Why Utah Loves Seagulls (but not crickets)

iStock
iStock

Drivers out West may have experienced the terror of swarming Mormon Crickets, which can overwhelm roads all at once and make streets so slick that drivers lose their grip. The threat of the crickets -- who swarm because their natural cannibalistic tendency creates chaos during mass migrations -- is so great that drivers say they've even seen the roads turn red with blood from the crushed insects.

But those swarming crickets also explain why Utah loves its gulls, and how the Mormon Cricket got its name, despite not even being a cricket.

Mormon settlers in Utah thought they had seen the worst of it in 1848 when a late April frost threatened to wipe out their crops. But, in late May, a swarm of the crickets amassed on the fields, threatening to eat anything in their path. The crickets (which are actually in the katydid family) cannot fly and are known to devour any plants. The settlers were completely overwhelmed, especially because they discovered that crushing the bugs would only attract more. Some of the settlers even began comparing the attack to the biblical plague of the locusts, with journals recalling darkened skies and settlers resorting to eating wolves and other wild animals.

Then, according to the story, thousands of gulls descended on the fields and began eating the crickets. The legend says that the gulls even had to stop to vomit up the crickets before going back for more, eating until they had chased the bugs off. The late arrival of the birds ended up saving the crops and ensuring the settlers survival. The so-called "Miracle of the Gulls" became a legend in Salt Lake City, with the California Gull being named the Utah state bird and a monument to the birds being built outside of Salt Lake Assembly Hall.

However, there is some question as to how accurate the legend of the 1848 Cricket War actually is. In journals from the time, there are actually only scattered mentions of the gull's arrival, which historians say could indicate that those were isolated incidents. In fact, most historians believe that the settlers were much more pro-active and set up reinforcements to ward off the crickets themselves.

Plus, it's not uncommon at all for the gulls to eat the katydids, according to ornithologists. In fact, it's still going on today.

The insects also remain a threat, and not just to drivers. The crickets continue to eat at crops and other plants, even causing more than $25 million in a 2003 infestation. However, farmers have come up with a new method of fighting them off that doesn't involve seagulls. Some have been blasting rock music around their fields, which apparently has kept the crickets at bay.

This Wall Chart Shows Almost 130 Species of Shark—All Drawn to Scale

Pop Chart Lab
Pop Chart Lab

Shark Week may be over, but who says you can’t celebrate sharp-toothed predators year-round? Pop Chart Lab has released a new wall print featuring nearly 130 species of selachimorpha, a taxonomic superorder of fish that includes all sharks.

The shark chart
Pop Chart Lab

Called “The Spectacular Survey of Sharks,” the chart lists each shark by its family classification, order, and superorder. An evolutionary timeline is also included in the top corner to provide some context for how many millions of years old some of these creatures are. The sharks are drawn to scale, from the large but friendly whale shark down to the little ninja lanternsharka species that lives in the deep ocean, glows in the dark, and wasn’t discovered until 2015.

You’ll find the popular great white, of course, as well as rare and elusive species like the megamouth, which has been spotted fewer than 100 times. This is just a sampling, though. According to World Atlas, there are more than 440 known species of shark—plus some that probably haven't been discovered yet.

The wall chart, priced at $29 for an 18” x 24” print, can be pre-ordered on Pop Chart Lab’s website. Shipping begins on August 27.

Can You Really Suck the Poison Out of a Snakebite?

iStock
iStock

Should you find yourself in a snake-infested area and unlucky enough to get bitten, what’s the best course of action? You might have been taught the old cowboy trick of applying a tourniquet and using a blade to cut the bite wound in order to suck out the poison. It certainly looks dramatic, but does it really work? According to the World Health Organization, approximately 5.4 million people are bitten by snakes each year worldwide, about 81,000 to 138,000 of which are fatal. That’s a lot of deaths that could have been prevented if the remedy were really that simple.

Unfortunately the "cut and suck" method was discredited a few decades ago, when research proved it to be counterproductive. Venom spreads through the victim’s system so quickly, there’s no hope of sucking out a sufficient volume to make any difference. Cutting and sucking the wound only serves to increase the risk of infection and can cause further tissue damage. A tourniquet is also dangerous, as it cuts off the blood flow and leaves the venom concentrated in one area of the body. In worst-case scenarios, it could cost someone a limb.

Nowadays, it's recommended not to touch the wound and seek immediate medical assistance, while trying to remain calm (easier said than done). The Mayo Clinic suggests that the victim remove any tight clothing in the event they start to swell, and to avoid any caffeine or alcohol, which can increase your heart rate, and don't take any drugs or pain relievers. It's also smart to remember what the snake looks like so you can describe it once you receive the proper medical attention.

Venomous species tend to have cat-like elliptical pupils, while non-venomous snakes have round pupils. Another clue is the shape of the bite wound. Venomous snakes generally leave two deep puncture wounds, whereas non-venomous varieties tend to leave a horseshoe-shaped ring of shallow puncture marks. To be on the safe side, do a little research before you go out into the wilderness to see if there are any snake species you should be particularly cautious of in the area.

It’s also worth noting that up to 25 percent of bites from venomous snakes are actually "dry" bites, meaning they contain no venom at all. This is because snakes can control how much venom they release with each bite, so if you look too big to eat, they may well decide not to waste their precious load on you and save it for their next meal instead.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios