Why Do Drive-Up ATMs Have Braille on the Buttons?

This question was submitted by reader Lindsey. It also may have been part of a Starburst advertising campaign in the late-1990s.

ATM image via Shutterstock

So the visually impaired can use them, of course. People who are totally blind or severely visually impaired normally don't drive, but they might have a friend drive them around to run errands, or take a cab. If a blind person is a passenger in a car, they ought to be able to take advantage of the convenience of the drive-up ATM, too.

That's why the Americans with Disabilities Act's Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities require the "instructions and all information for use" of ATMs, whether they're walk-up or drive-up, "be made accessible to and independently usable by persons with vision impairments," and that the machines provide the visually impaired with the "same degree of privacy of input and output available to all individuals." Braille on the drive-up ATM complies with the law and allows a visually impaired person who might be in the back seat to use the machine just like a sighted person — independently and privately.

How would a blind person use an ATM in the first place, though, if they couldn't see the on-screen instructions?

You'll notice that language about accessibility and usability in the ADA guidelines is pretty vague. Braille keypads are an obvious part of accessibility, but when the guidelines were written, neither the banks nor the government really knew what else to do to make the machines blind-user-friendly. Eventually, the banks, the feds and the ATM manufacturers all agreed to leave the rules a little hazy until they could figure something out.

The two solutions most ATMs employ today are either a large block of braille that provide a user with instructions for completing transactions that they must follow very carefully (and hope that the instructions get updated along with the machine's software), or a headphone jack (marked with braille) that provides a user with an audio equivalent of the on-screen prompts.

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Big Questions
What’s the Difference Between Prison and Jail?
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Many people use the terms jail and prison interchangeably, and while both terms refer to areas where people are held, there's a substantial difference between the two methods of incarceration. Where a person who is accused of a crime is held, and for how long, is a factor in determining the difference between the two—and whether a person is held in a jail or a prison is largely determined by the severity of the crime they have committed.

A jail (or, for our British friends, a gaol) refers to a small, temporary holding facility—run by local governments and supervised by county sheriff departments—that is designed to detain recently arrested people who have committed a minor offense or misdemeanor. A person can also be held in jail for an extended period of time if the sentence for their offense is less than a year. There are currently 3163 local jail facilities in the United States.

A jail is different from the similarly temporary “lockup”—sort of like “pre-jail”—which is located in local police departments and holds offenders unable to post bail, people arrested for public drunkenness who are kept until they are sober, or, most importantly, offenders waiting to be processed into the jail system.

A prison, on the other hand, is usually a large state- or federal-run facility meant to house people convicted of a serious crime or felony, and whose sentences for those crimes surpass 365 days. A prison could also be called a “penitentiary,” among other names.

To be put in a state prison, a person must be convicted of breaking a state law. To be put in a federal prison, a person must be convicted of breaking federal law. Basic amenities in a prison are more extensive than in a jail because, obviously, an inmate is likely to spend more than a year of his or her life confined inside a prison. As of 2012, there were 4575 operating prisons in the U.S.—the most in the world. The country with the second highest number of operating prisons is Russia, which has just 1029 facilities.

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Big Questions
What Do Morticians Do With the Blood They Take Out of Dead Bodies?
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Zoe-Anne Barcellos:

The blood goes down the sink drain, into the sewer system.

I am not a mortician, but I work for a medical examiner/coroner. During an autopsy, most blood is drained from the decedent. This is not on purpose, but a result of gravity. Later a mortician may or may not embalm, depending on the wishes of the family.

Autopsies are done on a table that has a drain at one end; this drain is placed over a sink—a regular sink, with a garbage disposal in it. The blood and bodily fluids just drain down the table, into the sink, and down the drain. This goes into the sewer, like every other sink and toilet, and (usually) goes to a water treatment plant.

You may be thinking that this is biohazardous waste and needs to be treated differently. [If] we can’t put oil, or chemicals (like formalin) down the drains due to regulations, why is blood not treated similarly? I would assume because it is effectively handled by the water treatment plants. If it wasn’t, I am sure the regulations would be changed.

Now any items that are soiled with blood—those cannot be thrown away in the regular trash. Most clothing worn by the decedent is either retained for evidence or released with the decedent to the funeral home—even if they were bloody.

But any gauze, medical tubing, papers, etc. that have blood or bodily fluids on them must be thrown away into a biohazardous trash. These are lined with bright red trash liners, and these are placed in a specially marked box and taped closed. These boxes are stacked up in the garage until they are picked up by a specialty garbage company. I am not sure, but I am pretty sure they are incinerated.

Additionally anything sharp or pointy—like needles, scalpels, etc.—must go into a rigid “sharps” container. When they are 2/3 full we just toss these into one of the biotrash containers.

The biotrash is treated differently, as, if it went to a landfill, then the blood (and therefore the bloodborne pathogens like Hepatitis and HIV) could be exposed to people or animals. Rain could wash it into untreated water systems.

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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