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They Could've Been Beatles

In June of 1956, a 15-year-old named John Lennon started the band that was to eventually develop into "The Beatles." In August of 1962, Richard "Ringo Starr" Starkey officially joined the soon-to-be-famous rock group, joining John Lennon, Paul McCartney, and George Harrison as the final official line-up of The Beatles. But in those intervening 7 years, 27 other guys played on stage as part of the band.

Four men would go on to gain fame as The Beatles, while these 27 others would simply become footnotes in the story of the "Fab Four."

When Lennon formed the band in '56, he enlisted his pals Pete Shotton (on washboard) and Eric Griffiths (on guitar, like Lennon) at Quarry Bank School. For a few weeks, they used the name "The Blackjacks," but it didn't stick, and they changed it to "The Quarrymen," in honor of their school. Soon after, they recruited Rod Davies, who had just acquired a banjo.

From time to time, other friends would join The Quarrymen. There was Bill Smith, who frequently failed to turn up for practices and was quickly shown the door, as well as Ivan Vaughn and Nigel Walley, who were pals of Lennon and occasionally played tea-chest bass, but didn't have the tenacity to stick with the band. One of Vaughn's friends, Len Garry, then took over the role of tea-chest bass player. When Griffiths discovered his neighbor, Colin Hanton, owned a set of drums, he quickly brought him on board as the first-ever drummer for the band.

By the end of 1956, the band had 6 members:

Lennon (guitar), Shotton (washboard), Griffiths (guitar), Davies (banjo), Garry (tea-chest bass), and Hanton (drums).

July 6, 1957, is possibly the single most important day in the history of The Beatles. On that day, Vaughn brought his friend Paul McCartney, a fresh-faced 15-year-old, to meet Lennon, the band's leader. McCartney watched the band play at a local church club party; he later recalled how Lennon had "the smell of beer on his breath" when they met. McCartney was soon asked to join the band. Lennon remembered asking him right then and there, but other accounts say he was asked by Vaughn a few days later, at Lennon's invitation.

George Harrison, a pal of McCartney, joined the band on February 6, 1958. The band didn't need four guitarists (Lennon, Griffiths, McCartney, and Harrison), so, when given the chance to buy a bass guitar or leave, Griffiths chose to walk.

Around the same time, John Duff, a piano player, would occasionally join the group when they were performing at a venue with a piano.

In August 1958, poor Garry developed tubercular meningitis and spent several weeks in the hospital, as well as several more recuperating after. By the time he was back on his feet, the band had moved on. Hanton, who was older than the others and had started a "real" job, didn't want to jeopardize his new career and felt he had had enough, and so he quit.

By the end of 1958, the band had 6 members:

Lennon (guitar), Shotton (washboard), Davies (banjo), McCartney (guitar), Harrison (guitar), and—on occasion—Duff (piano).

As 1958 drew to a close, bookings for The Quarreymen had dried up. Nobody wanted to book a group with only three guitars. Around this time, Lennon was also drinking heavily to cope with his mother's death in a tragic accident; he temporarily lost interest in music and the group. After a local gig in January 1959, The Quarreymen split up.

By August, the band had re-formed, adding a new member, Ken Brown, a friend of Harrison, though the name "The Quarreymen" was never used again. The group frequently played gigs at a new local joint called the Casbah Club.

Lennon's college friend, an artist named Stuart Sutcliffe, joined the group with his brand-new bass guitar (although he was only a mediocre player). They became the local band at Liverpool Art College dances.

In January 1960, they became The Beatals.

An interesting temporary addition to the band was McCartney's kid brother, Mike McCartney. His presence, even temporarily, in the band is disputed, but there is a photo of Mike playing on the band's drum kit. Hanton, who had come back when the group re-formed, did admit to missing a few gigs in April of 1960; both he and Mike agree that Mike may have sat in for him on such occasions.

For their first ever tour, a brief 9-day stint in Scotland in May 1960, the boys recruited a drummer named Tommy Moore to accompany them. (Harrison would later recall Moore as "the best drummer we ever had," much to Ringo Starr's chagrin.)

On May 14, 1960, the drummer-less Silver-Beats (the only time they ever used this name) appeared on the bill with Cliff Roberts and the Rockers. They "borrowed" the band's drummer, Cliff Roberts himself, to fill in for them.

