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Does Being Cold Make You More Susceptible to Getting a Cold?

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“Put a jacket on if you’re going out there, or you’ll catch a cold.”

It’s a common refrain of grandmothers all over the world. Are they right, though? Do low temperatures have anything to do with catching the common cold? Most of the scientific evidence is strongly against her, but Granny just might be on to something.

Sure, people tend to get sick during the late fall and winter. An estimated 5 to 20 percent of Americans come down with colds or flu every year around that time, and the temperature’s supposed influence is easily seen in both the names cold and influenza (traced to the Italian influenza di freddo, or “influence of the cold”). The folk wisdom naturally goes that the two must be connected.

But, as any doctor will tell you, colds and the flu are caused by viruses that happen to surge seasonally. Scientists used to think that viruses from the temperate regions went into a dormant state during the summer months, but now they think that the viruses are actually quite busy during the “off season” and are transmitted throughout populations all over the world. A 2007 study by researchers at Pennsylvania State University found that the influenza A virus, for example, exchanges genetic information with viral strains from below the equator – theoretically in a geographic area that would act as an influenza melting pot and viral reservoir – during its globetrotting, and is reintroduced to its home turf with enough genetic differences to fool our immune systems. It’s kind of like the swallows’ annual return to San Juan Capistrano, only the swallows come back to give everyone runny noses and coughs.

Scientists still struggle, though, with what exactly triggers people getting infected with the reintroduced viruses in fall and winter. Researchers have proposed several explanations, which might work alone, simultaneously but separately, or in combination with each other. They include:

Weather and climate - The flu and colds appear to do very well in cold winter temperatures and the dry air that goes with them. They can survive longer in dry air than moist air and hold out longer on exposed surfaces (counters, doorknobs, keyboards, etc.) when they’re cold. Dry air means dehydrated mucus and drier nostrils and airways, which could make it easier for the viruses to make themselves at home once they're passed to us. A study on guinea pigs showed that the transmission of influenza is enhanced in dry (20 percent humidity), cold (41 degrees) air and declines as the temperature and humidity rise (at 86 degrees or 80 percent humidity, it wasn’t transmitted at all).

Human behavior - With school in session and people generally spending more time indoors and in close contact with each other, the viruses have an easy time being transmitted among sizable groups of hosts. Even in tropical and equatorial regions that don’t have a winter and where flu occurs throughout the year, there are spikes during the rainy season when people spend time together indoors.

Human physiology - Humans and many other mammals experience seasonal physiological changes, often tied to the light/dark cycle. In the winter, any number of tweaks to our immunity - such as a decrease in vitamin D production - could make us more susceptible to the virus for a few months out of the year.

Paging Dr. Grandma

Babcias, bubbies and nanas, it turns out, also have at least a little evidence on their side.  A few years ago, Ron Eccles, director of the Common Cold Centre in Cardiff, UK, tested the idea that getting cold or damp might activate the viruses, and found that there might be a grain of truth to folk wisdom, and that being cold could indirectly contribute to getting sick.

Eccles chilled the feet of half of his subjects in the lab, and let the other half keep their feet warm in socks and shoes. After returning to their lives, people tracked their cold symptoms in journals. After four or five days, the subjects who got cold feet in Eccles’ experiment had more than twice as many sick people among their ranks (14.4% of the group) as the control group (5.6%).

One possible explanation for Eccles' results is that cold causes vasoconstriction, or a tightening of the blood vessels. This happens especially to the vessels close to the outside world, like in your nose, throat and mouth. This slows the flow of infection-fighting white blood cells to these areas, and also leads to dryness and hinders the nose's ability to filter the air.

(An important caveat to keep in mind with Eccles’ study is that people who had been cold in the lab only reported that they had cold symptoms afterwards. No medical tests were done to confirm that they had an infection.)

All this being said, we think you should feel free to go outside without your mittens on or with wet hair, unless Grandma is actually around. The bulk of the medical research isn’t on her side, but a stern look from Nana can trump all the empirical evidence in the world.

Today we're answering 20 big questions like this one. We'll plan more days like this, so if you have something you're dying to know, leave us a comment or tweet @mental_floss with the hashtag #bigquestions.

