Rock, Ark., that Cicotte had discovered a new pitch. “Cicotte has been practicing it for two years, and with assistance from [Boston veteran Jim] McGuire, believes he has mastered it,” the report read. The pitch, a darting slow ball thrown off the knuckles, became Cicotte’s livelihood. “Knuckles” finished his career with a 2.38 ERA and more than 200 wins, but he remains better known as one of the eight players banned for life for his role in the Black Sox Scandal, in which the White Sox fixed the 1919 World Series.

Lew Moren
Moren had a cup of coffee with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1903 and 1904, but didn’t break into the major leagues for good until 1907 with the Philadelphia Phillies. After he used his knuckleball to shut down his former team in a June game, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette remarked, “Moren is the first big boy in the country who has discovered how to do what many a small boy has tried to accomplish and failed at.”

Indeed, the pitch might trace its roots to Moren’s youth. “When I was a kid I often tried to work the ‘knuckle ball’ in pitching, but found that the only result I would get from trying to curve a ball was rubbing all the cuticle off the finger, without so much as half an inch of curve occurring,” he said. “In a moment of absent-mindedness, I went back to the experiments of childhood and tried the ‘knuckle ball’ again. To my amazement, the ball on being thrown that way took queer shoots. I continued to experiment with it until now I have very fair control of it.” Moren posted a 2.95 ERA and 48 wins with the Phillies from 1907-1910.

Ed Summers
Summers debuted with the Detroit Tigers in 1908 and found instant success thanks to a slightly modified knuckleball, which was sometimes referred to as a dry spitter. Unlike Rucker, Moren and Cicotte, who threw the pitch off their knuckles, Summers dug his nails into the ball. Summers explained the evolution of the pitch in a 1908 issue of Baseball Magazine titled “The Finger-Nail Ball” and excerpted by Neyer and James. “I watched Eddie Cicotte, who first used it, and followed him,” Summers said. “He rested the ball on his knuckles, but I couldn’t see the value of that, because I couldn’t control it, and one can put little speed on it. … I found by holding the ball with my finger tips and steadying it with my thumb alone I could get a peculiar break to it and send it to the batters with considerable speed and good control.” Summers didn’t consider his pitch a spitter or a knuckleball. “It’s—I don’t know what,” he said. “It’s just this.” Rheumatism ended Summers’ career after only five seasons, but his finger-nail grip became the standard for future knuckleballers, including Dickey.

Frosty Thomas
Neyer’s best guess as to the origins of the knuckleball is that Cicotte came up with the pitch, perhaps with the help of Rucker, in 1905. Summers then introduced his version. There may be more to the story, however.

As reporter (and presumably shoed) Joe Jackson explained in the Detroit Free Press in March 1908, the Tigers protested the claims from Boston and Brooklyn that the knuckle ball was invented by one of their own. “They are not claiming in the Detroit camp that the Tigers carry with them the originator of the knuckle ball, but they do maintain that on the Detroit staff is the man who showed the delivery to Cicotte, and that this Detroit twirler, Summers, got the ball from another man who was a former Tiger, and who, it is claimed, is the really, truly inventor of the style of slinging that the baseballists are most discussing at the present time,” Jackson wrote. “This man is ‘Frosty’ Thomas.”

According to Jackson, Thomas, who pitched in two major league games, spent one spring in the Augusta training camp and taught the knuckle ball to Summers and Gene Ford. Summers later explained the pitch to Cicotte, who started using it while with Indianapolis in 1906. “The delivery has brought no great fame or advancement to its inventor, if Thomas is entitled to that credit.”

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10 Things We Know About The Handmaid’s Tale Season 2
Hulu
Hulu

Though Hulu has been producing original content for more than five years now, 2017 turned out to be a banner year for the streaming network with the debut of The Handmaid’s Tale on April 26, 2017. The dystopian drama, based on Margaret Atwood’s 1985 book, imagines a future in which a theocratic regime known as Gilead has taken over the United States and enslaved fertile women so that the group’s most powerful couples can procreate.

If it all sounds rather bleak, that’s because it is—but it’s also one of the most impressive new series to arrive in years (as evidenced by the slew of awards it has won, including eight Emmy and two Golden Globe Awards). Fortunately, fans left wanting more don’t have that much longer to wait, as season two will premiere on Hulu in April. In the meantime, here’s everything we know about The Handmaid’s Tale’s second season.

1. IT WILL PREMIERE WITH TWO EPISODES.

When The Handmaid’s Tale returns on April 25, 2018, Hulu will release the first two of its 13 new episodes on premiere night, then drop another new episode every Wednesday.

2. MARGARET ATWOOD WILL CONTINUE TO HELP SHAPE THE NARRATIVE.

Fans of Atwood’s novel who didn’t like that season one went beyond the original source material are in for some more disappointment in season two, as the narrative will again go beyond the scope of what Atwood covered. But creator/showrunner Bruce Miller doesn’t necessarily agree with the criticism they received in season one.

“People talk about how we're beyond the book, but we're not really," Miller told Newsweek. "The book starts, then jumps 200 years with an academic discussion at the end of it, about what's happened in those intervening 200 years. We're not going beyond the novel. We're just covering territory [Atwood] covered quickly, a bit more slowly.”

Even more importantly, Miller's got Atwood on his side. The author serves as a consulting producer on the show, and the title isn’t an honorary one. For Miller, Atwood’s input is essential to shaping the show, particularly as it veers off into new territories. And they were already thinking about season two while shooting season one. “Margaret and I had started to talk about the shape of season two halfway through the first [season],” he told Entertainment Weekly.