Two months later, on June 14, 1960, the band needed a drummer, as usual. A tough guy in the audience, known only as Ron, stepped up from the crowd and bashed away on the drums, becoming a "one night wonder." Another drummer, Norman Chapman, also played with The Beatles in June 1960, but he was called up for national service after only a few weeks with the band.

August of 1960 was another landmark moment for The Beatles with the addition of Pete Best on drums. Best would be the "fourth Beatle" for the next two years.

The group officially became "The Beatles" in August 1960 with 5 regular members:

Lennon (guitar), McCartney (guitar), Harrison (guitar), Sutcliffe (bass), and Best (drums).

Guitarist Chas Newby joined the group for just four gigs in December of 1960.

Sutcliffe quit in April 1961 while the group was playing in Hamburg, Germany. There, The Beatles backed Tony Sheridan at the Top Ten Club, recording a song called "My Bonnie" under the name "Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers." A year later, Sutcliffe died of a kick to the head he received in an attack by a few local gang members after a concert.

The Beatles and Gerry and the Pacemakers joined forces with Karl Terry at Litherland Town Hall on October 19, 1961, to perform as "The Beatmakers." Harrison was on lead guitar and McCartney played rhythm, with Best and Freddie Marsden splitting the drumming duties. Les Chadwick played the bass guitar accompanied by McCartney on piano, with Terry joining on the vocals. Finally, Gerry Marsden played guitar and sang, while Les MacGuire playing the saxophone.

When Lennon contracted laryngitis on February 1, 1962, local singer Rory Storm stepped in for him at the last minute. Later that spring, boogie-woogie piano player Roy Young joined The Beatles on stage at the Star Club in Hamburg. Young, providing back-up vocals as well, recorded "Sweet Georgia Brown" and "Swanee River" with The Beatles on May 24, 1962.

The Beatles unmercifully dropped Pete Best in August of 1962 in favor of Ringo Starr. There were a few gigs in the interim, though, so Johnny Hutchinson sat in on the skins.

August 1962, The Beatles are a "Fab Four":

Lennon (guitar), McCartney (guitar), Harrison (guitar), and Ringo Starr (drums), whose official debut was August 18, 1962.

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40 Years Later: Watch The Johnny Cash Christmas Show
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Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Over the course of his career, Johnny Cash made a series of Christmas TV specials and recorded a string of Christmas records. In this 1977 TV performance, Cash is in great form. He brings special guests Roy Clark, June Carter Cash, The Carter Family, Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison ("Pretty Woman" starts around 23:50), Carl Perkins, and the Statler Brothers. Tune in for Christmas as we celebrated it 40 years ago—with gigantic shirt collars, wavy hair, and bow ties. So many bow ties.

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14 Fascinating Facts About Saturday Night Fever
Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures

We can tell by the way you use your walk that you're a fan of Saturday Night Fever, the 1977 blockbuster that made John Travolta a mega-star and brought disco into the mainstream. (Whether that's a good thing or a bad thing is a matter of opinion.) To enhance your appreciation of what was the highest-grossing dance movie of all time until Darren Aronofsky’s Black Swan (2010) and Steven Soderbergh’s Magic Mike (2012) beat it, here's a groovy list of facts to celebrate the film's 40th birthday. Put on your boogie shoes and read! 

1. THERE WAS A PG-RATED VERSION OF IT, TOO.

Saturday Night Fever was an instant hit when it was released in December 1977, quickly becoming one of the highest-grossing movies of the year. What's especially impressive is that it did this despite being rated R and thus (theoretically) inaccessible to teenagers, the very audience that a disco movie would (theoretically) appeal to. And so in March 1979, the film was re-released in a PG version, with all the profanity, sex, and violence either deleted or downplayed. This version took in another $8.9 million (about $30 million at 2016 ticket prices), bringing the film's U.S. total to $94.2 million. Both versions were released on VHS and laserdisc, though the R-rated cut didn't become widely available on home video until the DVD upgrade. 

