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11 Natural Disasters That Led to Wars

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1. Eruption of Thera, c. 1600 BCE

Some of the most important events of ancient history -- and Greek mythology -- resulted from one of the more spectacular disasters to ever strike the eastern Mediterranean: the eruption of the volcanic island of Thera, today known as Santorini, sometime around 1600 BCE.

This massive explosion sent an incredible 24 cubic miles of earth and rock into the air and sea and (perhaps in conjunction with an earthquake) triggered a tsunami that swept the Aegean Sea. The ancient Minoan civilization on the island of Crete was probably fatally weakened by the multi-pronged natural disaster. Not long afterwards the Minoans were conquered by the Mycenaeans, warlike raiders from mainland Greece who descended on the defenseless Cretans and a host of other civilizations around the eastern Mediterranean.

Indeed, contemporary records from Egypt tell of chaotic conditions in the natural and human world around this time, followed in the 14th century BCE by the first mentions of the “Sea Peoples” -- seaborne raiders who almost succeeded in conquering Egypt before they were finally repelled in the 13th and 12th centuries BCE. Although the identity of Sea Peoples remains mysterious, some of them were probably Mycenaean Greeks, who (according to legend) also attacked the city of Troy in Asia Minor around 1200 BCE. It’s pure literary speculation, but the sea monster Cetus, sent by Poseidon to attack Troy, might be a symbolic representation of the Aegean tsunami.

2. Earthquake at Sparta, 464 BCE

In addition to living in a geological hotspot, the ancient and classical Greeks faced numerous ethnic and social divisions -- and natural disasters could provide the catalyst for open warfare. This was especially true in Sparta, where a relatively small population of Spartan “equals” (full citizens) ruled over a vast population of indentured laborers known as “helots,” who had no rights and worked in conditions resembling slavery.

The Spartans always feared a helot rebellion, and with good reason. After a massive earthquake leveled the city of Sparta and killed many Spartan warriors in 464 BCE, the helots seized their chance and staged what became the most serious uprising in Sparta’s history. The situation was so dire, in fact, that the Spartans called on their Athenian rivals for help in putting down the rebellion -- but then changed their mind out of fear the democratic Athenians might be more sympathetic to the oppressed helots. The Athenians were furious about Sparta’s humiliating dismissal of the Athenian contingent, setting the stage for the Peloponnesian War (so that’s two conflicts resulting from one disaster!).

3. Central Asian drought, c. 350-450 CE

As nomadic pastoralists who relied on herd animals for food and clothing, the Huns of Central Asia were as vulnerable to drought as any settled farming population. So when a prolonged dry period hit their homeland and surrounding areas beginning around 350 CE, the Huns picked up and moved to more welcoming climes in Eastern and Southern Europe. There were some minor obstacles, of course, including the Germanic tribes and the Roman Empire, but the Huns never let this sort of thing get in their way. Armies of horse-mounted warriors swirling out of Central Asia subjugated various barbarian tribes, who became vassals of the Huns or sought protection from them across the border in the Roman Empire. However the Western Roman Empire couldn’t protect its own population, let alone the Germanic tribes. By 395 CE the Huns were raiding the Eastern Roman Empire and the Persian Empire, and during the reign of Attila (434-453 CE) they devastated Europe from the gates of Constantinople to the modern French city of Orleans. As noted the Huns’ depredations also triggered Germanic migrations, which ultimately resulted in the fall of Rome.

4. A "climatic event," 535-536 CE

While the Huns disappeared from the pages of history shortly after Attila’s death, the Germanic tribes invading the Roman Empire stuck around a bit longer -- and weird climatic events continued to result in violent conflict.

Although no one knows exactly what happened, the Byzantine historian Procopius recorded extreme weather events in 535-536 CE that indicate drastic cooling: “During this year a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness... and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear. And from the time when this thing happened men were free neither from war nor pestilence nor any other thing leading to death.” Irish chronicles covering the same period recount failed harvests, and evidence of cooling, drought, and crop failures has also been found in places as diverse as China and Peru.