In fact, Miller said that when he first began working on the show, he sketched out a full 10 seasons worth of storylines. “That’s what you have to do when you’re taking on a project like this,” he said.

3. MOTHERHOOD WILL BE A CENTRAL THEME.

As with season one, motherhood is a key theme in the series. And June/Offred’s pregnancy will be one of the main plotlines. “So much of [Season 2] is about motherhood,” Elisabeth Moss said during the Television Critics Association press tour. “Bruce and I always talked about the impending birth of this child that’s growing inside her as a bit of a ticking time bomb, and the complications of that are really wonderful to explore. It’s a wonderful thing to have a baby, but she’s having it potentially in this world that she may not want to bring it into. And then, you know, if she does have the baby, the baby gets taken away from her and she can’t be its mother. So, obviously, it’s very complicated and makes for good drama. But, it’s a very big part of this season, and it gets bigger and bigger as the show goes on.”

4. THE RESISTANCE IS COMING.

Just because June is pregnant, don’t expect her to sit on the sidelines as the resistance to Gilead continues. “There is more than one way to resist," Moss said. “There is resistance within [June], and that is a big part of this season.”

5. WE’LL GET TO SEE THE COLONIES.

A scene from 'The Handmaid's Tale'
Hulu

Miller, understandably, isn’t eager to share too many details about the new season. “I’m not being cagey!” he swore to Entertainment Weekly. “I just want the viewers to experience it for themselves!” What he did confirm is that the new season will bring us to the colonies—reportedly in episode two—and show what life is like for those who have been sent there.

It will also delve further into what life is like for the refugees who managed to escape Gilead, like Luke and Moira.

6. MARISA TOMEI WILL APPEAR IN AN EPISODE.

Though she won’t be a regular cast member, Miller recently announced that Oscar winner Marisa Tomei will make a guest appearance in the new season’s second episode. Yes, the one that will show us the Colonies. In fact, that’s where we’ll meet her; Tomei is playing the wife of a Commander.

7. WE’LL LEARN MORE ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF GILEAD.

As a group shrouded in secrecy, we still don’t know much about how and where Gilead began. That will change a bit in season two. When discussing some of the questions viewers will have answered, executive producer Warren Littlefield promised that, "How did Gilead come about? How did this happen?” would be two of them. “We get to follow the historical creation of this world,” he said.

8. THERE WILL BE AT LEAST ONE HANDMAID FUNERAL.

A scene from 'The Handmaid's Tale'
Hulu

While Miller wouldn’t talk about who the handmaids are mourning in a teaser shot from season two that shows a handmaid’s funeral, he was excited to talk about creating the look for the scene. “Everything from the design of their costumes to the way they look is so chilling,” Miller told Entertainment Weekly. “These scenes that are so beautiful, while set in such a terrible place, provide the kind of contrast that makes me happy.”

9. ELISABETH MOSS SAYS THE TONE WILL BE DARKER.

Like season one, Miller says that The Handmaid’s Tale's second season will again balance its darker, dystopian themes with glimpses of hopefulness. “I think the first season had very difficult things, and very hopeful things, and I think this season is exactly the same way,” he told the Los Angeles Times. “There come some surprising moments of real hope and victory, and strength, that come from surprising places.”

Moss, however, has a different opinion. “It's a dark season,” she told reporters at TCA. “I would say arguably it's darker than Season 1—if that's possible.”

10. IT WILL ALSO BE BLOODIER.

A scene from 'The Handmaid's Tale'
Hulu

When pressed about how the teaser images for the new season seemed to feature a lot of blood, Miller conceded: “Oh gosh, yeah. There may be a little more blood this season.”

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NUS Environmental Research Institute, Subnero
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Researchers in Singapore Deploy Robot Swans to Test Water Quality
NUS Environmental Research Institute, Subnero
NUS Environmental Research Institute, Subnero

There's something peculiar about the new swans floating around reservoirs in Singapore. They drift across the water like normal birds, but upon closer inspection, onlookers will find they're not birds at all: They're cleverly disguised robots designed to test the quality of the city's water.

As Dezeen reports, the high-tech waterfowl, dubbed NUSwan (New Smart Water Assessment Network), are the work of researchers at the National University of Singapore [PDF]. The team invented the devices as a way to tackle the challenges of maintaining an urban water source. "Water bodies are exposed to varying sources of pollutants from urban run-offs and industries," they write in a statement. "Several methods and protocols in monitoring pollutants are already in place. However, the boundaries of extensive assessment for the water bodies are limited by labor intensive and resource exhaustive methods."

By building water assessment technology into a plastic swan, they're able to analyze the quality of the reservoirs cheaply and discreetly. Sensors on the robots' undersides measure factors like dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll levels. The swans wirelessly transmit whatever data they collect to the command center on land, and based on what they send, human pilots can remotely tweak the robots' performance in real time. The hope is that the simple, adaptable technology will allow researchers to take smarter samples and better understand the impact of the reservoir's micro-ecosystem on water quality.

Man placing robotic swan in water.
NUS Environmental Research Institute, Subnero

This isn't the first time humans have used robots disguised as animals as tools for studying nature. Check out this clip from the BBC series Spy in the Wild for an idea of just how realistic these robots can get.

[h/t Dezeen]

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