CLOSE
Original image
ITV Studios

7 Other Famous Abbeys in England

Original image
ITV Studios

The most famous abbey in England right now is not actually an abbey at all — it’s a castle. Highclere Castle is the stand-in for Downton Abbey, the eponymous location of the mega-popular British series about an upstairs-downstairs household in the early 1900s. While Downton might be the only abbey about which people in the U.S. are currently talking, Britain is home to many a famous abbey.

The word “abbey” actually refers to a Catholic monastery or convent – usually operated under the spiritual authority of an Abbot. When divorce-hungry King Henry VIII denounced the Catholic Church in the 1500s, he also ordered the dissolution of all monasteries in England, Wales and Ireland. After stripping the estates of their valuables, the Crown either sold off the property or gifted it to loyal nobility. The only actively religious thing left about the properties was the name. These estates often stayed with families for centuries until a lack of funds or a proper heir forced families to sell – a pressing predicament in the aforementioned show’s plot.

Downton might be the abbey of the moment, but these are some others that have stood the test of time.

1. Westminster Abbey

iStock

Located in the heart of London, Westminster Abbey has been the site of royal weddings and its fair share of funerals. Most recently, it captivated the eyes of hundreds of millions when it hosted the wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton. Westminster is also the go-to site for royal coronations; it was featured in the Oscar-winning film The King’s Speech where King George VI must speak publicly during his coronation. More a tourist attraction than functioning house of worship, Westminster also holds the tombs of such luminaries as Chaucer, Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Dickens and the ashes of Rudyard Kipling and Sir Lawrence Olivier.

2. Bolton Abbey

iStock

The Bolton Abbey monastery was under construction when the axe of dissolution came down from Henry VIII, and the building was never finished. The estate was passed down through the Dukes of Devonshire, until the 11th Duke gave it to the Chatworth Settlement Trustees. The ruins are now open to the public to tour, which is what Steve Coogan and Rob Brydon did in episode 6 of their series The Trip (released as a film in the US). The estate earlier served as the inspiration for Wordsworth’s poem "The White Doe of Rylstone."

3. Glastonbury Abbey

iStock

In its prime, Glastonbury Abbey was second only to Westminster in its wealth. After the dissolution, however, it was stripped bare and left for ruin. Located in Somerset, Glastonbury Abbey is believed by many to be the mythical Avalon where the famous sword-from-the-stone Excalibur was forged and where King Arthur died from battle wounds. It had long been rumored Arthur was buried at the Abbey, but in 1191 monks decided to confirm suspicions by excavating the rumored spot. Sixteen feet below the ground they found two bodies – the bodies are believed to be those of King Arthur and his queen, Guinevere. They were later reburied in the Abbey Church where they remain to this day.

If that weren’t enough mystery, it is also believed that the great-uncle of Jesus Christ himself, Joseph of Arimathea, was involved with the founding of Glastonbury. Legend has it that after the death of Christ, he traveled to Britain with the Holy Grail. After arriving on the island of Avalon, he placed his staff in the ground and it took root, growing into the Glastonbury Thorn. While there, he is thought to have buried the Holy Grail somewhere in the area.

4. Battle Abbey

iStock

The bloody 1066 Battle of Hastings left many Anglo-Saxons dead and the Normans victorious. As penance for the slaughter, William the Conqueror promised the Pope he would build an abbey on the site of the battle. Though he died before construction was complete, King William's pledge was ultimately kept in the form of Battle Abbey. It was almost completely demolished by the 16th-century dissolution, gifted to a friend of the king and converted into a private home. Battle Abbey Estate would end up with the Webster family for multiple centuries, though many parts were sold off or fell into disrepair. In the 1970s, the Webster family put the whole thing up for sale and it was bought by the British government.

5. Fountains Abbey

iStock

Fountains Abbey is so important it has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Unlike many of its peers that were met with ruin by King Henry’s dissolution, Fountains remains to this day one of England’s biggest and best-preserved Cistercian abbeys – an order marked by austere living and deferential architecture. The estate is like a living timeline, with landscaping and various buildings spanning the 12th to 18th centuries.

6. Northanger Abbey

Much like its sister Downton, Northanger Abbey is a fictional estate. It is also one of Jane Austen’s first published novels. The book’s highly imaginative heroine Catherine becomes enchanted with the home of a suitor – Northanger Abbey. Things get complicated with a potential dark secret lurking in the halls of this famous abbey. This is not one of Austen’s most famous works, but it might be one of the most famous literary abbeys.

