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Your Camping Equipment's Fascinating History

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Now that spring has sprung, you might be planning a weekend camping trip with your family or friends. As you stuff your car with all the necessary equipment, take a moment to reflect on the fascinating history of some of those must-have camping accessories.

1. ?Duffel Bag

While rucksacks have been around for hundreds (if not thousands) of years, they were usually made from animal skins or wool, which only did so much to protect contents from the harsh elements. But Spanish and Portuguese sailors of the early 17th century hit on a better solution. They found that bags made from the leftover scraps of fabric used to repair a ship's sails did a fine job against rain and sea water. This coarse, sturdy, waterproof material was imported from its one supplier in the town of Duffel, Belgium.

2. Flashlight

When D cell batteries became commercially available in 1896, it opened the door for all kinds of battery-powered inventions. One was the “electrical hand torch,” introduced in 1898 by the American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Company, which would later change its name to The American Ever-Ready Company. The first lights were paper and fiber tubes, with a carbon filament bulb covered by a lens on one end, two D batteries inside, and a metal ring on the side. Pressing down on the ring caused it to hit two metal poles—one positive and one negative—which completed the electrical connection, lighting up the bulb.

Early batteries were quite weak, though, so the light only came on in brief flashes before going out again, which is how they got their nickname, “flashlights.” Heavy use of the light also meant that it had to be “rested” so that the batteries could recharge. Still, it was much better than carrying a candle that could go out, a lantern that had to be refilled with oil, and, more importantly, there was no chance of starting a fire.

As battery and filament technologies improved, the flashlights could stay on for minutes at a time, but the name had already become synonymous, so it stuck (in America and Canada anyway; the rest of the world still calls them “torches”).

While the lights were fairly popular, sales really skyrocketed in 1898 when Ever-Ready donated their new and improved metal flashlights to the New York City Police Department. When officers reported how useful the lights were in their duties, these testimonies were included in the company's product catalog, adding weight to the quality and usefulness of the brand. ??

3. Sleeping Bag

The modern sleeping bag was influenced by a number of different sources. In the 1850s, French officials who patrolled the mountains had a knapsack bag made of sheepskin and lined with wool that could be rolled up and buckled in place, then carried with shoulder straps. Then, in 1861, Alpine explorer Francis Fox Tuckett tested a prototype sleeping bag made from a blanket with a waterproof rubber bottom. Both of these designs were little more than an open-ended man-sized bag, so getting in and out for a late-night bathroom break was a bit of a hassle, but it got the job done.


A more convenient design came from Welsh inventor and father of the mail order business model, Pryce Pryce-Jones. In 1876, he introduced the Euklisia Rug. The Rug consisted of a wool blanket with an off-center pocket at the top for a sewn-in, inflatable, rubber pillow. Once inside, you folded the blanket over and fastened it together to keep you snug as a bug. P.J., as he called himself, had produced 60,000 Rugs exclusively for the Russian Army; many were used in the 1877 Siege of Plevna during the Russo-Turkish War. However, when the city fell, the Russians canceled the rest of their order, leaving P.J. with 17,000 Rugs left undelivered. He quickly added the Euklisia Rug to his catalog and sold it as an inexpensive bedding solution for charities working with the poor. The rug caught on, and it was soon being used by the British Army and Australians camping in the Outback, too.

No known examples of the Euklisia Rug exist today, but in 2010, the BBC commissioned a replica made from the original patent as part of a special TV series called A History of the World. They donated the recreation to a museum in Powys County in Wales, where Pryce-Jones lived.

4. Air Mattress

The first air mattress was invented in 1889 by the Pneumatic Mattress & Cushion Company in Reading, Massachusetts. Surprisingly, the design of the mattress has remained virtually unchanged over the last 120 years, closely resembling the standard air mattress used for lounging in the swimming pool today.

The rubber mattresses were originally produced as an alternative to hair-filled mattresses on Atlantic steamships because they could be deflated and stowed easily, and could even be used as a life raft if needed.  The mattresses' easy storage was also a big selling point for landlubbers who, in the early part of the 20th century, moved out of the country and into one-room city apartments where space was limited.

To sell their inflatable mattress, the company offered a 30-day trial period, a tactic still used today by many mattress retailers. If you didn't love your pneumatic mattress, you could return it for a full refund of $22 for the adult version, or $11 for the baby crib-sized version. ?

5. Leatherman Tool

Ask any outdoorsman, farmer, EMT, computer technician, or soldier to give up his Leatherman Multi-tool and you'll likely be told, “You can pry it from my cold, dead hands.” Fans of the handy gadget are dedicated to the multi-tool thanks to its compact size, versatility, and quality construction. But just what is a “leatherman” anyway? Is it a nickname given to rough and tumble mountain men in the 19th Century? Maybe they were soldiers that were part of a special brigade that fought in the Civil War? Nope. It's a guy. His name's Tim.


When Tim Leatherman, a mechanical engineer, and his wife were traveling through Europe in 1975, their rented Fiat kept breaking down. Tim was pretty handy, but he found that his old Scout knife, which had a couple of blades, a can opener, and a flat head screwdriver, simply wasn't enough tool to keep the old car running. So, using cardboard cutouts, and then later making a metal prototype in his garage workshop, he developed what he called a “multi-tool” that he thought would change the world. Unfortunately, the world wasn't too impressed.

Tim tried to sell the idea to knife companies, but they said it was more like a tool. Tool companies said it wasn't a tool, but a “gadget,” so they weren't interested, either. Tim eventually decided to make and sell the Leatherman on his own, but still couldn't find anyone to carry it in their stores. Finally, in 1983, he convinced a mail-order catalog to sell his “Sportsmen” multi-tool. Tim had the resources to produce as many as 4,000 Leatherman multi-tools. He received 30,000 orders in his first year.

6. Sterno

If starting a campfire isn't your strong suit, it never hurts to have some Sterno, the flammable gel in a can, within reach. This “canned heat” has been around since 1893 and takes its unusual name from the company's founder, S. Sternau. The product really hit its stride during World War I, when the Sternau Company ran a marketing campaign suggesting soldiers going to Europe could use Sterno to heat water and rations, sterilize surgical instruments, and provide light and warmth in the cold, dark trenches. Soon, just about every Doughboy had a few cans in his duffel bag.

Sidebar: Too Much of a Bad Thing

Sterno gel is a concoction of various chemicals, including ethanol and methanol. The methanol is added to “denature” the product, essentially making it poisonous in an effort to discourage anyone from drinking it for the ethanol to get a buzz. Methanol poisoning can lead to a wide range of health problems, including stomach cramps, hallucinations, convulsions, blindness, and could even kill you, so you would think that would be a pretty good deterrent. Still, some desperate folks have been known to create “squeeze” by either wrapping the gel in cheesecloth and squeezing out the liquid, or by straining the gel length-wise through an entire loaf of bread. (The bread doesn't make it any safer to drink at all, but it does apparently make it taste a little better.)

In 1963, Max Feinberg sold Sterno at his cigar store near the skid row section of Philadelphia. His was the only store in town that sold the stuff, so he had quite a few homeless customers that would buy a few cheap cans to keep warm, but also to make squeeze. At the time, Sterno had two versions of the canned heat—a standard version that had 3.75% methanol, and an industrial version that contained 54% methanol. Unfortunately, Feinberg accidentally received a few cases of the industrial-strength version, but was none the wiser when he sold nearly 400 cans during the week of Christmas. This meant his customers’ squeeze came out more potent than usual and 31 people died of methanol poisoning.

The court had evidence that Feinberg often asked his customers how their last batch of squeeze turned out, indicating he knew people were drinking the Sterno when he sold it to them. That was enough cause for him to be brought up on 31 counts of involuntary manslaughter. However, he was only tried and convicted on 17 counts; he received a suspended sentence on all but five. Ultimately, he served about six years in prison for his part in the deaths.

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40 Fun Facts About Sesame Street
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Now in its 47th season, Sesame Street is one of television's most iconic programs—and it's not just for kids. We're big fans of the Street, and to prove it, here are some of our favorite Sesame facts from previous stories and our Amazing Fact Generator.

Sesame Workshop

1. Oscar the Grouch used to be orange. Jim Henson decided to make him green before season two.

2. How did Oscar explain the color change? He said he went on vacation to the very damp Swamp Mushy Muddy and turned green overnight.

3. During a 2004 episode, Cookie Monster said that before he started eating cookies, his name was Sid.

4. In 1980, C-3PO and R2-D2 visited Sesame Street. They played games, sang songs, and R2-D2 fell in love with a fire hydrant.

5. Mr. Snuffleupagus has a first name—Aloysius

6. Ralph Nader stopped by in 1988 and sang "a consumer advocate is a person in your neighborhood."

7. Caroll Spinney said he based Oscar's voice on a cab driver from the Bronx who brought him to the audition.

8. In 1970, Ernie reached #16 on the Billboard Hot 100 with the timeless hit "Rubber Duckie."

9. One of Count von Count's lady friends is Countess von Backwards, who's also obsessed with counting but likes to do it backwards.

10. Sesame Street made its Afghanistan debut in 2011 with Baghch-e-Simsim (Sesame Garden). Big Bird, Grover and Elmo are involved.

11. According to Muppet Wiki, Oscar the Grouch and Count von Count were minimized on Baghch-e-Simsim "due to cultural taboos against trash and vampirism."

12. Before Giancarlo Esposito was Breaking Bad's super intense Gus Fring, he played Big Bird's camp counselor Mickey in 1982.

13. Thankfully, those episodes are available on YouTube.

14. How big is Big Bird? 8'2". (Pictured with First Lady Pat Nixon.)

15. In 2002, the South African version (Takalani Sesame) added an HIV-positive Muppet named Kami.

16. Six Republicans on the House Commerce Committee wrote a letter to PBS president Pat Mitchell warning that Kami was not appropriate for American children, and reminded Mitchell that their committee controlled PBS' funding.

17. Sesame Street's resident game show host Guy Smiley was using a pseudonym. His real name was Bernie Liederkrantz.

18. Bert and Ernie have been getting questioned about their sexuality for years. Ernie himself, as performed by Steve Whitmere, has weighed in: “All that stuff about me and Bert? It’s not true. We’re both very happy, but we’re not gay,”

19. A few years later, Bert (as performed by Eric Jacobson) answered the same question by saying, “No, no. In fact, sometimes we are not even friends; he can be a pain in the neck.”

20. In the first season, both Superman and Batman appeared in short cartoons produced by Filmation. In one clip, Batman told Bert and Ernie to stop arguing and take turns choosing what’s on TV.

21. In another segment, Superman battled a giant chimp.

22. Telly was originally "Television Monster," a TV-obsessed Muppet whose eyes whirled around as he watched.

23. According to Sesame Workshop, Elmo is the only non-human to testify before Congress.

24. He lobbied for more funding for music education, so that "when Elmo goes to school, there will be the instruments to play."

25. In the early 1990s, soon after Jim Henson’s passing, a rumor circulated that Ernie would be killed off in order to teach children about death, as they'd done with Mr. Hooper.

26. According to Snopes, the rumor may have spread thanks to New Hampshire college student, Michael Tabor, who convinced his graduating class to wear “Save Ernie” beanies and sign a petition to persuade Sesame Workshop to let Ernie live.

27. By the time Tabor was corrected, the newspapers had already picked up the story.

28. Sesame Street’s Executive Producer Carol-Lynn Parente joined Sesame Workshop as a production assistant and has worked her way to the top.

29. Originally, Count von Count was more sinister. He could hypnotize and stun people.

30. According to Sesame Workshop, all Sesame Street's main Muppets have four fingers except Cookie Monster, who has five.

31. The episode with Mr. Hooper's funeral aired on Thanksgiving Day in 1983. That date was chosen because families were more likely to be together at that time, in case kids had questions or needed emotional support.

32. Mr. Hooper’s first name was Harold.

33. Big Bird sang "Bein' Green" at Jim Henson's memorial service.

34. As Chris Higgins put it, the performance was "devastating."

35. Oscar's Israeli counterpart is Moishe Oofnik, whose last name means “grouch” in Hebrew.

36. Nigeria's version of Cookie Monster eats yams. His catchphrase: "ME WANT YAM!"

37. Sesame's Roosevelt Franklin ran a school, where he spoke in scat and taught about Africa. Some parents hated him, so in 1975 he got the boot, only to inspire Gob Bluth’s racist puppet Franklin on Arrested Development 28 years later.

38. Our good friend and contributor Eddie Deezen was the voice of Donnie Dodo in the 1985 classic Follow That Bird.

39. Cookie Monster evolved from The Wheel-Stealer—a snack-pilfering puppet Jim Henson created to promote Wheels, Crowns and Flutes in the 1960s.

40. This puppet later was seen eating a computer in an IBM training film and on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Thanks to Stacy Conradt, Joe Hennes, Drew Toal, and Chris Higgins for their previous Sesame coverage!

An earlier version of this article appeared in 2012.

How Apple's '1984' Super Bowl Ad Was Almost Canceled

More than 30 years ago, Apple defined the Super Bowl commercial as a cultural phenomenon. Prior to Super Bowl XVIII, nobody watched the game "just for the commercials"—but one epic TV spot, directed by sci-fi legend Ridley Scott, changed all that. Read on for the inside story of the commercial that rocked the world of advertising, even though Apple's Board of Directors didn't want to run it at all.

THE AD

If you haven't seen it, here's a fuzzy YouTube version:

"WHY 1984 WON'T BE LIKE 1984"

The tagline "Why 1984 Won't Be Like '1984'" references George Orwell's 1949 novel 1984, which envisioned a dystopian future, controlled by a televised "Big Brother." The tagline was written by Brent Thomas and Steve Hayden of the ad firm Chiat\Day in 1982, and the pair tried to sell it to various companies (including Apple, for the Apple II computer) but were turned down repeatedly. When Steve Jobs heard the pitch in 1983, he was sold—he saw the Macintosh as a "revolutionary" product, and wanted advertising to match. Jobs saw IBM as Big Brother, and wanted to position Apple as the world's last chance to escape IBM's domination of the personal computer industry. The Mac was scheduled to launch in late January of 1984, a week after the Super Bowl. IBM already held the nickname "Big Blue," so the parallels, at least to Jobs, were too delicious to miss.

Thomas and Hayden wrote up the story of the ad: we see a world of mind-controlled, shuffling men all in gray, staring at a video screen showing the face of Big Brother droning on about "information purification directives." A lone woman clad in vibrant red shorts and a white tank-top (bearing a Mac logo) runs from riot police, dashing up an aisle towards Big Brother. Just before being snatched by the police, she flings a sledgehammer at Big Brother's screen, smashing him just after he intones "We shall prevail!" Big Brother's destruction frees the minds of the throng, who quite literally see the light, flooding their faces now that the screen is gone. A mere eight seconds before the one-minute ad concludes, a narrator briefly mentions the word "Macintosh," in a restatement of that original tagline: "On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 won't be like '1984.'" An Apple logo is shown, and then we're out—back to the game.

In 1983, in a presentation about the Mac, Jobs introduced the ad to a cheering audience of Apple employees:

"... It is now 1984. It appears IBM wants it all. Apple is perceived to be the only hope to offer IBM a run for its money. Dealers, initially welcoming IBM with open arms, now fear an IBM-dominated and -controlled future. They are increasingly turning back to Apple as the only force that can ensure their future freedom. IBM wants it all and is aiming its guns on its last obstacle to industry control: Apple. Will Big Blue dominate the entire computer industry? The entire information age? Was George Orwell right about 1984?"

After seeing the ad for the first time, the Apple audience totally freaked out (jump to about the 5-minute mark to witness the riotous cheering).

SKINHEADS, A DISCUS THROWER, AND A SCI-FI DIRECTOR

Chiat\Day hired Ridley Scott, whose 1982 sci-fi film Blade Runner had the dystopian tone they were looking for (and Alien wasn't so bad either). Scott filmed the ad in London, using actual skinheads playing the mute bald men—they were paid $125 a day to sit and stare at Big Brother; those who still had hair were paid to shave their heads for the shoot. Anya Major, a discus thrower and actress, was cast as the woman with the sledgehammer largely because she was actually capable of wielding the thing.

Mac programmer Andy Hertzfeld wrote an Apple II program "to flash impressive looking numbers and graphs on [Big Brother's] screen," but it's unclear whether his program was used for the final film. The ad cost a shocking $900,000 to film, plus Apple booked two premium slots during the Super Bowl to air it—carrying an airtime cost of more than $1 million.

WHAT EXECUTIVES AT APPLE THOUGHT

Although Jobs and his marketing team (plus the assembled throng at his 1983 internal presentation) loved the ad, Apple's Board of Directors hated it. After seeing the ad for the first time, board member Mike Markkula suggested that Chiat\Day be fired, and the remainder of the board were similarly unimpressed. Then-CEO John Sculley recalled the reaction after the ad was screened for the group: "The others just looked at each other, dazed expressions on their faces ... Most of them felt it was the worst commercial they had ever seen. Not a single outside board member liked it." Sculley instructed Chiat\Day to sell off the Super Bowl airtime they had purchased, but Chiat\Day principal Jay Chiat quietly resisted. Chiat had purchased two slots—a 60-second slot in the third quarter to show the full ad, plus a 30-second slot later on to repeat an edited-down version. Chiat sold only the 30-second slot and claimed it was too late to sell the longer one. By disobeying his client's instructions, Chiat cemented Apple's place in advertising history.

When Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak heard that the ad was in trouble, he offered to pony up half the airtime costs himself, saying, "I asked how much it was going to cost, and [Steve Jobs] told me $800,000. I said, 'Well, I'll pay half of it if you will.' I figured it was a problem with the company justifying the expenditure. I thought an ad that was so great a piece of science fiction should have its chance to be seen."

