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Happy 70th Birthday, Paul Simon!

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To celebrate the birthday of one of our finest pop composers, we look behind the scenes of his classic song, “Bridge Over Troubled Water.”

It was spring 1969. Bobby Kennedy and Martin Luther King were gone. Racial tensions were erupting across the country. The war was raging in Vietnam.

What was a sensitive singer-songwriter like Paul Simon to do but dig deep for some words of solace? As he gazed out the window of his New York apartment across the East River, he sang the opening lines he’d had for over a week. “When you’re weary, feeling small . . . When tears are in your eyes, I will dry them all.” He especially liked how the melody to the second couplet echoed one of his favorite Bach chorales.

But after that promising start, there was only the sound of silence.

“I was stuck for a while,” Simon admitted. “Everywhere I went led to somewhere I didn’t want to be.”

What ultimately inspired him to finish his “humble little gospel song” was an album by southern gospel group The Swan Silvertones.

“Every time I came home, I put that record on, so it was in my mind,” Simon said. “I started to go to gospel chord changes, and took the melody further. Then there was one song where the lead singer was scatting, and he shouted out, ‘I’ll be your bridge over deep water if you trust in my name.’"

That offhand phrase provided the lyrical key he’d been looking for.

Simon couldn’t wait to play his new song for his musical partner Art Garfunkel. With its sweeping melody and sustained high notes, it would be perfect for Garfunkel’s choirboy-pure voice. Or so he thought.

“He didn't want to sing it,” Simon said. “He couldn't hear it for himself. He felt I should have done it. And many times, I think I'm sorry I didn't do it.”

Garfunkel remembered it differently. “When Paul showed me ‘Bridge Over Troubled Water,’ he said it was for me. And I loved the song immediately. My way of saying thank you was, ‘Are you sure? Because you sound lovely singing it, and it’s almost like you could do it . . .’ Now the famous story is that he took offense and that became a thorn between us, as if I was rejecting the song. That’s nonsense.”

Regardless of who was to deliver Simon’s ballad, the duo hustled into CBS studios in Hollywood to chisel out the finer points of the arrangement. But it soon became apparent that the two-verse song wasn’t quite finished.

Garfunkel said, “It was supposed to end with the second verse, but there seemed to be a promise of what could be if Paul were to extend the song. The whole production could open up, and we could make a record with real size.”

Reluctantly, Simon wrote a third verse. “You could clearly see it was written afterwards,” he said. The third verse may not have pleased the songwriter, but it made room for a wonderful kitchen sink arrangement that included two bass parts, vibraphone, strings and a thundering beat, made by the drummer slapping chains from his car’s snow tires across a snare drum.

That third verse also became the source of some lyrical controversy. In the late ‘60s, scouring songs for hidden meanings was every rock fan’s favorite hobby. And listeners wondered about the ambiguous line “Sail on, silver girl.”

Simon said, “There was a whole period of time where the song was supposed to be about heroin.” And silver girl was the syringe. “It’s absolutely not so,” Simon said. In fact, silver girl was a sly reference to Simon’s then-wife Peggy. “It was half a joke,” Simon explained, “because she was upset one day when she found two or three gray hairs on her head.”

Two weeks in the making, the finished record was a dynamic tour-de-force, swelling from a cathedral hush to a deeply moving finale which left all who heard it teary-eyed. It was also five minutes long. Back then, AM radio wouldn’t touch any song over three minutes. But Columbia Records honcho Clive Davis declared, “It’s the first single, first track and title of the album.”

“I knew it was an important song, but I didn’t know it was a hit,” Simon admitted. “Which was not to say I was surprised when it was a hit. I wouldn’t have been surprised if it wasn’t a hit.”

It was indeed a hit, Simon & Garfunkel’s biggest ever. “Bridge Over Troubled Water” spent six weeks at #1. It swept the Grammys in 1971, claiming six awards, including Song of the Year and Record of the Year. Now a standard that’s been translated into many languages, it’s been covered by hundreds of artists, from Johnny Cash to Ray Charles to Annie Lennox.

Breakup Song

Ironically, this song of fellowship contributed to Simon & Garfunkel’s breakup in 1971. As Simon said, “Many times on stage, when I'd be sitting off to the side . . . and Artie would be singing it, people would stomp and cheer when it was over, and I would think, ‘That's my song, man. Thank you very much. I wrote that.’ In the earlier days, when things were smoother I never would have thought that, but towards the end when things were strained, I did. It's not a very generous thing to think, but I did think that.”

Garfunkel said, “We’re strong in our musical opinions, and we’ve had lots of differences, but we’ve remained pretty damned gentlemanly all the way. These stories about how much we didn’t make harmony always make me laugh, because I think, ‘Isn’t the obvious thing about Simon and Garfunkel that they really made harmony very closely?’”

In the reunion tours the duo have staged in recent years, “Bridge Over Troubled Water” closes every show with a blast of that harmonic love.

“I’ve sung it six million four hundred thousand times,” Garfunkel said, “and every time, I get a little visitation of the power of a great song.”

As for Simon, who has continued to grow and experiment as one of pop’s most progressive artists, he remains slightly in awe of the song. He has said, “I know so much more than when I wrote ‘Bridge Over Troubled Water,’ but I doubt that I'll ever write anything that has that ease and simplicity again.”

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Food
Let Alexa Help You Brine a Turkey This Thanksgiving
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There’s a reason most of us only cook turkey once a year: The bird is notoriously easy to overcook. You could rely on gravy and cranberry sauce to salvage your dried-out turkey this Thanksgiving, or you could follow cooking advice from the experts.

Brining a turkey is the best way to guarantee it retains its moisture after hours in the oven. The process is also time-consuming, so do yourself a favor this year and let Alexa be your sous chef.

“Morton Brine Time” is a new skill from the cloud-based home assistant. If you own an Amazon Echo you can download it for free by going online or by asking Alexa to enable it. Once it’s set up, start asking Alexa for brining tips and step-by-step recipes customized to the size of your turkey. Two recipes were developed by Richard Blais, the celebrity chef and restaurateur best known for his Top Chef win and Food Network appearances.

Whether you go for a wet brine (soaking your turkey in water, salt, sugar, and spices) or a dry one (just salt and spices), the process isn’t as intimidating as it sounds. And the knowledge that your bird will come out succulent and juicy will definitely take some stress out of the holiday.

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Big Questions
Why Do the Lions and Cowboys Always Play on Thanksgiving?
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Because it's tradition! But how did this tradition begin?

Every year since 1934, the Detroit Lions have taken the field for a Thanksgiving game, no matter how bad their record has been. It all goes back to when the Lions were still a fairly young franchise. The team started in 1929 in Portsmouth, Ohio, as the Spartans. Portsmouth, while surely a lovely town, wasn't quite big enough to support a pro team in the young NFL. Detroit radio station owner George A. Richards bought the Spartans and moved the team to Detroit in 1934.

Although Richards's new squad was a solid team, they were playing second fiddle in Detroit to the Hank Greenberg-led Tigers, who had gone 101-53 to win the 1934 American League Pennant. In the early weeks of the 1934 season, the biggest crowd the Lions could draw for a game was a relatively paltry 15,000. Desperate for a marketing trick to get Detroit excited about its fledgling football franchise, Richards hit on the idea of playing a game on Thanksgiving. Since Richards's WJR was one of the bigger radio stations in the country, he had considerable clout with his network and convinced NBC to broadcast a Thanksgiving game on 94 stations nationwide.

The move worked brilliantly. The undefeated Chicago Bears rolled into town as defending NFL champions, and since the Lions had only one loss, the winner of the first Thanksgiving game would take the NFL's Western Division. The Lions not only sold out their 26,000-seat stadium, they also had to turn fans away at the gate. Even though the juggernaut Bears won that game, the tradition took hold, and the Lions have been playing on Thanksgiving ever since.

This year, the Lions host the Minnesota Vikings.

HOW 'BOUT THEM COWBOYS?


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The Cowboys, too, jumped on the opportunity to play on Thanksgiving as an extra little bump for their popularity. When the chance to take the field on Thanksgiving arose in 1966, it might not have been a huge benefit for the Cowboys. Sure, the Lions had filled their stadium for their Thanksgiving games, but that was no assurance that Texans would warm to holiday football so quickly.

Cowboys general manager Tex Schramm, though, was something of a marketing genius; among his other achievements was the creation of the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders.

Schramm saw the Thanksgiving Day game as a great way to get the team some national publicity even as it struggled under young head coach Tom Landry. Schramm signed the Cowboys up for the game even though the NFL was worried that the fans might just not show up—the league guaranteed the team a certain gate revenue in case nobody bought tickets. But the fans showed up in droves, and the team broke its attendance record as 80,259 crammed into the Cotton Bowl. The Cowboys beat the Cleveland Browns 26-14 that day, and a second Thanksgiving pigskin tradition caught hold. Since 1966, the Cowboys have missed having Thanksgiving games only twice.

Dallas will take on the Los Angeles Chargers on Thursday.

WHAT'S WITH THE NIGHT GAME?


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In 2006, because 6-plus hours of holiday football was not sufficient, the NFL added a third game to the Thanksgiving lineup. This game is not assigned to a specific franchise—this year, the Washington Redskins will welcome the New York Giants.

Re-running this 2008 article a few days before the games is our Thanksgiving tradition.

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