Original image

Companion Animals: 5 Tales of Friendship From the Animal Kingdom

Original image

1. Bovine Buddies

© beyond/Corbis

A British study published this month reveals that individual cows form tight “best friendships” with others cows, with whom they wile away the warm afternoons chewing cud and shootin’ the bull. When a cow is taken away from her “best friend,” her stress levels increase and her milk yields decrease. “When heifers have their preferred partner with them, their stress levels…are reduced compared with if they were with a random individual,” said Krista McLennan, a grad student at Northampton University who discovered the correlation.

2. Holy Midwives, Batman!

Researchers studying wild Bechstein's bats found that, like cows, female bats choose specific companions with whom they roost and, um, hang out with. These friendships can last years and sometimes a lifetime, according to a study published earlier this year in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Some female bats were even found to act as midwives for their friends. In one documented case, a female fruit bat in Florida “repeatedly groomed and hugged [another, unrelated] pregnant bat during her pregnancy,” according to an article in Discovery News. The attending bat, along with another friend, then later fanned the mother with their wings.

3. Pachyderm’s Dilemma

Elephant friends are able to outwit a rudimentary version of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, the famous problem in game theory. According to researchers from Emory University and the Thai Elephant Conservation Center in Thailand, elephants were able to figure out that if they worked together, pulling two ends of the same piece of rope simultaneously, they’d get a treat, whereas if one elephant pulled the rope without the other’s participation, neither elephant was rewarded. In both the wild and captivity, elephants have long been observed to form close, sometimes life-long friendships with other elephants, eating together, bathing together and—in a uniquely pachydermy show of love—draping their ears and trunks over a friend’s head, trunk, or back.

4. You Scratch My Back, I’ll Scratch Yours

Both male and female chimpanzees often form long-term friendships with other chimps of their own sex to whom they are unrelated. Chimp pals generally do what human pals do: they share food, hang out together, take naps, patrol their surroundings and—perhaps most importantly—groom one another. Whether two chimp friends groom each other for roughly the same amount of time per day is a primary indicator of how long their friendship will last. Male friendships tended to last about seven years, according to a University of Michigan study, but other chimp friendships can last a lifetime.

During times of high stress, chimp friends often seek comfort and reassurance from one another, petting, hugging and expressing sympathy for their pals.

5. (Dolphin) Ladies Night

Friendships among female dolphins look a lot like friendships among female humans out for a night on the town. Like any good girlfriend, female dolphins protect their friends from inappropriate male dolphins attempting to breed with them, and from sharks and other predators, according to a recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Male dolphins also—perhaps not surprisingly, given the social anthropology of a nightclub—travel with a wingman or two. One of the primary roles these tight-knit male duos and trios play is to help their buddies mate with a female before she can swim away.

Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

Original image
Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
Original image

It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]