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Big Questions
Who Was Chuck Taylor?
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From Betty Crocker to Tommy Bahama, plenty of popular labels are "named" after fake people. But one product with a bona fide backstory to its moniker is Converse's Chuck Taylor All-Star sneakers. The durable gym shoes are beloved by everyone from jocks to hipsters. But who's the man behind the cursive signature on the trademark circular ankle patch?

As journalist Abraham Aamidor recounted in his 2006 book Chuck Taylor, All Star: The True Story of the Man behind the Most Famous Athletic Shoe in History, Chuck Taylor was a former pro basketball player-turned-Converse salesman whose personal brand and tireless salesmanship were instrumental to the shoes' success.

Charles Hollis Taylor was born on July 24, 1901, and raised in southern Indiana. Basketball—the brand-new sport invented by James Naismith in 1891—was beginning to take the Hoosier State by storm. Taylor joined his high school team, the Columbus High School Bull Dogs, and was named captain.

After graduation, instead of heading off to college, Taylor launched his semi-pro career playing basketball with the Columbus Commercials. He’d go on to play for a handful of other teams across the Midwest, including the the Akron Firestone Non-Skids in Ohio, before finally moving to Chicago in 1922 to work as a sales representative for the Converse Rubber Shoe Co. (The company's name was eventually shortened to Converse, Inc.)

Founded in Malden, Massachusetts, in 1908 as a rubber shoe manufacturer, Converse first began producing canvas shoes in 1915, since there wasn't a year-round market for galoshes. They introduced their All-Star canvas sports shoes two years later, in 1917. It’s unclear whether Chuck was initially recruited to also play ball for Converse (by 1926, the brand was sponsoring a traveling team) or if he was simply employed to work in sales. However, we do know that he quickly proved himself to be indispensable to the company.

Taylor listened carefully to customer feedback, and passed on suggestions for shoe improvements—including more padding under the ball of the foot, a different rubber compound in the sole to avoid scuffs, and a patch to protect the ankle—to his regional office. He also relied on his basketball skills to impress prospective clients, hosting free Chuck Taylor basketball clinics around the country to teach high school and college players his signature moves on the court.

In addition to his myriad other job duties, Taylor played for and managed the All-Stars, a traveling team sponsored by Converse to promote their new All Star shoes, and launched and helped publish the Converse Basketball Yearbook, which covered the game of basketball on an annual basis.

After leaving the All-Stars, Taylor continued to publicize his shoe—and own personal brand—by hobnobbing with customers at small-town sporting goods stores and making “special appearances” at local basketball games. There, he’d be included in the starting lineup of a local team during a pivotal game.

Taylor’s star grew so bright that in 1932, Converse added his signature to the ankle patch of the All Star shoes. From that point on, they were known as Chuck Taylor All-Stars. Still, Taylor—who reportedly took shameless advantage of his expense account and earned a good salary—is believed to have never received royalties for the use of his name.

In 1969, Taylor was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame. The same year, he died from a heart attack on June 23, at the age of 67. Around this time, athletic shoes manufactured by companies like Adidas and Nike began replacing Converse on the court, and soon both Taylor and his namesake kicks were beloved by a different sort of customer.

Still, even though Taylor's star has faded over the decades, fans of his shoe continue to carry on his legacy: Today, Converse sells more than 270,000 pairs of Chuck Taylors a day, 365 days a year, to retro-loving customers who can't get enough of the athlete's looping cursive signature.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Big Questions
What Is the Difference Between Generic and Name Brand Ibuprofen?
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What is the difference between generic ibuprofen vs. name brands?

Yali Friedman:

I just published a paper that answers this question: Are Generic Drugs Less Safe than their Branded Equivalents?

Here’s the tl;dr version:

Generic drugs are versions of drugs made by companies other than the company which originally developed the drug.

To gain FDA approval, a generic drug must:

  • Contain the same active ingredients as the innovator drug (inactive ingredients may vary)
  • Be identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration
  • Have the same use indications
  • Be bioequivalent
  • Meet the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality
  • Be manufactured under the same strict standards of FDA's good manufacturing practice regulations required for innovator products

I hope you found this answer useful. Feel free to reach out at www.thinkbiotech.com. For more on generic drugs, you can see our resources and whitepapers at Pharmaceutical strategic guidance and whitepapers

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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