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8 Female Fighters of World War II

March is Women's History Month, so it's a good time for the overdue followup to the previous post 11 Women Warriors of World War II. Here are eight more women who bravely contributed to the Allied victory in World War II.

1. Lise Børsum: Refugee Smuggler

Lise Børsum was a Norwegian housewife married to an Oslo physician. During World War II she became active in smuggling Jews out of Nazi-occupied nations into Sweden, often through her own home. She and her husband both were arrested in 1943. The doctor was soon released, but Lise Børsum was sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp in Germany where she stayed until liberated by the Swedish Red Cross in 1945. Børsum's time in captivity politicized her, and she wrote a book about her arrest, interrogation, and imprisonment that became a best seller. She also served on the National Council Fund to help victims of the war and on a commission to detect and end concentration camps in nations the world over. Børsum kept up her writing and humanitarian work until shortly before her death in 1985. Her daughter Bente became an actress and wrote and performed a stage show about her mother in Norway.

2. Barbara Lauwers: Propaganda Warrior

Barbara Lauwers was born in Czechoslovakia, earned a law degree, and moved to the U.S. with her husband in 1941. She became an American citizen in 1943 and then immediately joined the Women's Army Corps. Lauwers was assigned to the OSS, the precursor of the CIA. In 1944, she was involved in Operation Sauerkraut, which was a propaganda assault to demoralize German soldiers. Fluent in five languages, Lauwers worked to turn German POWs into operatives, and trained them to disseminate rumors among the German Army after their release from Allied custody. Operation Sauerkraut was quite successful, and Lauwers continued to design and supervise propaganda operations in the the European theatre. She trained POWs to gather intelligence and report back to the Allies. Lauwers earned a Bronze Star for convincing six hundred Czech soldiers to turn to the Allies by her propaganda efforts.

3. Annie Fox: Pearl Harbor Nurse

Lt. Annie G. Fox was the chief nurse on duty at Hickam Air Field in Hawaii on December 7, 1941. Fox went into action as the Japanese attack sent wounded soldiers into the hospital while shells continued to fall. For her tireless efforts during and after the attack, Fox became the first woman ever to receive a Purple Heart. The citation read, in part:

“outstanding performance of duty and meritorious acts of extraordinary fidelity. . . During the attack, Lieutenant Fox, in an exemplary manner, performed her duties as head Nurse of the Station Hospital. . . in addition she administered anaesthesia to patients during the heaviest part of the bombardment, assisted in dressing the wounded, taught civilian volunteer nurses to make dressings, and worked ceaselessly with coolness and efficiency, and her fine example of calmness, courage and leadership was of great benefit to the morale of all with whom she came in contact...”

In 1944, when the requirements for the Purple Heart were changed to require battle wounds, the medal was rescinded and Fox was awarded the Bronze Star in its place. Because of Fox's precedent as the first women to receive the Purple Heart, some sources say that she was wounded at Pearl Harbor, but she was not.

4. Violette Szabo: Fearless Spy

Violette Bushell Szabo was raised in England in a British-French family. In 1940, she married French Foreign Legion officer Etienne Szabo. Two years and one daughter later, Etienne was killed in action, and Violette was determined to avenge his death. In 1943, Violette Szabo was recruited by the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) and trained as a courier. Her first mission to France was in April of 1944, during which she reorganized a resistance unit, sabotaged roads and bridges, and sent back reports by radio. Szabo was arrested twice, and talked her way out both times. Her second mission in June was just after the D-Day invasion. Szabo parachuted into France, led a local resistance unit in sabotaging German communications, and then encountered a roadblock. She was arrested and interrogated under torture, but gave up no damaging information. Szabo was transferred several times, ultimately to Ravensbrück concentration camp in Germany in August 1944. Even in captivity, Szabo managed to serve other prisoners, saved at least one spy's life, and planned an escape that was uncovered at the last minute. In January of 1945, she and two other SOE agents were executed by an SS officer. Szabo was posthumously awarded the George Cross and an MBE from Britain, and the Croix de Guerre and Médaille de la Résistance from France. Szabo's exploits are recorded in several biographies and at least one film, Carve Her Name With Pride.