7. Abbey Road

iStock

It's the name of a world-famous recording studio, title of a classic Beatles studio album, and an actual thoroughfare in north London. Abbey Road might not be an abbey in the traditional sense, but it’s definitely one of the most famous abbeys in Britain. The so-called “zebra crossing” featured on the cover of the eponymous album has since been listed as a cultural heritage site by the National Trust.

This story originally appeared in 2013.

Original image
Getty
arrow
Lists
8 of the Weirdest Gallup Polls
Original image
Getty

Born in Jefferson, Iowa on November 18, 1901, George Gallup studied journalism and psychology, focusing on how to measure readers’ interest in newspaper and magazine content. In 1935, he founded the American Institute of Public Opinion to scientifically measure public opinions on topics such as government spending, criminal justice, and presidential candidates. Although he died in 1984, The Gallup Poll continues his legacy of trying to determine and report the will of the people in an unbiased, independent way. To celebrate his day of birth, we compiled a list of some of the weirdest, funniest Gallup polls over the years.

1. THREE IN FOUR AMERICANS BELIEVE IN THE PARANORMAL (2005)

According to this Gallup poll, 75 percent of Americans have at least one paranormal belief. Specifically, 41 percent believe in extrasensory perception (ESP), 37 percent believe in haunted houses, and 21 percent believe in witches. What about channeling spirits, you might ask? Only 9 percent of Americans believe that it’s possible to channel a spirit so that it takes temporary control of one's body. Interestingly, believing in paranormal phenomena was relatively similar across people of different genders, races, ages, and education levels.

2. ONE IN FIVE AMERICANS THINK THE SUN REVOLVES AROUND THE EARTH (1999)

In this poll, Gallup tried to determine the popularity of heliocentric versus geocentric views. While 79 percent of Americans correctly stated that the Earth revolves around the sun, 18 percent think the sun revolves around the Earth. Three percent chose to remain indifferent, saying they had no opinion either way.

3. 22 PERCENT OF AMERICANS ARE HESITANT TO SUPPORT A MORMON (2011)

Gallup first measured anti-Mormon sentiment back in 1967, and it was still an issue in 2011, a year before Mormon Mitt Romney ran for president. Approximately 22 percent of Americans said they would not vote for a Mormon presidential candidate, even if that candidate belonged to their preferred political party. Strangely, Americans’ bias against Mormons has remained stable since the 1960s, despite decreasing bias against African Americans, Catholics, Jews, and women.

4. MISSISSIPPIANS GO TO CHURCH THE MOST; VERMONTERS THE LEAST (2010)

This 2010 poll amusingly confirms the stereotype that southerners are more religious than the rest of the country. Although 42 percent of all Americans attend church regularly (which Gallup defines as weekly or almost weekly), there are large variations based on geography. For example, 63 percent of people in Mississippi attend church regularly, followed by 58 percent in Alabama and 56 percent in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Utah. Rounding out the lowest levels of church attendance, on the other hand, were Vermont, where 23 percent of residents attend church regularly, New Hampshire, at 26 percent, and Maine at 27 percent.

5. ONE IN FOUR AMERICANS DON’T KNOW WHICH COUNTRY AMERICA GAINED INDEPENDENCE FROM (1999)

Although 76 percent of Americans knew that the United States gained independence from Great Britain as a result of the Revolutionary War, 24 percent weren’t so sure. Two percent thought the correct answer was France, 3 percent said a different country (such as Mexico, China, or Russia), and 19 percent had no opinion. Certain groups of people who consider themselves patriotic, including men, older people, and white people (according to Gallup polls), were more likely to know that America gained its independence from Great Britain.

6. ONE THIRD OF AMERICANS BELIEVE IN GHOSTS (2000)

This Halloween-themed Gallup poll asked Americans about their habits and behavior on the last day of October. Predictably, two-thirds of Americans reported that someone in their house planned to give candy to trick-or-treaters and more than three-quarters of parents with kids reported that their kids would wear a costume. More surprisingly, 31 percent of American adults claimed to believe in ghosts, an increase from 1978, when only 11 percent of American adults admitted to a belief in ghosts.

7. 5 PERCENT OF WORKING MILLENNIALS THRIVE IN ALL FIVE ELEMENTS OF WELL-BEING (2016)

This recent Gallup poll is funny in a sad way, as it sheds light on the tragicomic life of a millennial. In this poll, well-being is defined as having purpose, social support, manageable finances, a strong community, and good physical health. Sadly, only 5 percent of working millennials—defined as people born between 1980 and 1996—were thriving in these five indicators of well-being. To counter this lack of well-being, Gallup’s report recommends that managers promote work-life balance and improve their communication with millennial employees.

