We know the good ones: Washington coaxing his tattered troops through the winter at Valley Forge, Andrew Jackson bidding the Redcoats adieu in New Orleans, Ike masterminding the invasion of Normandy. Throughout history, American presidents have more often than not been former leaders of the military. Here's a list of eleven presidents and their service records you might not have known about.
1. James Monroe
In June 1775, at the tender age of 17, Monroe took a break from his studies at the College of William and Mary to assist a raid on the Governor's Palace in Virginia. The results? A haul of hundreds of muskets and swords that were used by militia in the Revolutionary War. The next spring he dropped out of school to join the Continental Army, where he rose to the rank of Major, crossed the Delaware River with George Washington, and was wounded at the Battle of Trenton.
2. William Henry Harrison
Perhaps best known for his one-month term in office, Harrison first achieved notoriety as a soldier before his brief occupation of the White House. As the Governor of Indiana, he was the prime antagonist of Tecumseh's Native American confederacy. In 1811 he led a force of 1,000 men against the confederacy while Tecumseh was away, destroying their village in the Battle of Tippacanoe and indirectly contributing to the War of 1812. Tecumseh himself was killed by Harrison's forces a few years later at the Battle of the Thames.
3. Franklin Pierce
With the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, Pierce successfully appealed to President James Polk for an officer's commission. In 1847, having attained the rank of brigadier general despite a complete lack of military experience, he took sail for Veracruz with several thousand men under his command. Things went swimmingly until he fell off his horse at the Battle of Contreras, which effectively ended his military career.
4. Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln's military service lasted less than three months with the Illinois militia during the Black Hawk War. He was elected by the soldiers of his unit to be their Captain, an event he later described as "a success which gave me more pleasure than any I have had since." The future president saw no combat but witnessed its consequences, including many corpses that had been mangled and scalped. He described on such experience in these words:
"The red light of the morning sun was streaming upon them as they lay head towards us on the ground. And ever man had a round red spot on top of his head, about as big as a dollar where the redskins had taken his scalp. It was frightful, but it was grotesque; and the red sunlight seemed to paint everything all over."
5. & 6. Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley
These two future presidents served together in the 23rd Ohio Infantry Regiment during the Civil War. Hayes (left) was a middle-aged lawyer who received an officer's commission and eventually rose to brevet major general. McKinley (right) was an eighteen year old private under Hayes' command. Hayes spoke highly of Private McKinley and eventually promoted him. They were separated after Hayes was shot in the arm and left the unit to recuperate. McKinley went on to serve in the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history at Antietam. By the end of the war, he achieved the rank of brevet major.
7. Harry S. Truman
Overcoming extremely poor eyesight by allegedly memorizing the eye exam chart, Truman entered the Missouri National Guard. He served from 1905 to 1911, then re-enlisted with the outbreak of WWI and became an officer. While in France, his unit provided support to Patton's tank brigade in the Hundred Days Offensive. On the last day of the war, his unit fired some of the final rounds into German territory before the ceasefire took effect.
8. Lyndon Baines Johnson
When Pearl Harbor was bombed in 1941, Johnson was a sitting Congressman for Texas' 10th district. He quickly became an officer in the Naval Reserve, seeking combat duties before being denied. In 1942 he took part in a three-man review of the South Pacific theater at President Roosevelt's request. The Silver Star he was awarded by General MacArthur has been criticized as a political move by many, who noted his lack of active combat experience. Here's the actual citation that accompanied the award:
"While on a mission of obtaining information in the Southwest Pacific Area, Lieutenant Commander Johnson, in order to obtain personal knowledge of combat conditions, volunteered as an observer on a hazardous aerial combat mission over hostile positions in New Guinea. As our planes neared the target area, they were intercepted by eight hostile fighters. When, at this time the plane in which Lieutenant Commander Johnson was an observer developed mechanical trouble and was forced to turn back alone, presenting a favorable target to the enemy fighters, he evidenced coolness in spite of the hazard involved. His gallant action enabled him to obtain and return with valuable information."
9. Richard Nixon
Nixon, who was born a Quaker, could have been exempted from service during World War II. Despite this, he left his job in the Office of Price Administration for a commission in the U.S. Navy. His first post was at a Naval Air station based, inexplicably, in Iowa. He later asked for and was granted a transfer to the Pacific Theater, where he handled logistics operations. He returned to America without seeing combat and resigned his commission on January 1, 1946.
10. Jimmy Carter
Georgia's only president first left his home state to attend the Naval Academy in 1943. After graduation, he served under Admiral Hyman Rickover in the nascent nuclear submarine program. In 1952 he took part in the clean-up of radioactive materials from an overheated reactor in Chalk River, Canada. He resigned his commission in 1953 after the death of his father.
11. Ronald Reagan
The Gipper had the same problem as Harry Truman: terrible vision. He was called to active duty in 1942 and limited to domestic service, where he served in the Los Angeles area and New York City. For most of the war, he was part of the First Motion Picture Unit (FMPU), an Army Air Force unit made up entirely of cinema personnel. Other famous members included Jimmy Stewart, Clarke Gable, and William Holden. The FMPU was responsible for the production of promotional films for the U.S. military. Projects Reagan worked on ranged from the tasteless (Target Tokyo) to the inspiring (Wings for This Man, one of the first movies to portray the Tuskeegee Airmen).