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Isaac Asimov Interviewed by Bill Moyers

In 1988, Bill Moyers interviewed Isaac Asimov, when Asimov's Prelude to Foundation was released. The three-part interview is fascinating, partly because of when it was recorded; Asimov's insights are partly timeless (for example, his thoughts about death) and partly extremely timely (his predictions about the near future, like global networks). Discussed: education, the future, science, astronomy, chemistry, technology, religion, population growth, employment, curiosity, and more.

Sample quote: "Human history is a chaotic thing. Small changes have big results, unpredictable in direction. But if we're looking at something that is essentially simple, such as stars and galaxies and things like that -- then, it is possible to look far, far ahead. We may be wrong, but it is possible to make a case for something that might happened 10100 years in the future -- [that's] one with a hundred zeroes after it."

The remainder of the interview is after the jump.

My favorite quote, on the topic of Asimov's having written down "every idea [he's] ever had" and the notion that others might be depressed not to have his gift for writing: "Well, I wouldn't want people to do that. A little is better than nothing. In fact, you might say that I overdo it -- lately I've been thinking that people must look upon me as some kind of a freak. There was a certain pleasure in writing 100 books, you know, I felt, 'I've accomplished something.' And then 200. But now it stands at 391, it's liable to be 400 by the end of the year, and I have every intention of continuing because I enjoy the process. In the end it seems to me that nobody'll care what I write, just the number, and maybe I will have defeated myself in that way." If you want to know that number, read up on Asimov at Wikipedia.

See also: The Late Movies: Isaac Asimov's "Visions of the Future."

(Via Brain Pickings; the source article is very much worth reading! Go read it!)

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Animals
How a Pregnant Rhino Named Victoria Could Save an Entire Subspecies
Sudan, the last male member of the northern white rhino subspecies, while being shipped to Kenya in 2009
Sudan, the last male member of the northern white rhino subspecies, while being shipped to Kenya in 2009
Tony Karumba, AFP/Getty Images

The last male northern white rhino died at a conservancy in Kenya earlier this year, prompting fears that the subspecies was finally done for after decades of heavy poaching. Scientists say there's still hope, though, and they're banking on a pregnant rhino named Victoria at the San Diego Zoo, according to the Associated Press.

Victoria is actually a southern white rhino, but the two subspecies are related. Only two northern white rhinos survive, but neither of the females in Kenya are able to reproduce. Victoria was successfully impregnated through artificial insemination, and if she successfully carries her calf to term in 16 to 18 months, scientists say she might be able to serve as a surrogate mother and propagate the northern white rhino species.

But how would that work if no male northern rhinos survive? As the AP explains, scientists are working to recreate northern white rhino embryos using genetic technology. The San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research has the frozen cell lines of 12 different northern white rhinos, which can be transformed into stem cells—and ultimately, sperm and eggs. The sperm of the last northern white male rhino, Sudan, was also saved before he died.

Scientists have been monitoring six female southern white rhinos at the San Diego Zoo to see if any emerge as likely candidates for surrogacy. However, it's not easy to artificially inseminate a rhino, and there have been few successful births in the past. There's still a fighting chance, though, and scientists ultimately hope they'll be able to build up a herd of five to 15 northern white rhinos over the next few decades.

[h/t Time Magazine]

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entertainment
Why Our Brains Love Plot Twists
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From the father-son reveal in The Empire Strikes Back to the shocking realization at the end of The Sixth Sense, everyone loves a good plot twist. It's not the element of surprise that makes them so enjoyable, though. It's largely the set-up, according to cognitive scientist Vera Tobin.

Tobin, a researcher at Case Western Reserve University, writes for The Conversationthat one of the most enjoyable moments of a film or novel comes after the big reveal, when we get to go back and look at the clues we may have missed. "The most satisfying surprises get their power from giving us a fresh, better way of making sense of the material that came before," Tobin writes. "This is another opportunity for stories to turn the curse of knowledge to their advantage."

The curse of knowledge, Tobin explains, refers to a psychological effect in which knowledge affects our perception and "trips us up in a lot of ways." For instance, a puzzle always seems easier than it really is after we've learned how to solve it, and once we know which team won a baseball game, we tend to overestimate how likely that particular outcome was.

Good writers know this intuitively and use it to their advantage to craft narratives that will make audiences want to review key points of the story. The end of The Sixth Sense, for example, replays earlier scenes of the movie to clue viewers in to the fact that Bruce Willis's character has been dead the whole time—a fact which seems all too obvious in hindsight, thanks to the curse of knowledge.

This is also why writers often incorporate red herrings—or false clues—into their works. In light of this evidence, movie spoilers don't seem so terrible after all. According to one study, even when the plot twist is known in advance, viewers still experience suspense. Indeed, several studies have shown that spoilers can even enhance enjoyment because they improve "fluency," or a viewer's ability to process and understand the story.

Still, spoilers are pretty universally hated—the Russo brothers even distributed fake drafts of Avengers: Infinity War to prevent key plot points from being leaked—so it's probably best not to go shouting the end of this summer's big blockbuster before your friends have seen it.

[h/t The Conversation]

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