CLOSE
Original image
Library of Congress

Fantastic 120-Year-Old Color Pictures of Ireland

Original image
Library of Congress

There's a lot more to the Emerald Isle than the supposed World’s Greatest Snake Exterminator. Need some proof? Just check out these photochrom prints of Ireland taken between 1890 and 1900 and organized by county, courtesy of the Library of Congress.

County Antrim

Royal Avenue, Belfast

While Belfast’s main shopping district was a popular target of IRA attacks in the seventies and eighties, most of the buildings in this image are still standing after all this time.

Rustic Bridge in Glenariff

With its picturesque trees and waterfalls, Glenariff Forest Park is quite a popular tourist destination these days. The area is nicknamed “Queen of the Glens”—the largest and most beautiful glen in the county.

Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge

Amazingly, this rope bridge linking Carrick Island to the mainland is still in use. It has become a major tourist attraction. To be fair, though, it has been redesigned and improved over the years to make it safer.

Portrush

While the beaches of Portrush are still a draw for tourists, the town is now also known for its dance clubs and Barry’s Amusements, the largest amusement park in Northern Ireland.

Giant's Causeway

You might recognize this famous icon from the cover of Led Zeppelin’s Houses of the Holy. The weird natural design is the result of an ancient volcanic eruption. The hot lava cooled so fast that it created deep, giant cracks that eventually broke into the columns you see today.

County Wicklow

Vale of Avoca

The River Avoca flows only through the County Wicklow, where it starts off as two distinct rivers and then flows together at one point, known as the Vale of Avoca. This vale is located inside the town of Avoca, pictured here.

Poulaphouca Fall

The entire center of County Wicklow is made up of the Wicklow Mountains, which are naturally adorned with a number of rivers and stunning waterfalls like this one. This particular waterfall no longer exists since the Poulaphouca Reservoir was completed in 1940.

Bray

Up until the mid-1700s, Bray was a sleepy fishing village, but as the people of Dublin started to seek sanctuary outside the crowded city, the town’s population grew quickly. By the mid-1800s the town had become the largest seaside resort in the country. These days, Bray is home to the country's only dedicated film studios, Ardmore Studios. The company has produced such classics as Excalibur and Braveheart.

The Dargle Bridge

The River Dargle is named An Deargail in Gaelic, which translates to "little red spot." While it’s not obvious in this picture, the name is a reference to the fact that most rocks in the river are tinted red.

Enniskerry

While this small town only has a population of around 2,500, its gorgeous scenery (the town is located at the foot of the Wicklow Mountains) and close proximity to Bray make it a popular tourist destination year round.

County Dublin

Shelbourne Hotel, Dublin

This beautiful hotel opened in 1824 and is still open for business, currently operating under the banner of Marriott International. The hotel even played an important role in Irish history. In 1922, it served as the meeting place for the creators of the Irish Constitution and room 112, where it was drafted, is now fittingly known as The Constitution Room.

St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin

Officially known as the Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Patrick, this icon of Ireland was founded all the way back in 1191 and now serves as the National Cathedral of Ireland. It also holds the record for the tallest church in Ireland, boasting a spire that stands 140 feet tall.

Phoenix Park, Dublin

No, this isn’t an early picture of the Washington Monument. The obelisk in the background is instead the Wellington Monument, found in Phoenix Park, Dublin. The obelisk is the tallest in Europe and is dedicated to the great deeds of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.

County Cork

Roches Royal Hotel, Glengarriff Harbor

While this particular hotel may no longer be in business, the small town of Glengarriff (population 800) is still a popular tourist destination providing seaside views adorned with paired high mountain peaks and quaint peat bogs scattered across the town.

Glengarriff Harbor

The town is named for the Glengarriff Forest, Gleann Garbh in Gaelic, which means "rough glen.” The forest is indeed home to a rough glen and some of the oldest oak and birch groves left in Ireland.

Blackrock Castle

Blackrock Castle was originally constructed as a fort intended to keep away pirates and other potential threats. While a few remains of the original building still stand, most of it was destroyed in a fire in 1827 and replaced with the current structure that was completed in 1829. While the castle was used for a variety of purposes throughout the ages, it now serves as Ireland’s first fully interactive astronomy center, which is open to the public.

County Waterford

Dungarven Bridge and Harbor

The Gaelic name for this city is Dún Garbháin, which translates to "Garbhan's fort", referring to Saint Garbhan who founded a church there in the seventh century. These days, Dungarven is the administrative center of County Waterford.

The Quays, Waterford

Waterford is the oldest city in all of Ireland, established back in 914. One thousand years later and the city is still the fifth largest in the country. Of course, these days, Waterford is best known for its crystal. Sadly, Waterford Crystal shut down its factory in the town in 2009 after operating in the town for over 225 years. Thanks to the Waterford City Council and Waterford Chamber of Commerce, though, guests can now visit The Waterford Crystal Visitor Center instead.

County Kerry

Ross Castle, Killarney

This stunning castle looks largely the same now as it did back when this picture was taken, despite the recent renovations that have allowed it to become open to the public. Back in the late 1400s, this castle was one of the strongest military posts in the country. In fact, during the Irish Confederate Wars of the 1600s, it was one of the last castles to surrender; the leader of the battle only did so after the castle was attacked via water—something no one inside the stronghold saw coming.

Original image
TopTenRealEstateDeals.com
arrow
This Just In
A Connecticut Farm Purchased by Mark Twain for His Daughter, Jean Clemens, Is Up for Sale
Original image
TopTenRealEstateDeals.com

Mark Twain—whose wit was matched only by his wanderlust—had many homes throughout his life: a small frame house in Hannibal, Missouri; a Victorian mansion in Hartford, Connecticut; and "Stormfield," a country estate in Redding, Connecticut, just to name a few. Now, the Connecticut Post reports that a farm adjacent to Stormfield, purchased in 1909 by Twain for his daughter, Jean Clemens, is up for sale.

“Jean’s Farm,” as Twain nicknamed the home, is priced at $1,850,000. In addition to a storied literary legacy, the refurbished five-bedroom estate has a saltwater swimming pool, a movie theater, and a children’s play area. It sits on nearly 19 acres of land, making the property “well-sized for a gentleman's farm, for horses, or as a hobby farm,” according to its real estate listing. There’s also a fish pond and a 19th-century barn with an extra apartment.

While scenic, Jean’s Farm has a bittersweet backstory: Jean Clemens, who had epilepsy, enjoyed the pastoral property for only a short time before passing away at the age of 29. She lived in a sanitarium before moving to Stormfield in April 1909, where she served as her father's secretary and housekeeper and made daily trips to her farm. On December 24, 1909, Jean died at Stormfield after suffering a seizure in a bathtub. Twain, himself, would die several months later, on April 21, 1910, at the age of 74.

Twain sold Jean’s Farm after his daughter’s death, and used the proceeds to fund a library in Redding, today called the Mark Twain Library. But despite losing a child, Twain’s years at Stormfield—his very last home—weren’t entirely colored by tragedy. “Although Twain only spent two years here [from 1908 to 1910], it was an important time in the writer’s life,” historian Brent Colely told The Wall Street Journal. “Twain was always having guests over, including his close friend Helen Keller, hosting almost 181 people for visits in the first six months alone, according to guestbooks and notations.”

Check out some photos of Jean’s Farm below, courtesy of TopTenRealEstateDeals.com:

Jean’s Farm, a property in Redding, Connecticut that author Mark Twain purchased for his daughter, Jean Clemens, in 1909.
TopTenRealEstateDeals.com

 Jean’s Farm, a property in Redding, Connecticut that author Mark Twain purchased for his daughter, Jean Clemens, in 1909.
TopTenRealEstateDeals.com

Jean’s Farm, a property in Redding, Connecticut that author Mark Twain purchased for his daughter, Jean Clemens, in 1909.
TopTenRealEstateDeals.com

Jean’s Farm, a property in Redding, Connecticut that author Mark Twain purchased for his daughter, Jean Clemens, in 1909.
TopTenRealEstateDeals.com

[h/t Connecticut Post]

Original image
iStock
arrow
History
The Dangerous History Behind the Word 'Deadline'
Original image
iStock

Nowadays, the word deadline is used all but exclusively to refer to a date or time by which something must be accomplished. But over the centuries, the term has been used in a number of different contexts: Among early 20th-century printers, for instance, a deadline was a line marked on a cylindrical press outside of which text would be illegible, while the Oxford English Dictionary has unearthed a reference to an angler’s “dead-line” dating from the mid-1800s referring to a weighted fishing line that does not move in the water.

The modern sense of deadline, however, may be influenced by a much more dangerous meaning. It originated during the Civil War, and came to prominence during the much-hyped trial of an infamous Swiss-born Confederate leader named Henry Wirz.

Wirz was born Heinrich Hartmann Wirz in Zürich in 1823. In his early twenties, a court forced him to leave Zürich for 12 years after he failed to repay borrowed money, and in 1848 he left first for Russia before eventually settling in America. After working a string of jobs at several spots around the country, Wirz married a woman named Elizabeth Wolf in 1854 and moved to Louisiana. After the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, he enlisted as a private in the Fourth Louisiana Infantry.

One of Wirz’s first engagements in the war was the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31, 1862. He was badly wounded in the fighting, losing the use of his right arm, and when he returned to his unit a few weeks later he was promoted to the rank of captain in recognition of his bravery and service. From there, Wirz rose through the ranks to become an adjutant to John H. Winder, an experienced and high-ranking general overseeing the treatment of Confederate deserters and Union prisoners. In 1864, Wirz was put in control of Camp Sumter, a newly-established internment camp for Union soldiers located near Andersonville in rural Georgia.

Over the remaining 14 months of the war, Camp Sumter grew to become one of the largest prisoner of war camps in the entire Confederacy. At its peak, it held more than 30,000 Union prisoners, all of whom shared an enormous 16.5-acre open-air paddock—conditions inside of which were notoriously grim. Disease and malnutrition were rife, and a lack of clean water, warm clothing, and adequate sanitation led to the deaths of many of the camp’s prisoners. Of the 45,000 Union prisoners held in the Camp at one time or another, it is estimated that almost a third succumbed to Sumter’s squalid and inhumane conditions.

In his defense, Wirz later claimed to have had little real control over the conditions in the camp, and it is certainly true that the day-to-day running of Camp Sumter was a disorganized affair divided among numerous different parties. Incompetence, rather than malice, may have been the cause of many of the camp's horrors.

Execution of Captain Henry Wirtz (i.e. Wirz), C.S.A, adjusting the rope
Execution of Captain Henry Wirz in 1865

In 1865, the war came to an end and Wirz was arrested in Andersonville. He was eventually sent to Washington, and held in the Old Capitol Prison to await trial before a military commission. That fall, more than 150 witnesses—including one of Wirz’s own prison staff and several former prisoners—took to the stand and gave testimony. Many provided damning evidence of Wirz’s harsh treatment of the prisoners (although historians now think some of these testimonies were exaggerated). As accounts of him withholding food and other supplies from prisoners found to have committed even minor offenses were relayed in the press—and as the full extent of the terrible conditions inside Camp Sumter became public—Wirz emerged as a much-vilified symbol of the camp’s inhumane treatment of its Union prisoners.

One of most damning examples of his inhumanity was his implementation of what became known as the Camp’s dead line:

Wirz, still wickedly pursuing his evil purpose, did establish and cause to be designated within the prison enclosure … a “dead line,” being a line around the inner face of the stockade or wall enclosing said prison, and about twenty feet distant and within said stockade; and so established said dead line, which was in many places an imaginary line, in many other places marked by insecure and shifting strips of [boards nailed] upon the tops of small and insecure stakes or posts, he … instructed the prison guard stationed around the top of said stockade to fire upon and kill any of the prisoners aforesaid who might touch, fall upon, pass over or under or across the said “dead line” ...

—Report of the Secretary of War, October 1865

In other words, this deadliest of all deadlines was a line Wirz implemented just inside the inner wall of Camp Sumter. Any prisoner wandering beyond the line would immediately be killed.

Stories like this were all the evidence the court needed: Wirz was found guilty of violating the rights of wartime prisoners, and was hanged on the morning of November 10, 1865.

Widespread press reports of Wirz’s trial and the horrors of Camp Sumter soon led to the word deadline being popularized, and eventually it passed into everyday use—thankfully in a less severe sense.

By the early 20th century, the word’s military connotations had all but disappeared and the familiar meaning of the deadlines we meet—or miss—today emerged by the early 1920s.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios