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At the Libraries: No Donations Welcome

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Each week Miss Kathleen provides links to a variety of stories about libraries, authors, and books. If there’s something noteworthy going on in your local library, leave us a comment!

Looking for a way to combine your love of books and of Sir Mix-A-Lot? Bless you, Etsy.
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If you have a child, or are a children's librarian, I hope you know about Mo Willems' great books! And, specifically, about his Elephant and Piggie series. These are instant classics but, to one writer, also "existentially terrifying." I guess he has me convinced...
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These cakes aren't wrecks at all, they are lovely children's literature tributes -- check them out!
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Trying to do a good deed and donate some books to your library? If you live in New York City, better not. I know it sounds crazy to outsiders, but as a library worker I completely get it. What do you think?

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I don't usually get excited about bookmarks (I just use scrap paper) but, guys, this one does seem very cool. Check out the video for the Albatros bookmark, and if you have one or get one, tell me, is it as great as it seems? (Thanks, Scott!)

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Another loyal reader (Hi, Sara!) asked me to reach out to our literary-loving community to see if anyone knows a good source for bookish personal checks. We found some great Where the Wild Things Are ones, but anyone heard of any more? I don't know if Etsy can do this kind of thing, but if you hear of anything, tell us in the comments!
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Did you hear about a new book on NPR and go out and buy it? Yeah, you are not alone. If you want to sell your book, get on the media radar! Hmm, I guess that's not new news, huh? (Thanks, Stephen's Lighthouse!)
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Or maybe you buy a book because of a blurb on its cover? Or maybe you don't buy a book because of who blurbed it? Join the debate!
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It's not time for a new blog-of-the-month, but I found out about this super-helpful blog for hiring librarians. Job seekers, take a look -- it's a goldmine!
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Let's end with an appeal from mental_floss reader Emily for her tiny library in Massachusetts (my home state) that definitely needs a revamp. Donate if you can!
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That's all for this week. Thanks for reading and, as always, say hi in the comments and drop me a line if you hear of anything you think our wonderful readers would like!

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Name the Author Based on the Character
May 23, 2017
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