2. IT WAS BASED ON A MAGAZINE ARTICLE THAT TURNED OUT TO BE SEMI-FICTIONAL.

"Tribal Rites of the New Saturday Night," a detailed look at the new generation of urban teenagers by British journalist Nik Cohn, was published in New York Magazine in June 1976. The central figure in the article was Vincent, "the very best dancer in Bay Ridge," whose name was changed to Tony Manero for the movie. But years later, Cohn confessed: "[Vincent] is completely made-up, a total fabrication." The styles and attitudes Cohn had described were real, but not the main character. Cohn said he'd only recently arrived in Brooklyn, didn't know the scene well, and based Vincent on a Mod he'd known in London in the '60s.

3. THE BEE GEES HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH IT.

Most of the film had already been shot when music producer-turned-movie producer Robert Stigwood commissioned the Bee Gees to write songs for it. The brothers, only modestly successful at that point and hard at work on their next album, didn't know what the movie was about but cranked out a few tunes in a weekend. They also repurposed several songs they'd been working on, including "Stayin' Alive," a demo version of which was prepared in time to be used in filming the opening "strut" sequence. (You'll notice Travolta struts in sync with the music.) So if the movie's signature songs didn't come until later, what were the cast members listening to when they shot the dance scenes? According to Travolta, it was Boz Scaggs and Stevie Wonder. 

4. THE SOUNDTRACK ALBUM BROKE ALL KINDS OF RECORDS.

With 15 million copies sold in the U.S. alone, Saturday Night Fever was the top-selling soundtrack album of all time before being supplanted by The Bodyguard some 15 years later. It's also the only disco record (so far) to win the Grammy for Album of the Year, and one of only three soundtracks (besides The Bodyguard and O Brother, Where Art Thou?) to win that category. It was the number one album on the Billboard charts for the entire first half of 1978, and stayed on the charts until March 1980, long after the supposed death of disco.

5. THE MOVIE EXTENDED DISCO'S LIFESPAN BY A FEW YEARS.

Disco had been popular enough in the mid-1970s to land multiple disco tunes on the Billboard charts, but by the end of 1977, when Saturday Night Fever came out, the backlash had started and the trend was on its way out. But thanks to the movie (and its soundtrack), not only did disco not die out, it achieved more widespread, mainstream, middle-America success than it ever had before.

6. IT HAS SOME ROCKY CONNECTIONS.


Paramount Pictures

First connection: It was supposed to be directed by John G. Avildsen, whose previous film was Rocky. Ultimately, that didn’t work out and Avildsen was replaced with John Badham a few weeks before shooting began. Second connection: Tony has a Rocky poster on his bedroom wall. Third connection: Saturday Night Fever’s 1983 sequel, Staying Alive, was directed by ... Sylvester Stallone.

7. TRAVOLTA WAS ALREADY SO FAMOUS THAT MAKING THE MOVIE WAS A HASSLE.

Saturday Night Fever made Travolta a movie star, but he was already a teen heartthrob because of the popular sitcom Welcome Back, Kotter, where he played a delinquent teenager with the hilarious and timeless catchphrase "Up your nose with a rubber hose." Still, nobody was prepared for how Travolta's fame would affect the movie, which was to be shot on the streets of Brooklyn. As soon as the neighborhood found out Travolta was there, the sidewalks were swarmed by thousands of onlookers, many of them squealing teenage girls. (Badham said there were also a lot of teenage boys holding signs expressing their hatred for Travolta for being more desirable than themselves.)

Co-star Donna Pescow said, "The fans—oh, my God, they were all over him. It was scary to watch." Badham said, "By noon of the first day, we had to shut down and go home." Since it was nearly impossible to keep the crowds away (or quiet), Badham and the crew resorted to filming in the middle of the night or at the crack of dawn. 

8. THE WHITE CASTLE EMPLOYEES WEREN'T ACTING WHEN THEY LOOKED SHOCKED. 


Paramount Pictures

In the brief scene where Tony, his boys, and Stephanie are loudly eating at White Castle, those were the real burger-flippers, not actors. Badham told them to just go about their business. He also told his actors to cut loose and surprise the White Castlers in whatever way they saw fit. The shot that's in the movie appears to be a reaction to Joey standing on the table and barking, but Badham said it was actually in response to something else: "Double J (actor Paul Pape) pulling his pants down and mooning the entire staff of the White Castle."

9. THE FEMALE LEAD GOT THE PART THANKS TO A SERENDIPITOUS CAB RIDE.

Casting the role of Tony's dance partner, Stephanie, proved difficult. Hundreds of women auditioned, but nobody seemed right. Meanwhile, 32-year-old Karen Lynn Gorney was looking for her big break into show business. As fate would have it, she shared a cab with a stranger who turned out to be producer Robert Stigwood's nephew. He mentioned that his uncle was working on a movie, and Gorney replied, "Oh, am I in it?"— her standard joke whenever she heard about a film being made. The nephew wound up submitting Gorney as a candidate, and the rest is history. 

10. TRAVOLTA’S GIRLFRIEND DIED DURING FILMING.

John Travolta stars in Saturday Night Fever (1977)
Paramount Pictures

Travolta met Diana Hyland on the set of the TV movie The Boy in the Plastic Bubble, in which she played his mother. (She was 18 years older than him.) They had been dating for six months when Hyland succumbed to breast cancer at the age of 41, after filming just four episodes of her new gig on Eight Is Enough. Travolta was able to leave Saturday Night Fever and fly to L.A. in time to be with her before she died, then had to return to work. 

11. THE COMPOSER HAD TO SCRAMBLE TO REPLACE A NIXED SONG.

For Tony and Stephanie's rehearsal scene about 30 minutes into the movie, Badham had used the song "Lowdown" by Boz Scaggs, going so far as to shoot the scene, including the dialogue, with the song actually playing in the background. (That's usually a no-no, for exactly the reasons you're about to read about.) According to Badham, no sooner had they wrapped the scene than Scaggs' people reached out to say they couldn't use the song after all, as Scaggs was thinking of pursuing a disco project of his own. Badham now had to have the actors re-dub the dialogue (since the version he'd recorded was tainted by "Lowdown"); what's more, he had to find a new song that would fit the choreography and tempo of the dancing. Composer David Shire rose to the occasion, writing a piece of instrumental music that met the specifications, and that’s what we hear in the movie. 

12. THEY MADE UP A DANCE BECAUSE THE CHOREOGRAPHER DIDN'T SHOW UP.

In another rehearsal scene 55 minutes into the movie, Tony and Stephanie do the "tango hustle," which looks like a combination of both of those dances. This was something Travolta and Gorney invented as a matter of necessity: the film's choreographer didn't realize he was supposed to be on the set that day, and the actors didn't have any steps prepared. The tango hustle, alas, never quite caught on.  

13. TONY’S ICONIC WHITE SUIT WAS SUPPOSED TO BE BLACK.

Travolta and Badham both assumed Tony's disco outfit would be black, as men's suits tended to be at the time. Costume designer Patrizia Von Brandenstein convinced them it should be white, partly to symbolize the character's journey to enlightenment but also for practical reasons: a dark suit doesn't photograph very well in a dark discotheque. 

14. TONY’S SUIT WAS LATER SOLD FOR $2000—THEN FOR $145,500.

Von Brandenstein took Travolta to a cheap men's clothing store in Brooklyn (swamped by teenage fans, of course) and bought the suit off the rack—three identical suits, actually, so they wouldn't have to stop filming when one became soaked with Travolta's sweat. Two of the suits disappeared after the movie was finished; the remaining one, inscribed by Travolta, was bought at a charity auction in 1979 by film critic Gene Siskel, who cited Saturday Night Fever as one of his favorite movies. He paid about $2000 for it. In 1995, he sold it for $145,500 to an anonymous bidder through Christie's auction house.

In 2012, after a lengthy search, curators at London's Victoria and Albert Museum found the owner (who still preferred to remain anonymous) and persuaded him to lend it for an exhibit of Hollywood costumes. It is now presumably back in that man's care, whoever he may be. (P.S. Badham says on the 2002 DVD commentary that the suit is on display at the Smithsonian, a tidbit repeated by NPR in 2006 and Vanity Fair in 2007. But they must be mistaken. The suit’s sale in 1995 and rediscovery for the 2012 museum exhibit are verified facts; the suit isn't in the Smithsonian's online catalogue; and finally, a 2007 Washington Post story about the Smithsonian lists the suit as one of the items the museum director wanted to get.)

Additional sources:
John Badham DVD commentary
DVD featurettes

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