5. Hannie Schaft: Dutch Resistance Fighter

Hannie Schaft was a Dutch resistance fighter. Born Jannetje Johanna Schaft in 1920, she had to drop out of her university studies because she refused to sign an oath of loyalty to the Nazis. She joined a resistance organization called the Raad van Verzet, which leaned toward a communist philosophy. Schaft spied on German soldiers, aided refugees, and committed sabotage. She became known as "the girl with the red hair," although she later colored it after her identity was disclosed. In March of 1945, Schaft was arrested at a German checkpoint. They didn't know they had arrested the infamous girl with the red hair until later when her roots began to grow out. That identification led to her execution on April 17. The story goes that the first soldier who shot merely wounded her in the head, and Schaft cried that she could shoot better than that. Then a shot from a second soldier silenced her forever. After the war, Schaft was reburied with honors in a funeral attended by Queen Wilhelmina and the royal family of the Netherlands.

6. Felice Schragenheim: Underground Operative

Felice Schragenheim spent years trying to leave Germany as the Nazis took power, but every effort to emigrate was blocked for one reason or another. Schragenheim then worked for a Nazi newspaper where she collected intelligence for the underground. She also went on operations to smuggle Jews out of Germany, but details of her underground activities are few and far between. What we know of Schragenheim is the evidence that Lilly Wust kept secret for decades after the war. Wust was the wife of a German officer and a mother of four; both she and her husband were members of the Nazi party. Wust and Schragenheim fell in love in 1942, but Wust did not learn that Schragenheim was Jewish until after their affair commenced. Schragenheim was hiding in plain sight -only her Jewish status was a secret. Schragenheim lived with the Wust family for a time, but on August 21, 1943, was arrested and sent to a concentration camp.

Schragenheim and Wust still managed to send letters to each other. Wust went to Theresienstadt concentration camp in September of 1944 and asked to see Schragenheim. She was refused, and the visit may have accelerated the process that led to Schragenheim's death. She reportedly died on New Year's Eve 1944, possibly from tuberculosis. Wust, heartbroken, left her husband and worked to protect Jews for the remainder of the war. She kept all of Schragenheim's correspondence, in secret until 1995, when they became the subject of a book and then a film, Aimee & Jaguar, in 1999. The love story is told from the view of the survivor, of course. Wust was not privy to Schragenheim's Jewish resistance activities, so most of those details died with her.

7. Queen Wilhelmina: Dutch Inspiration

When the Nazis invaded the Netherlands, Queen Wilhelmina was evacuated to Britain against her wishes when the planned government refuge of Zeeland was overrun by Germans. From Britain, she presided over the government in exile and broadcast information and encouragement to the Dutch resistance over Radio Oranje. Winston Churchill called the queen "the only real man among the governments-in-exile in London."

8. Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya: Soviet Martyr

Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya was barely 18 years old when she was executed for her guerilla activities in World War II. She was posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the first woman to be named so in World War II. In October of 1941, she had volunteered for a class of guerrilla fighters known as the Red Army Western Front sabotage and reconnaissance force. Her unit was sent behind enemy lines, near Moscow at the time, to set land mines and to cut off German supply lines. Ordered to burn the village of Petrischevo, Kosmodemyanskaya set fire to a stable and a couple other buildings and was caught by locals. Some accounts say she was betrayed by one of her compatriots, Vasily Klubkov, after he was captured and interrogated. German forces tortured Kosmodemyanskaya by stripping and whipping her and marched her around naked in the cold. Still, she gave no information on her unit. The next day, she was hanged in a public ceremony, a sign on her chest reading "arsonist." Her body was left hanging, displayed for a month before burial. A Pravda article about Kosmodemyanskaya published in 1942 says she died still pledging her loyalty to the Soviet Union. Be warned that if you search for photographs of Kosmodemyanskaya, there are graphic pictures of her dead body.

See also: 11 Women Warriors of World War II

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Scientists Reveal Long-Hidden Text in Alexander Hamilton Letter
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iStock

Age, deterioration, and water damage are just a few of the reasons historians can be short on information that was once readily available on paper. Sometimes, it’s simply a case of missing pages. Other times, researchers can see “lost” text right under their noses.

One example: a letter written by Alexander Hamilton to his future wife, Elizabeth Schuyler, on September 6, 1780. On the surface, it looked very much like a rant about a Revolutionary War skirmish in Camden, South Carolina. But Hamilton scholars were excited by the 14 lines of writing in the first paragraph that had been crossed out. If they could be read, they might reveal some new dimension to one of the better-known Founding Fathers.

Using the practice of multispectral imaging—sometimes called hyperspectral imaging—conservationists at the Library of Congress were recently able to shine a new light on what someone had attempted to scrub out. In multispectral imaging, different wavelengths of light are “bounced” off the paper to reveal (or hide) different ink pigments. By examining a document through these different wavelengths, investigators can tune in to faded or obscured handwriting and make it visible to the naked eye.

A hyperspectral image of Alexander Hamilton's handwriting
Hyperspectral imaging of Hamilton's handwriting, from being obscured (top) to isolated and revealed (bottom).
Library of Congress

The text revealed a more emotional and romantic side to Hamilton, who had used the lines to woo Elizabeth. Technicians uncovered most of what he had written, with words in brackets still obscured and inferred:

Do you know my sensations when I see the
sweet characters from your hand? Yes you do,
by comparing [them] with your [own]
for my Betsey [loves] me and is [acquainted]
with all the joys of fondness. [Would] you
[exchange] them my dear for any other worthy
blessings? Is there any thing you would put
in competition[,] with one glowing [kiss] of
[unreadable], anticipate the delights we [unreadable]
in the unrestrained intercourses of wedded love,
and bet your heart joins mine in [fervent]
[wishes] to heaven that [all obstacles] and [interruptions]
May [be] speedily [removed].

Hamilton and Elizabeth Schuyler married on December 14, 1780. So why did Hamilton try and hide such romantic words during or after their courtship? He probably didn’t. Historians believe that his son, John Church Hamilton, crossed them out before publishing the letter as a part of a book of his father’s correspondence. He may have considered the passage a little too sexy for mass consumption.

[h/t Library of Congress]

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7 of History’s Most Unusual Riots
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Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Some sociologists theorize that most rioters only join a crowd because the crowd is big enough to justify joining. But there’s always that one person who sparks the violence, and sometimes the reason for doing so can seem pretty baffling. Maybe a work of art scandalizes its audience, like the famous premiere of Igor Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring. Or maybe it’s simply a notable act of disrespect, like history’s first recorded mooning (in Jerusalem in the first century CE). From balloonists to brown dogs to daylight saving time, here are seven weird reasons things just got out of hand.

1. THE MELBOURNE DART RIOT

The Darts Invitational Challenge, an international tournament held in Melbourne, attracted international gawking in January 2015 during the finals match between Michael "Mighty Mike" van Gerwen and Simon "The Wizard" Whitlock. The dart players weren’t making a scene, though: Rather, hundreds of spectators, many of them drunk and in costume, began throwing plastic chairs as they watched (pictured above). The reasons for the fight remain unclear; footage and photos show police trying to control adults dressed as Oompa-Loompas, numerous superheroes, and, in one instance, in a ghillie suit (heavy camouflage meant to resemble foliage).