But Woz didn't have to shell out the money; the executive team finally decided to run a 100-day advertising extravaganza for the Mac's launch, starting with the Super Bowl ad—after all, they had already paid to shoot it and were stuck with the airtime.

1984 - Big Brother

WHAT EVERYBODY ELSE THOUGHT

When the ad aired, controversy erupted—viewers either loved or hated the ad, and it spurred a wave of media coverage that involved news shows replaying the ad as part of covering it, leading to estimates of an additional $5 million in "free" airtime for the ad. All three national networks, plus countless local markets, ran news stories about the ad. "1984" become a cultural event, and served as a blueprint for future Apple product launches. The marketing logic was brilliantly simple: create an ad campaign that sparked controversy (for example, by insinuating that IBM was like Big Brother), and the media will cover your launch for free, amplifying the message.

The full ad famously ran once during the Super Bowl XVIII (on January 22, 1984), but it also ran the month prior—on December 31, 1983, TV station operator Tom Frank ran the ad on KMVT at the last possible time slot before midnight, in order to qualify for 1983's advertising awards.* (Any awards the ad won would mean more media coverage.) Apple paid to screen the ad in movie theaters before movie trailers, further heightening anticipation for the Mac launch. In addition to all that, the 30-second version was aired across the country after its debut on the Super Bowl.

Chiat\Day adman Steve Hayden recalled: "We ran a 30- second version of '1984' in the top 10 U.S. markets, plus, in an admittedly childish move, in an 11th market—Boca Raton, Florida, headquarters for IBM's PC division." Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld ended his remembrance of the ad by saying:

"A week after the Macintosh launch, Apple held its January board meeting. The Macintosh executive staff was invited to attend, not knowing what to expect. When the Mac people entered the room, everyone on the board rose and gave them a standing ovation, acknowledging that they were wrong about the commercial and congratulating the team for pulling off a fantastic launch.

Chiat\Day wanted the commercial to qualify for upcoming advertising awards, so they ran it once at 1 AM at a small television station in Twin Falls, Idaho, KMVT, on December 15, 1983 [incorrect; see below for an update on this -ed]. And sure enough it won just about every possible award, including best commercial of the decade. Twenty years later it's considered one of the most memorable television commercials ever made."

THE AWFUL 1985 FOLLOW-UP

A year later, Apple again employed Chiat\Day to make a blockbuster ad for their Macintosh Office product line, which was basically a file server, networking gear, and a laser printer. Directed by Ridley Scott's brother Tony, the new ad was called "Lemmings," and featured blindfolded businesspeople whistling an out-of-tune version of Snow White's "Heigh-Ho" as they followed each other off a cliff (referencing the myth of lemming suicide).

Jobs and Sculley didn't like the ad, but Chiat\Day convinced them to run it, pointing out that the board hadn't liked the last ad either. But unlike the rousing, empowering message of the "1984" ad, "Lemmings" directly insulted business customers who had already bought IBM computers. It was also weirdly boring—when it was aired at the Super Bowl (with Jobs and Sculley in attendance), nobody really reacted. The ad was a flop, and Apple even proposed running a printed apology in The Wall Street Journal. Jay Chiat shot back, saying that if Apple apologized, Chiat would buy an ad on the next page, apologizing for the apology. It was a mess:

20-YEAR ANNIVERSARY

In 2004, the ad was updated for the launch of the iPod. The only change was that the woman with the hammer was now listening to an iPod, which remained clipped to her belt as she ran. You can watch that version too:

FURTHER READING

Chiat\Day adman Lee Clow gave an interview about the ad, covering some of this material.

Check out Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld's excellent first-person account of the ad. A similar account (but with more from Jobs's point of view) can found in the Steve Jobs biography, and an even more in-depth account is in The Mac Bathroom Reader. The Mac Bathroom Reader is out of print; you can read an excerpt online, including QuickTime movies of the two versions of the ad, plus a behind-the-scenes video. Finally, you might enjoy this 2004 USA Today article about the ad, pointing out that ads for other computers (including Atari, Radio Shack, and IBM's new PCjr) also ran during that Super Bowl.

* = A Note on the Airing in 1983

Update: Thanks to Tom Frank for writing in to correct my earlier mis-statement about the first air date of this commercial. As you can see in his comment below, Hertzfeld's comments above (and the dates cited in other accounts I've seen) are incorrect. Stay tuned for an upcoming interview with Frank, in which we discuss what it was like running both "1984" and "Lemmings" before they were on the Super Bowl!

Update 2: You can read the story behind this post in Chris's book The Blogger Abides.

This post originally appeared in 2012.

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