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Three White House Security Breaches (and Two Royal Run-Ins)

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Last week’s security breach/assassination attempt at the White House was a shocker, but it’s hardly the first time it's happened. Here are a few other times suspicious characters have gotten too close for comfort.

Michael Winter

You can imagine the three-ring media circus that would spring up over a successful attempt to break into the White House these days (case in point: Michaele and Tareq Salahi), but back in 1912, The New York Times devoted just two paragraphs to the ho-hum event:

"Michael Winter, of Baltimore, caused unusual excitement around the White House to-day. He made two attempts to enter the front door of the Mansion, and finally was landed at police headquarters under the impression that he was at the German Embassy.
Winter’s first call was made while the President was at breakfast. The man said he was known at the German Embassy and that he had business with Mr. Taft that required a personal audience. He was turned away but a short time later slipped through the doors and was several feet inside before detected.  It was then he was induced to accompany an officer to the ‘German Embassy.’ He will be examined as to his mental soundness.”


Robert Latta

On January 20, 1985, Ronald Reagan was taking his second presidential oath of office. Robert Latta, a meter reader from Denver, decided that it would be an opportune time to take an intimate tour of the White House while all eyes were on the inauguration. Latta spotted the United States Marine Band heading into the Executive Mansion where they were scheduled to serenade President Reagan at a private ceremony and simply slipped in behind them. They weren’t in formation, so blending in wasn't much of a problem. Once inside, Latta broke off and roamed around the residence with his overnight bag for almost 15 minutes before someone finally spotted him.

Robert K. Preston

Sneaking in unnoticed is one thing, but it’s another thing entirely to land an Iroquois helicopter on the south lawn. That’s what United States Army private first class Robert K. Preston did in 1974, not once, but twice. After landing on the south lawn for a few minutes, Preston took off again, swooping low over traffic on the highway. When Maryland State Police started pursuing him, Preston headed back to the Mansion and started to make himself at home again. This time, he was forced to land by Secret Service agents opening fire. Neither President Nixon nor the First Lady were home at the time, but Preston claimed his intent was not to harm either of them anyway: he simply wanted to show off his mad flying skillz. He was apparently upset when his right to fly was revoked.

Royal Run-Ins

It’s hard to write an article about people who have helped themselves to hospitality at the houses of world leaders without a note about Michael Fagan. On July 9, 1982, Fagan managed to climb up drain pipes at Buckingham Palace, slip in through an open window and wander around the palace for a while before making his way to the Queen’s bedroom. There should have been someone guarding the sleeping monarch, but the guard on duty was out walking QEII’s Corgis when Fagan showed up. After waking the Queen up and speaking to her for about 10 minutes, he asked for some smokes. When she summoned someone to fetch the cigarettes, she was also able to alert them to the intruder. Fagan was removed without a fight.

Royal Incident #2: During WWII, the Queen Mother walked into her bathroom at Windsor Castle during WWII and surprised an army deserter. She apparently gave him a lecture about serving his country before calling guards.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Stephen Missal
New Evidence Emerges in Norway’s Most Famous Unsolved Murder Case
May 22, 2017
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A 2016 sketch by a forensic artist of the Isdal Woman
Stephen Missal

For almost 50 years, Norwegian investigators have been baffled by the case of the “Isdal Woman,” whose burned corpse was found in a valley outside the city of Bergen in 1970. Most of her face and hair had been burned off and the labels in her clothes had been removed. The police investigation eventually led to a pair of suitcases stuffed with wigs and the discovery that the woman had stayed at numerous hotels around Norway under different aliases. Still, the police eventually ruled it a suicide.

Almost five decades later, the Norwegian public broadcaster NRK has launched a new investigation into the case, working with police to help track down her identity. And it is already yielding results. The BBC reports that forensic analysis of the woman’s teeth show that she was from a region along the French-German border.

In 1970, hikers discovered the Isdal Woman’s body, burned and lying on a remote slope surrounded by an umbrella, melted plastic bottles, what may have been a passport cover, and more. Her clothes and possessions were scraped clean of any kind of identifying marks or labels. Later, the police found that she left two suitcases at the Bergen train station, containing sunglasses with her fingerprints on the lenses, a hairbrush, a prescription bottle of eczema cream, several wigs, and glasses with clear lenses. Again, all labels and other identifying marks had been removed, even from the prescription cream. A notepad found inside was filled with handwritten letters that looked like a code. A shopping bag led police to a shoe store, where, finally, an employee remembered selling rubber boots just like the ones found on the woman’s body.

Eventually, the police discovered that she had stayed in different hotels all over the country under different names, which would have required passports under several different aliases. This strongly suggests that she was a spy. Though she was both burned alive and had a stomach full of undigested sleeping pills, the police eventually ruled the death a suicide, unable to track down any evidence that they could tie to her murder.

But some of the forensic data that can help solve her case still exists. The Isdal Woman’s jaw was preserved in a forensic archive, allowing researchers from the University of Canberra in Australia to use isotopic analysis to figure out where she came from, based on the chemical traces left on her teeth while she was growing up. It’s the first time this technique has been used in a Norwegian criminal investigation.

The isotopic analysis was so effective that the researchers can tell that she probably grew up in eastern or central Europe, then moved west toward France during her adolescence, possibly just before or during World War II. Previous studies of her handwriting have indicated that she learned to write in France or in another French-speaking country.

Narrowing down the woman’s origins to such a specific region could help find someone who knew her, or reports of missing women who matched her description. The case is still a long way from solved, but the search is now much narrower than it had been in the mystery's long history.

[h/t BBC]