2. THE LEICESTER BALLOON RIOT

In 1864, balloonists were the great daredevils of their time, and a major draw for eager audiences. That summer, Henry Coxwell, a famous professional aeronaut, was set to make an appearance for 50,000 paying ticketholders in Leicester, England. Unfortunately, a rumor spread that he hadn’t brought his biggest and best balloon to the event. After heckling from the crowd, Coxwell deflated his balloon, and attendees rushed it, ripping it to shreds, setting it on fire, and threatening to visit the same fate on Coxwell. Rioters even paraded the remains of the balloon through the streets of town, which briefly brought residents a new nickname: Balloonatics.

3. THE TORONTO CLOWN AND FIREFIGHTER RIOT

Toronto was still a pretty rough place in the 1850s, but not so rough that the circus wouldn’t come to town. As it turns out, circus entertainers were also a tough lot back then, so when a group of off-duty clowns spent an evening at a brothel popular with the city’s firefighters on July 12, 1855, tensions came to a head. Accounts differ as to who started the fight, but after one firefighter knocked the hat off a clown things escalated into a full-on rabble intent on chasing the circus out of town. Only the mayor calling in the militia put an end to the uproar, an incident Torontonians credit with kicking off much-needed local police reforms.

4. THE BELGIAN NIGHT AT THE OPERA RIOT

A painting by Charles Soubre of the Belgian Revolution
Charles Soubre, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Not many nations can claim their independence started with an aria, but for 19th-century Belgians sick of living under Dutch rule, an opera was just the right fuse for a revolution. To honor the birthday of King William I of the Netherlands, a theater in Brussels put on La Muette de Portici, about an uprising in Naples against Spanish rule. One song, "Amour Sacre de la Patrie" ("Sacred Love of the Fatherland"), aroused nationalistic passions so much that after the opera ended, the crowd began destroying factories and occupying government buildings. That was August 25, 1830; Belgium declared independence on October 4.

5. THE NEW YORK DOCTORS' RIOT

Hamilton fans, take note: Everyone’s favorite Founding Father once tried to quiet a mob bent on burning corpses. For centuries, anatomists and medical students relied on gruesome means to learn about the human body. Cadavers for dissection class often came from grave robbers, since the corpses of executed criminals were the only legal source—and they were in limited supply. In New York in 1788, rumors abounded that medical students were digging up paupers’ graves and black cemeteries. When one mob came after the doctors responsible, Alexander Hamilton tried, and failed, to restore the peace. The crowd swelled to about 5000 before militiamen intervened, leading to up to about 20 deaths.

6. THE BROWN DOG RIOTS

Photo of an anti-vivisection demonstration in Trafalgar Square, London, to protest the removal from Battersea Park of the Brown Dog statue
The Anti-Vivisection Review, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Riots against the dissection of dead human bodies were not rare in the United States at one time. But on December 10, 1907, a thousand Britons marched in support of vivisection, or surgery on live animals. At the center of the controversy was a small terrier allegedly vivisected without anesthetic in 1903 during a class at London’s University College. Animal rights activists erected a statue to the dog in 1906, which enraged area medical students, and protesters tried to destroy the statue using crowbars and hammers. For the 1907 march, 400 mounted police were deployed to contain marchers. The statue became such a flashpoint (and an expense to local authorities) that in 1910, it was removed and melted down.

7. THE EEL-PULLING RIOT

Palingtrekken (eel-pulling) was once a popular contest in Amsterdam, in which a writhing eel was suspended over a canal and hopefuls on boats would leap to snatch it as they passed beneath (usually landing in the water instead). However, “eel-pulling” was also illegal—the government deemed it a “cruel popular entertainment”—and in July 1886, police intervened at a particularly large gathering in the city’s Jordaan district. Civilians threw stones and bricks at police, and when some nearby socialist protestors joined them, a riot broke out that lasted for several days. The army finally intervened and opened fire on the protestors. All in all, 26 people died and 136 were wounded, but somehow, the eel itself at the center of the riots was allegedly saved and auctioned off in 1913.

A version of this story originally ran in 2015.

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