What Disneyland Looked Like in 1957

Disneyland opened in 1955. Just two years later, this film was shot. This footage has been in the vault, so to speak, since then; it was released by Todd J. Pierce in 2012 after being digitally transferred and cleaned up. The footage isn't miraculous by any means; it's basically very nicely shot film of what Disneyland looked like at the time -- families going about their business, kids on rides, parades, that sort of thing. You see lots of classic rides (the teacups make me dizzy!) and lots of people wearing hats. Have a look, and see if you can spot what has (and hasn't) changed.

For more information, consult Pierce's commentary, which includes the note:

This film was shot the month Monsanto opened the House of the Future. Look, there's no line for the House, with only a few people wandering out its exit.

Having never been to Disneyland in the 1950s or 1960s, I'm not personally familiar with Monsanto's House of the Future. But it sounds kind of intense and was apparently built out of...wait for it...polyester.

[Via Waxy]

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The Evolution of "Two" in the Indo-European Language Family
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The Indo-European language family includes most of the languages of Europe as well as many languages in Asia. There is a long research tradition that has shown, though careful historical comparison, that languages spanning a huge linguistic and geographical range, from French to Greek to Russian to Hindi to Persian, are all related to each other and sprung from a common source, Proto-Indo-European. One of the techniques for studying the relationship of the different languages to each other is to look at the similarities between individual words and work out the sound changes that led from one language to the next.

This diagram, submitted to Reddit by user IronChestplate1, shows the word for two in various Indo-European languages. (The “proto” versions, marked with an asterisk, are hypothesized forms, built by working backward from historical evidence.) The languages cluster around certain common features, but the words are all strikingly similar, especially when you consider the words for two in languages outside the Indo-European family: iki (Turkish), èjì (Yoruba), ni (Japanese), kaksi (Finnish), etc. There are many possible forms two could take, but in this particular group of languages it is extremely limited. What are the chances of that happening by accident? Once you see it laid out like this, it doesn’t take much to put *dwóh and *dwóh together.

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Beyond Plumbing: 19 Other Jobs on Mario's Resume
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Nintendo made news this week by subtly announcing that Mario is no longer a plumber. In fact, they're really downplaying his whole plumbing career. On the character's Japanese-language bio, the company says, "He also seems to have worked as a plumber a long time ago."

But Mario has always had plenty of jobs on the side. Here's a look at his resume:


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