In North Africa, as Procopius noted, the effects included another round of strife, as defeated Vandals, Moors and mutinous Roman soldiers rebelled and began plundering the countryside after their demands for land were rebuffed. Although the rebellion spread across North Africa, the Byzantines eventually defeated the rebels, who according to Procopius were “battling hunger” while also fighting the Romans. Contemporary scholars speculate that the events of 535-536 CE were caused by atmospheric dust from a huge volcanic explosion or a comet or meteorite hitting the earth.

5. Fiery dragons (?), 8th century CE

While it’s once again hard to know exactly what was happening (the early medieval period was not known for accurate meteorology), the first Viking raids apparently resulted from a similar sequence of unusual climatic events leading to bad harvests and, finally, desperate violence. The unfortunate victims of these raids lived in England, where the Anglo-Saxons had ruled since the end of the Roman Empire. In 792 CE, the inhabitants of Northumbria were terrified by “excessive whirlwinds and lightning storms” (along with “fiery dragons” – see previous parentheses). Meanwhile, archaeological evidence suggests that across the North Sea in Norway harvests failed in 792-793 CE. So it’s probably not a coincidence that one of the first Viking raids, the plundering of the famous Lindisfarne monastery, came in January 793. And this was just the beginning, as droughts blanketed Western Europe again in 794 and 797.

One possible explanation: contemporary scholars speculate those “fiery dragons” may have been meteor showers, which kicked up atmospheric dust, resulting in another bout of cooling; Chinese chronicles recount repeated meteor showers in this period.

6. Central American drought, 9th-10th centuries

Severe climate changes were also probably to blame for much of the warfare that apparently accompanied the collapse of Classic Mayan civilization beginning c. 800 CE. Although the Mayans lived in the midst of lush rain forests, there were actually very few sources of freshwater that were available year-round: the Mayan city-states relied on advanced techniques for collecting and storing rainwater for both agriculture and human consumption, making them especially vulnerable to repeated droughts. And that’s exactly what happened at 50-year intervals in 760, 810, 860, and 910, according to scientists who studied sediment core samples from the Caribbean Sea to determine the amount of rainfall during this period.

These four droughts correspond to distinct phases in the decline and eventual collapse of the Mayan civilization. However drought was far from the only culprit, with adverse environmental conditions triggering other negative trends in a cascading or “snowball” effect. This included intensifying warfare, as rival city-states battled each other for diminishing resources, city-states dissolved in civil war, and populations migrated in search of food. Mayan written records and archaeological evidence both point to escalating conflict during this period, as war was waged more often, with a larger proportion of the population participating, and by more brutal methods. Archaeological evidence includes fortifications built around even small villages, skeletal trauma resulting from combat, and the sudden appearance of foreign objects, suggesting invasion by outsiders.

7. Central Asian drought, 1212-1213 CE

Central Asian droughts are just bad for civilization. The same basic phenomenon that drove the Huns to invade Europe also played a role in the devastating Mongol invasion of China led by Genghis Khan in 1212-1213 CE. Archaeological evidence points to a long period of severe climate change in Mongolia and other parts of northern Asia lasting from 1175-1300 CE, with a drastic drop in temperatures resulting in less forage for herd animals as well as fewer wild animals for hunting. Luckily for the conquered population of northern China, a Chinese administrator was able to convince the Mongols to drop their plan to turn wheat fields into pastures for Mongol horses -- a move that would have resulted in the deaths of millions of Chinese from starvation.

Interestingly, Genghis Khan decreed a number of environmental protections in the Mongol homeland (but not necessarily in conquered areas) including forbidding the cutting down of trees and hunting wild animals during their breeding season. It’s also worth noting that half a century after the first Mongol invasions of China, Karakorum -- the new imperial capital in Mongolia -- was entirely dependent on food shipments from China, giving Kublai Khan leverage over rival Mongol princes.

8. Southern Africa drought, c. 1800 CE

The rise of Shaka Zulu, one of Africa’s greatest warriors, was tied to a period of devastating drought in southern Africa. After the discovery of the New World, the introduction of corn to southern Africa by European colonists triggered a population explosion, even as -- unbeknownst to native farmers -- corn cultivation was also leaching minerals from the soil. When a prolonged drought hit around 1800, the food supply collapsed, leading to fierce competition for resources among native tribes.

Gradually rising from a lowly position to leadership of the Zulus, Shaka’s innovations with new weapons and fighting techniques allowed him to unite rival tribes through diplomacy and conquest. But he also became notorious for his paranoia and brutality. Indeed the Zulu expansion resulted in a huge upheaval -- the Mfecane, or “scattering,” which saw huge numbers of deaths and massive movements by refugee populations across southern Africa from 1815-1840. While the precise death toll will probably never be known, some scholars estimate that as many as two million people perished during the Mfecane.

9. Haiphong typhoon, 1881 CE

One of the deadliest typhoons on record also facilitated European imperialism in southeast Asia, leading to the French conquest of Vietnam. On October 8, 1881, a massive Pacific typhoon hit the northern Vietnamese city of Haiphong, which serves as the main port for the country’s capital, Hanoi. Although its name means “coastal defense,” the city was completely unprepared for the huge storm, as sustained winds of 115 miles per hour generated a 20-foot storm surge that totally swamped the low-lying city; according to one contemporary account, “there were six feet of water in the houses three and four miles distant from the sea shore.” Over 300,000 people died in this catastrophe.

Adding insult to injury, the typhoon weakened the native government and provided a convenient pretext for the French conquest of northern Vietnam, as the French argued that the Vietnamese emperor was incompetent and unable to protect his own people. In 1882-1883 French forces marched into Haiphong, Hanoi, and the central Vietnamese city of Hue, completing their takeover of the country. However they still had to fight off Chinese mercenaries, while native resistance continued in rural areas, with guerrilla tactics foreshadowing the later Vietnam War.

10. East Pakistan cyclone, 1970

What is today the independent nation of Bangladesh used to be part of Pakistan: these predominantly Muslim areas were originally a single country, which split from Hindu-majority India following independence in 1947. But a terrible natural disaster in the form of a huge cyclone helped precipitate a civil war, leading to the independence of “East Pakistan.”

By 1970 tensions were already simmering between East and West Pakistan, as East Pakistan complained of oppression by West Pakistan; the populations of the two sections came from different ethnic backgrounds and spoke different languages, and the Bengali people of East Pakistan felt they were discriminated against by the government. Then on November 12, 1970, the huge Bhola cyclone hit East Pakistan with sustained winds of 115 miles per hour and a storm surge 34.8 feet high, coinciding with high tide. Up to 500,000 people were killed by the storm and flooding, leading to intense anger at the government and military, which were criticized for failing to heed warnings about the storm and bungling relief efforts in its aftermath.

Popular anger reached new heights when the government said it would go ahead with elections scheduled for December, even though most parts of East Pakistan were in no condition to participate. Civil war broke out in March 1971, and quickly widened into a regional conflict when India intervened on the side of Bengali rebels in East Pakistan. The war finally concluded with a resounding defeat for West Pakistan, and independence for the new nation of Bangladesh, in December 1971.

11. Darfur drought, 1983-present

Although it only came to the attention of the Western world in the first years of the 21st century, the brutal conflict in Darfur traces its roots back to the early 1980s, when drought conditions first triggered competition among tribal groups for scarce resources. These conflicts were intensified by shifting geography, as desertification increasingly pushed nomadic and settled groups into each other’s territory, along with the breakdown of traditional forms of conflict resolution (tribal councils) due to government interference. The mounting tension finally erupted into all-out civil war and genocide in 2002, when settled “African” tribesmen formed the rebel Sudan Liberation Army to protect themselves against the “Arab”-dominated central government (actual ethnic identities are more fluid than these terms might suggest). The central government responded by encouraging the nomadic “Arab” janjaweed to form militias, and the situation soon escalated from combat to mass murder. To date the United Nations estimates that 300,000 people have been killed in Darfur, although the true death toll may be higher.

See Also: 11 Wars That Led to Natural Disasters

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8 Things We Know About Stranger Things Season 3
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[Warning: There are lots of Stranger Things season two spoilers ahead.]

Stranger Things season two is in the books, and like we all hoped, it turned out to be a worthy follow-up to an addictive debut season. Now, though, we’re left with plenty of questions, mysteries, and theories to chew on as the wait for a third season begins. But for everything we don’t know about what the next year of Stranger Things will bring us (such as an actual release date), there are more than enough things we do know to keep those fan theories coming well into 2018. While the show hasn't been officially greenlit for a third season by Netflix yet, new details have already begun to trickle out. Here’s everything we know about Stranger Things season three so far.

1. THERE WILL BE ANOTHER TIME JUMP.

The third season of Stranger Things won’t pick up right where the second one left off. Like the show experienced between the first two seasons, there will be a time jump between seasons two and three as well. The reason is simple: the child actors are all growing up, and instead of having the kids look noticeably older without explanation for year three, the Duffer Brothers told The Hollywood Reporter:

“Our kids are aging. We can only write and produce the show so fast. They're going to be almost a year older by the time we start shooting season three. It provides certain challenges. You can't start right after season two ended. It forces you to do a time jump. But what I like is that it makes you evolve the show. It forces the show to evolve and change, because the kids are changing.”

2. THE IDEA IS TO BE SMALLER IN SCALE.

If the series’s second season was about expanding the Stranger Things mythology, the third season won't go bigger just for the sake of it, with the brothers even going so far as to say that it will be a more intimate story.

“It’s not necessarily going to be bigger in scale,” Matt Duffer said in an interview with IndieWire. “What I am really excited about is giving these characters an interesting journey to go on.”

Ross Duffer did stress, though, that as of early November, season three is basically “… Matt and me working with some writers and figuring out where it’s going to go.”

3. THE MIND FLAYER WILL BE BACK.

The second season ended on a bit of a foreboding note when it was revealed that the Mind Flayer was still in the Upside Down and was seen looming over the Hawkins school as the winter dance was going on. Though we know there will be a time jump at the start of next season, it’s clear that the monster will still have a big presence on the show.

Executive producer Dan Cohen told TV Guide: "There were other ways we could have ended beyond that, but I think that was a very strong, lyrical ending, and it really lets us decide to focus where we ultimately are going to want to go as we dive into Season 3."

What does the Mind Flayer’s presence mean for the new crop of episodes? Well, there will be plenty of fan theories to ponder between now and the season three premiere (whenever that may be).

4. PLENTY OF LEFTOVER SEASON TWO STORYLINES WILL BE IN SEASON THREE.

The Duffer Brothers had a lot of material for the latest season of the show—probably a bit too much. Talking to Vulture, Matt Duffer detailed a few details and plot points that had to be pushed to season three:

"Billy was supposed to have a bigger role. We ended up having so many characters it ended up, in a way, more teed up for season three than anything. There was a whole teen supernatural story line that just got booted because it was just too cluttered, you know? A lot of that’s just getting kicked into season three."

The good news is that he also told the site that this wealth of cut material could make the writing process for the third season much quicker.

5. THERE WILL BE MORE ERICA.

Stranger Things already had a roster of fan-favorite characters heading into season two, but newcomer Erica, Lucas’s little sister, may have overshadowed them all. Played by 11-year-old Priah Ferguson, Erica is equal parts expressive, snarky, and charismatic. And the Duffer Brothers couldn’t agree more, saying that there will be much more Erica next season.

“There will definitely be more Erica in Season 3,” Ross Duffer told Yahoo!. “That is the fun thing about the show—you discover stuff as you’re filming. We were able to integrate more of her in, but not as much you want because the story [was] already going. ‘We got to use more Erica’—that was one of the first things we said in the writers’ room.”

“I thought she’s very GIF-able, if that’s a word,” Matt Duffer added. “She was great.”

6. EXPECT KALI TO RETURN.

The season two episode “The Lost Sister” was a bit of an outlier for the series. It’s a standalone episode that focuses solely on the character Eleven, leaving the central plot and main cast of Hawkins behind. As well-received as Stranger Things season two was, this episode was a near-unanimous miss among fans and critics.

The episode did, however, introduce us to the character of Kali (Linnea Berthelsen), who has the ability to manipulate people’s minds with illusions she creates. Despite the reaction, the Duffers felt the episode was vital to Eleven’s development, and that Kali won’t be forgotten moving forward.

“It feels weird to me that we wouldn’t solve [Kali’s] storyline. I would say chances are very high she comes back,” Matt Duffer said at the Vulture Festival.

7. OTHER "NUMBERS" MIGHT SHOW UP.

We're already well acquainted with Eleven, and season two introduced us to Eight (a.k.a. Kali), and executive producer Shawn Levy heavily hinted to E! that there are probably more Hawkins Laboratory experiments on the horizon.

"I think we've clearly implied there are other numbers, and I can't imagine that the world will only ever know Eleven and Eight," Levy said.

8. THERE MIGHT NOT BE MANY SEASONS LEFT.

Don’t be in too much of a rush to find out everything about the next season of Stranger Things; there might not be many more left. The Duffer Brothers have said in the past that the plan is to do four seasons and end it. However, Levy gave fans a glimmer of hope that things may go on a little while longer—just by a bit, though.

“Hearts were heard breaking in Netflix headquarters when the Brothers made four seasons sound like an official end, and I was suddenly getting phone calls from our actors’ agents,” Levy told Entertainment Weekly. “The truth is we’re definitely going four seasons and there’s very much the possibility of a fifth. Beyond that, it becomes I think very unlikely.”

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20 Random Facts About Shopping
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Shopping on Black Friday—or, really, any time during the holiday season—is a good news/bad news kind of endeavor. The good news? The deals are killer! The bad news? So are the lines. If you find yourself standing behind 200 other people who braved the crowds and sacrificed sleep in order to hit the stores early today, here's one way to pass the time: check out these fascinating facts about shopping through the ages.

1. The oldest customer service complaint was written on a clay cuneiform tablet in Mesopotamia 4000 years ago. (In it, a customer named Nanni complains that he was sold inferior copper ingots.)

2. Before battles, some Roman gladiators read product endorsements. The makers of the film Gladiator planned to show this, but they nixed the idea out of fear that audiences wouldn’t believe it.

3. Like casinos, shopping malls are intentionally designed to make people lose track of time, removing clocks and windows to prevent views of the outside world. This kind of “scripted disorientation” has a name: It’s called the Gruen Transfer.

4. According to a study in Social Influence, people who shopped at or stood near luxury stores were less likely to help people in need.

5. A shopper who first purchases something on his or her shopping list is more likely to buy unrelated items later as a kind of reward.

6. On the Pacific island of Vanuatu, some villages still use pigs and seashells as currency. In fact, the indigenous bank there uses a unit of currency called the Livatu. Its value is equivalent to a boar’s tusk. 

7. Sears used to sell build-your-own homes in its mail order catalogs.

8. The first shopping catalog appeared way back in the 1400s, when an Italian publisher named Aldus Manutius compiled a handprinted catalog of the books that he produced for sale and passed it out at town fairs.

9. The first product ever sold by mail order? Welsh flannel.

10. The first shopping cart was a folding chair with a basket on the seat and wheels on the legs.

11. In the late 1800s in Corinne, Utah, you could buy legal divorce papers from a vending machine for $2.50.

12. Some of the oldest known writing in the world includes a 5000-year-old receipt inscribed on a clay tablet. (It was for clothing that was sent by boat from Ancient Mesopotamia to Dilmun, or current day Bahrain.)

13. Beginning in 112 CE, Emperor Trajan began construction on the largest of Rome's imperial forums, which housed a variety of shops and services and two libraries. Today, Trajan’s Market is regarded as the oldest shopping mall in the world.

14. The Chinese invented paper money. For a time, there was a warning written right on the currency that all counterfeiters would be decapitated.

15. Halle Berry was named after Cleveland, Ohio's Halle Building, which was home to the Halle Brothers department store.

16. At Boston University, students can sign up for a class on the history of shopping. (Technically, it’s called “The Modern American Consumer”)

17. Barbra Streisand had a mini-mall installed in her basement. “Instead of just storing my things in the basement, I can make a street of shops and display them,” she told Harper's Bazaar. (There are photos of it here.)

18. Shopping online is not necessarily greener. A 2016 study at the University of Delaware concluded that “home shopping has a greater impact on the transportation sector than the public might suspect.”

19. Don’t want to waste too much money shopping? Go to the mall in high heels. A 2013 Brigham Young University study discovered that shoppers in high heels made more balanced buying decisions while balancing in pumps.

20. Cyber Monday is not the biggest day for online shopping. The title belongs to November 11, or Singles Day, a holiday in China that encourages singles to send themselves gifts. According to Fortune, this year's event smashed all previous records with more than $38 million in sales.

A heaping handful of these facts came from John Lloyd, John Mitchinson, and James Harkin's delightful book, 1,234 Quite Interesting Facts to Leave You Speechless.

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