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The Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert Was 20 Years Ago Today

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On April 20, 1992, a veritable “Who’s Who” (and, in a few cases, “Who’s That?”) played before 72,000 fans at London’s Wembley Stadium to celebrate the life of Freddie Mercury and to raise funds for The Mercury Phoenix Trust, an AIDS charity organization that is still active today. Tickets sold out three hours after they went on sale, before any artists other than the remaining members of Queen had been confirmed to appear. It was an emotional day for all involved, and despite the best efforts of all the performers, the fans and critics agreed that even though he appeared only in video clips on the giant screens, it was Freddie himself who, one last time, stole the show. Here’s just a very brief recap of some of the more memorable performances that day:

Axl Rose and Elton John

Just days after Freddie’s funeral, Axl Rose phoned the Queen Productions office in London and told the band’s manager (regarding any sort of future tribute), “I don’t know what you guys are gonna do, but I’m in.” Rose had mentioned in a 1989 Rolling Stone interview that while growing up he’d always buy the latest Queen album when it was released, and that Queen II was his favorite. The Guns N’ Roses frontman was infamous for his many homophobic slurs in the press, so it was a particularly poignant moment during “Bohemian Rhapsody” when he embraced Elton John onstage.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4T_naBRNLlo

George Michael

Michael’s note-perfect recreation of Freddie’s live version of “Somebody to Love” convinced fans that this man probably spent many childhood hours in the mirror singing Queen songs into a hairbrush. Michael’s Tribute Concert performance was released on an EP called Five Live in 1993 and went to Number One on the UK charts.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYAR8RigqDA

Extreme

Extreme had always listed Queen as one of their main influences, and that fact was never more obvious than during the Freddie Tribute Concert. Taking their cue from Queen’s Live Aid performance, they played a medley of hits that showed off their tight vocal harmonies. They also tossed in a snippet of fan favorite “Mustapha,” using it to segue into “Bohemian Rhapsody” as Freddie often did on tour.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00L_4GhiAJA

Robert Plant

One bittersweet treat for fans was hearing later Queen songs – those recorded after the band had stopped touring – performed live for the first time. Former Led Zeppelin frontman Robert Plant gamely attempted “Innuendo” (the epic title song from the last Queen album released during Freddie’s lifetime), reading the lyrics from sheets taped to the stage floor. Plant had been just one of many stars who’d asked aloud during rehearsals, “How did he (Freddie) hit these notes?!” The Zep classics “Thank You” and “Kashmir” were less of a strain for his vocal range and after nailing those tunes he visibly relaxed before launching into “Crazy Little Thing Called Love.”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7LM9s3Lm4A&feature=related

Roger Daltrey

Who singer Daltrey, no slouch himself when it comes to showmanship, described Freddie as “the best virtuoso rock 'n' roll singer of all time.” Roger chose to sing “I Want It All,” another tune that Queen had not previously performed live, and did a credible job with it. Tony Iommi of Black Sabbath was also on hand adding his signature guitar wizardry.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXO6BYFDiC8

David Bowie

For a time after “Under Pressure” was released in 1981, Queen guitarist Brian May often imperiously referred to David as “Mr. Bowie” with just a hint of derision. Apparently during their time in the studio together, May got the feeling that Mr. Bowie was rather dismissive of guitarists in general. Luckily that hatchet was eventually buried and Bowie was welcomed to the Tribute Concert. He sang his own hit, “Heroes,” accompanied by former bandmate Mick Ronson on guitar. The two hadn’t performed together since 1973, and by this time Ronson was very ill with liver cancer (he would succumb just a year later). Between songs, Bowie knelt down and recited The Lord’s Prayer in tribute to both Freddie and another friend who was ill with AIDS at the time. Shrugged a confused May afterward, “He didn’t do that during rehearsals.”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0fTEll9Fzk

Liza Minelli

Judy Garland’s daughter may have seemed like an unusual choice to sing “We Are the Champions” to the casual viewer, but Queen fans knew that the Broadway legend was one of Freddie’s main influences. “Liza, in terms of sheer talent, just oozes with it. She has sheer energy and stamina,” he once enthused in an interview.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwLoK0P-zpA

You can see who else performed that day over on Wikipedia. Forty years after their first album was released, Queen’s back catalog is still selling strongly. What’s your favorite Queen song? If you were organizing a similar tribute concert today, what song would you assign to, say, Lady Gaga? Or Adele? Or….(fill in the blank)?

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
A Chinese Museum Is Offering Cash to Whoever Can Decipher These 3000-Year-Old Inscriptions

During the 19th century, farmers in China’s Henan Province began discovering oracle bones—engraved ox scapulae and tortoise shells used by Shang Dynasty leaders for record-keeping and divination purposes—while plowing their fields. More bones were excavated in subsequent years, and their inscriptions were revealed to be the earliest known form of systematic writing in East Asia. But over the decades, scholars still haven’t come close to cracking half of the mysterious script’s roughly 5000 characters—which is why one Chinese museum is asking member of the public for help, in exchange for a generous cash reward.

As Atlas Obscura reports, the National Museum of Chinese Writing in Anyang, Henan Province has offered to pay citizen researchers about $15,000 for each unknown character translated, and $7500 if they provide a disputed character’s definitive meaning. Submissions must be supported with evidence, and reviewed by at least two language specialists.

The museum began farming out their oracle bone translation efforts in Fall 2016. The costly ongoing project has hit a stalemate, and scholars hope that the public’s collective smarts—combined with new advances in technology, including cloud computing and big data—will yield new information and save them research money.

As of today, more than 200,000 oracle bones have been discovered—around 50,000 of which bear text—so scholars still have a lot to learn about the Shang Dynasty. Many of the ancient script's characters are difficult to verify, as they represent places and people from long ago. However, decoding even just one character could lead to a substantial breakthrough, experts say: "If we interpret a noun or a verb, it can bring many scripts on oracle bones to life, and we can understand ancient history better,” Chinese history professor Zhu Yanmin told the South China Morning Post.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

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6 Eponyms Named After the Wrong Person
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Salmonella species growing on agar.

Having something named after you is the ultimate accomplishment for any inventor, mathematician, scientist, or researcher. Unfortunately, the credit for an invention or discovery does not always go to the correct person—senior colleagues sometimes snatch the glory, fakers pull the wool over people's eyes, or the fickle general public just latches onto the wrong name.

1. SALMONELLA (OR SMITHELLA?)

In 1885, while investigating common livestock diseases at the Bureau of Animal Industry in Washington, D.C., pathologist Theobald Smith first isolated the salmonella bacteria in pigs suffering from hog cholera. Smith’s research finally identified the bacteria responsible for one of the most common causes of food poisoning in humans. Unfortunately, Smith’s limelight-grabbing supervisor, Daniel E. Salmon, insisted on taking sole credit for the discovery. As a result, the bacteria was named after him. Don’t feel too sorry for Theobald Smith, though: He soon emerged from Salmon’s shadow, going on to make the important discovery that ticks could be a vector in the spread of disease, among other achievements.

2. AMERICA (OR COLUMBIANA?)

An etching of Amerigo Vespucci
Henry Guttmann/Getty Images

Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1451–1512) claimed to have made numerous voyages to the New World, the first in 1497, before Columbus. Textual evidence suggests Vespucci did take part in a number of expeditions across the Atlantic, but generally does not support the idea that he set eyes on the New World before Columbus. Nevertheless, Vespucci’s accounts of his voyages—which today read as far-fetched—were hugely popular and translated into many languages. As a result, when German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller was drawing his map of the Novus Mundi (or New World) in 1507 he marked it with the name "America" in Vespucci’s honor. He later regretted the choice, omitting the name from future maps, but it was too late, and the name stuck.

3. BLOOMERS (OR MILLERS?)

A black and white image of young women wearing bloomers
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Dress reform became a big issue in mid-19th century America, when women were restricted by long, heavy skirts that dragged in the mud and made any sort of physical activity difficult. Women’s rights activist Elizabeth Smith Miller was inspired by traditional Turkish dress to begin wearing loose trousers gathered at the ankle underneath a shorter skirt. Miller’s new outfit immediately caused a splash, with some decrying it as scandalous and others inspired to adopt the garb.

Amelia Jenks Bloomer was editor of the women’s temperance journal The Lily, and she took to copying Miller’s style of dress. She was so impressed with the new freedom it gave her that she began promoting the “reform dress” in her magazine, printing patterns so others might make their own. Bloomer sported the dress when she spoke at events and soon the press began to associate the outfit with her, dubbing it “Bloomer’s costume.” The name stuck.

4. GUILLOTINE (OR LOUISETTE?)

Execution machines had been known prior to the French Revolution, but they were refined after Paris physician and politician Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin suggested they might be a more humane form of execution than the usual methods (hanging, burning alive, etc.). The first guillotine was actually designed by Dr. Antoine Louis, Secretary of the Academy of Surgery, and was known as a louisette. The quick and efficient machine was quickly adopted as the main method of execution in revolutionary France, and as the bodies piled up the public began to refer to it as la guillotine, for the man who first suggested its use. Guillotin was very distressed at the association, and when he died in 1814 his family asked the French government to change the name of the hated machine. The government refused and so the family changed their name instead to escape the dreadful association.

5. BECHDEL TEST (OR WALLACE TEST?)

Alison Bechdel
Alison Bechdel
Steve Jennings/Getty Images

The Bechdel Test is a tool to highlight gender inequality in film, television, and fiction. The idea is that in order to pass the test, the movie, show, or book in question must include at least one scene in which two women have a conversation that isn’t about a man. The test was popularized by the cartoonist Alison Bechdel in 1985 in her comic strip “Dykes to Watch Out For,” and has since become known by her name. However, Bechdel asserts that the idea originated with her friend Lisa Wallace (and was also inspired by the writer Virginia Woolf), and she would prefer for it to be known as the Bechdel-Wallace test.

6. STIGLER’S LAW OF EPONYMY (OR MERTON’S LAW?)

Influential sociologist Robert K. Merton suggested the idea of the “Matthew Effect” in a 1968 paper noting that senior colleagues who are already famous tend to get the credit for their junior colleagues’ discoveries. (Merton named his phenomenon [PDF] after the parable of talents in the Gospel of Matthew, in which wise servants invest money their master has given them.)

Merton was a well-respected academic, and when he was due to retire in 1979, a book of essays celebrating his work was proposed. One person who contributed an essay was University of Chicago professor of statistics Stephen Stigler, who had corresponded with Merton about his ideas. Stigler decided to pen an essay that celebrated and proved Merton’s theory. As a result, he took Merton’s idea and created Stigler’s Law of Eponymy, which states that “No scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer”—the joke being that Stigler himself was taking Merton’s own theory and naming it after himself. To further prove the rule, the “new” law has been adopted by the academic community, and a number of papers and articles have since been written on "Stigler’s Law."

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