8. THE WORLD IS BECOMING SLIGHTLY MORE NEGATIVE (2014)

If you seem to feel more stress, sadness, anxiety, and pain than ever before, Gallup has the proof that it’s not all in your head. According to the company’s worldwide negative experience index, negative feelings such as stress, sadness, and anger have increased since 2007. Unsurprisingly, people living in war-torn, dangerous parts of the word—Iraq, Iran, Egypt, Syria, and Sierra Leone—reported the highest levels of negative emotions.

Original image
Getty Images
arrow
Lists
11 Times Mickey Mouse Was Banned
Original image
Getty Images

Despite being one of the world’s most recognizable and beloved characters, it hasn’t always been smooth sailing for Mickey Mouse, who turns 89 years old today. A number of countries—and even U.S. states—have banned the cartoon rodent at one time or another for reasons both big and small.

1. In 1930, Ohio banned a cartoon called “The Shindig” because Clarabelle Cow was shown reading Three Weeks by Elinor Glyn, the premier romance novelist of the time. Check it out (1:05) and let us know if you’re scandalized:

2. With movies on 10-foot screen being a relatively new thing in Romania in 1935, the government decided to ban Mickey Mouse, concerned that children would be terrified of a monstrous rodent.

3. In 1929, a German censor banned a Mickey Mouse short called “The Barnyard Battle.” The reason? An army of cats wearing pickelhauben, the pointed helmets worn by German military in the 19th and 20th centuries: "The wearing of German military helmets by an army of cats which oppose a militia of mice is offensive to national dignity. Permission to exhibit this production in Germany is refused.”

4. The German dislike for Mickey Mouse continued into the mid-'30s, with one German newspaper wondering why such a small and dirty animal would be idolized by children across the world: "Mickey Mouse is the most miserable ideal ever revealed ... Healthy emotions tell every independent young man and every honorable youth that the dirty and filth-covered vermin, the greatest bacteria carrier in the animal kingdom, cannot be the ideal type of animal.” Mickey was originally banned from Nazi Germany, but eventually the mouse's popularity won out.

5. In 2014, Iran's Organization for Supporting Manufacturers and Consumers announced a ban on school supplies and stationery products featuring “demoralizing images,” including that of Disney characters such as Mickey Mouse, Winnie the Pooh, Sleeping Beauty, and characters from Toy Story.

6. In 1954, East Germany banned Mickey Mouse comics, claiming that Mickey was an “anti-Red rebel.”

7. In 1937, a Mickey Mouse adventure was so similar to real events in Yugoslavia that the comic strip was banned. State police say the comic strip depicted a “Puritan-like revolt” that was a danger to the “Boy King,” Peter II of Yugoslavia, who was just 14 at the time. A journalist who wrote about the ban was consequently escorted out of the country.

8. Though Mussolini banned many cartoons and American influences from Italy in 1938, Mickey Mouse flew under the radar. It’s been said that Mussolini’s children were such Mickey Mouse fans that they were able to convince him to keep the rodent around.

9. Mickey and his friends were banned from the 1988 Seoul Olympics in a roundabout way. As they do with many major sporting events, including the Super Bowl, Disney had contacted American favorites to win in each event to ask them to say the famous “I’m going to Disneyland!” line if they won. When American swimmer Matt Biondi won the 100-meter freestyle, he dutifully complied with the request. After a complaint from the East Germans, the tape was pulled and given to the International Olympic Committee.

10. In 1993, Mickey was banned from a place he shouldn't have been in the first place: Seattle liquor stores. As a wonderful opening sentence from the Associated Press explained, "Mickey Mouse, the Easter Bunny and teddy bears have no business selling booze, the Washington State Liquor Control Board has decided." A handful of stores had painted Mickey and other characters as part of a promotion. A Disney VP said Mickey was "a nondrinker."

11. Let's end with another strike against The Shindig (see #1) and Clarabelle’s bulging udder. Less than a year after the Shindig ban, the Motion Picture Producers and Directors of America announced that they had received a massive number of complaints about the engorged cow udders in various Mickey Mouse cartoons.

From then on, according to a 1931 article in Time magazine, “Cows in Mickey Mouse ... pictures in the future will have small or invisible udders quite unlike the gargantuan organ whose antics of late have shocked some and convulsed others. In a recent picture the udder, besides flying violently to left and right or stretching far out behind when the cow was in motion, heaved with its panting with the cow stood still.”

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios