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Your Camping Equipment's Fascinating History

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Now that spring has sprung, you might be planning a weekend camping trip with your family or friends. As you stuff your car with all the necessary equipment, take a moment to reflect on the fascinating history of some of those must-have camping accessories.

1. ?Duffel Bag

While rucksacks have been around for hundreds (if not thousands) of years, they were usually made from animal skins or wool, which only did so much to protect contents from the harsh elements. But Spanish and Portuguese sailors of the early 17th century hit on a better solution. They found that bags made from the leftover scraps of fabric used to repair a ship's sails did a fine job against rain and sea water. This coarse, sturdy, waterproof material was imported from its one supplier in the town of Duffel, Belgium.

2. Flashlight

When D cell batteries became commercially available in 1896, it opened the door for all kinds of battery-powered inventions. One was the “electrical hand torch,” introduced in 1898 by the American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Company, which would later change its name to The American Ever-Ready Company. The first lights were paper and fiber tubes, with a carbon filament bulb covered by a lens on one end, two D batteries inside, and a metal ring on the side. Pressing down on the ring caused it to hit two metal poles—one positive and one negative—which completed the electrical connection, lighting up the bulb.

Early batteries were quite weak, though, so the light only came on in brief flashes before going out again, which is how they got their nickname, “flashlights.” Heavy use of the light also meant that it had to be “rested” so that the batteries could recharge. Still, it was much better than carrying a candle that could go out, a lantern that had to be refilled with oil, and, more importantly, there was no chance of starting a fire.

As battery and filament technologies improved, the flashlights could stay on for minutes at a time, but the name had already become synonymous, so it stuck (in America and Canada anyway; the rest of the world still calls them “torches”).

While the lights were fairly popular, sales really skyrocketed in 1898 when Ever-Ready donated their new and improved metal flashlights to the New York City Police Department. When officers reported how useful the lights were in their duties, these testimonies were included in the company's product catalog, adding weight to the quality and usefulness of the brand. ??

3. Sleeping Bag

The modern sleeping bag was influenced by a number of different sources. In the 1850s, French officials who patrolled the mountains had a knapsack bag made of sheepskin and lined with wool that could be rolled up and buckled in place, then carried with shoulder straps. Then, in 1861, Alpine explorer Francis Fox Tuckett tested a prototype sleeping bag made from a blanket with a waterproof rubber bottom. Both of these designs were little more than an open-ended man-sized bag, so getting in and out for a late-night bathroom break was a bit of a hassle, but it got the job done.

A more convenient design came from Welsh inventor and father of the mail order business model, Pryce Pryce-Jones. In 1876, he introduced the Euklisia Rug. The Rug consisted of a wool blanket with an off-center pocket at the top for a sewn-in, inflatable, rubber pillow. Once inside, you folded the blanket over and fastened it together to keep you snug as a bug. P.J., as he called himself, had produced 60,000 Rugs exclusively for the Russian Army; many were used in the 1877 Siege of Plevna during the Russo-Turkish War. However, when the city fell, the Russians canceled the rest of their order, leaving P.J. with 17,000 Rugs left undelivered. He quickly added the Euklisia Rug to his catalog and sold it as an inexpensive bedding solution for charities working with the poor. The rug caught on, and it was soon being used by the British Army and Australians camping in the Outback, too.

No known examples of the Euklisia Rug exist today, but in 2010, the BBC commissioned a replica made from the original patent as part of a special TV series called A History of the World. They donated the recreation to a museum in Powys County in Wales, where Pryce-Jones lived.

4. Air Mattress

The first air mattress was invented in 1889 by the Pneumatic Mattress & Cushion Company in Reading, Massachusetts. Surprisingly, the design of the mattress has remained virtually unchanged over the last 120 years, closely resembling the standard air mattress used for lounging in the swimming pool today.

The rubber mattresses were originally produced as an alternative to hair-filled mattresses on Atlantic steamships because they could be deflated and stowed easily, and could even be used as a life raft if needed.  The mattresses' easy storage was also a big selling point for landlubbers who, in the early part of the 20th century, moved out of the country and into one-room city apartments where space was limited.

To sell their inflatable mattress, the company offered a 30-day trial period, a tactic still used today by many mattress retailers. If you didn't love your pneumatic mattress, you could return it for a full refund of $22 for the adult version, or $11 for the baby crib-sized version. ?

5. Leatherman Tool

Ask any outdoorsman, farmer, EMT, computer technician, or soldier to give up his Leatherman Multi-tool and you'll likely be told, “You can pry it from my cold, dead hands.” Fans of the handy gadget are dedicated to the multi-tool thanks to its compact size, versatility, and quality construction. But just what is a “leatherman” anyway? Is it a nickname given to rough and tumble mountain men in the 19th Century? Maybe they were soldiers that were part of a special brigade that fought in the Civil War? Nope. It's a guy. His name's Tim.

When Tim Leatherman, a mechanical engineer, and his wife were traveling through Europe in 1975, their rented Fiat kept breaking down. Tim was pretty handy, but he found that his old Scout knife, which had a couple of blades, a can opener, and a flat head screwdriver, simply wasn't enough tool to keep the old car running. So, using cardboard cutouts, and then later making a metal prototype in his garage workshop, he developed what he called a “multi-tool” that he thought would change the world. Unfortunately, the world wasn't too impressed.

Tim tried to sell the idea to knife companies, but they said it was more like a tool. Tool companies said it wasn't a tool, but a “gadget,” so they weren't interested, either. Tim eventually decided to make and sell the Leatherman on his own, but still couldn't find anyone to carry it in their stores. Finally, in 1983, he convinced a mail-order catalog to sell his “Sportsmen” multi-tool. Tim had the resources to produce as many as 4,000 Leatherman multi-tools. He received 30,000 orders in his first year.

6. Sterno

If starting a campfire isn't your strong suit, it never hurts to have some Sterno, the flammable gel in a can, within reach. This “canned heat” has been around since 1893 and takes its unusual name from the company's founder, S. Sternau. The product really hit its stride during World War I, when the Sternau Company ran a marketing campaign suggesting soldiers going to Europe could use Sterno to heat water and rations, sterilize surgical instruments, and provide light and warmth in the cold, dark trenches. Soon, just about every Doughboy had a few cans in his duffel bag.

Sidebar: Too Much of a Bad Thing

Sterno gel is a concoction of various chemicals, including ethanol and methanol. The methanol is added to “denature” the product, essentially making it poisonous in an effort to discourage anyone from drinking it for the ethanol to get a buzz. Methanol poisoning can lead to a wide range of health problems, including stomach cramps, hallucinations, convulsions, blindness, and could even kill you, so you would think that would be a pretty good deterrent. Still, some desperate folks have been known to create “squeeze” by either wrapping the gel in cheesecloth and squeezing out the liquid, or by straining the gel length-wise through an entire loaf of bread. (The bread doesn't make it any safer to drink at all, but it does apparently make it taste a little better.)

In 1963, Max Feinberg sold Sterno at his cigar store near the skid row section of Philadelphia. His was the only store in town that sold the stuff, so he had quite a few homeless customers that would buy a few cheap cans to keep warm, but also to make squeeze. At the time, Sterno had two versions of the canned heat—a standard version that had 3.75% methanol, and an industrial version that contained 54% methanol. Unfortunately, Feinberg accidentally received a few cases of the industrial-strength version, but was none the wiser when he sold nearly 400 cans during the week of Christmas. This meant his customers’ squeeze came out more potent than usual and 31 people died of methanol poisoning.

The court had evidence that Feinberg often asked his customers how their last batch of squeeze turned out, indicating he knew people were drinking the Sterno when he sold it to them. That was enough cause for him to be brought up on 31 counts of involuntary manslaughter. However, he was only tried and convicted on 17 counts; he received a suspended sentence on all but five. Ultimately, he served about six years in prison for his part in the deaths.

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10 Memorable Neil deGrasse Tyson Quotes
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Neil deGrasse Tyson is America's preeminent badass astrophysicist. He's a passionate advocate for science, NASA, and education. He's also well-known for a little incident involving Pluto. And the man holds nearly 20 honorary doctorates (in addition to his real one). In honor of his 59th birthday, here are 10 of our favorite Neil deGrasse Tyson quotes.

1. ON SCIENCE

"The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it."
—From Real Time with Bill Maher.

2. ON NASA FUNDING

"As a fraction of your tax dollar today, what is the total cost of all spaceborne telescopes, planetary probes, the rovers on Mars, the International Space Station, the space shuttle, telescopes yet to orbit, and missions yet to fly?' Answer: one-half of one percent of each tax dollar. Half a penny. I’d prefer it were more: perhaps two cents on the dollar. Even during the storied Apollo era, peak NASA spending amounted to little more than four cents on the tax dollar." 
—From Space Chronicles

3. ON GOD AND HURRICANES

"Once upon a time, people identified the god Neptune as the source of storms at sea. Today we call these storms hurricanes ... The only people who still call hurricanes acts of God are the people who write insurance forms."
—From Death by Black Hole

4. ON THE BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY INVENTED FOR USE IN SPACE

"Countless women are alive today because of ideas stimulated by a design flaw in the Hubble Space Telescope." (Editor's note: technology used to repair the Hubble Space Telescope's optical problems led to improved technology for breast cancer detection.)
—From Space Chronicles

5. ON THE DEMOTION OF PLUTO FROM PLANET STATUS 

PBS

"I knew Pluto was popular among elementary schoolkids, but I had no idea they would mobilize into a 'Save Pluto' campaign. I now have a drawer full of hate letters from hundreds of elementary schoolchildren (with supportive cover letters from their science teachers) pleading with me to reverse my stance on Pluto. The file includes a photograph of the entire third grade of a school posing on their front steps and holding up a banner proclaiming, 'Dr. Tyson—Pluto is a Planet!'"
—From The Sky Is Not the Limit

6. ON JAMES CAMERON'S TITANIC

"In [Titanic], the stars above the ship bear no correspondence to any constellations in a real sky. Worse yet, while the heroine bobs ... we are treated to her view of this Hollywood sky—one where the stars on the right half of the scene trace the mirror image of the stars in the left half. How lazy can you get?"
—From Death by Black Hole

7. ON DEATH BY ASTEROID

"On Friday the 13th, April 2029, an asteroid large enough to fill the Rose Bowl as though it were an egg cup will fly so close to Earth that it will dip below the altitude of our communication satellites. We did not name this asteroid Bambi. Instead, we named it Apophis, after the Egyptian god of darkness and death."
—From Space Chronicles

8. ON THE MOTIVATIONS BEHIND AMERICA'S MOONSHOT

"[L]et us not fool ourselves into thinking we went to the Moon because we are pioneers, or discoverers, or adventurers. We went to the Moon because it was the militaristically expedient thing to do."
—From The Sky Is Not the Limit

9. ON INTELLIGENT LIFE (OR THE LACK THEREOF)

Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/neildegras615117.html
Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/neildegras615117.html

"Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life."

10. PRACTICAL ADVICE IN THE EVENT OF ALIEN CONTACT 

A still from Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
Universal Studios
"[I]f an alien lands on your front lawn and extends an appendage as a gesture of greeting, before you get friendly, toss it an eightball. If the appendage explodes, then the alien was probably made of antimatter. If not, then you can proceed to take it to your leader."
—From Death by Black Hole
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40 Fun Facts About Sesame Street
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Now in its 47th season, Sesame Street is one of television's most iconic programs—and it's not just for kids. We're big fans of the Street, and to prove it, here are some of our favorite Sesame facts from previous stories and our Amazing Fact Generator.

Sesame Workshop

1. Oscar the Grouch used to be orange. Jim Henson decided to make him green before season two.

2. How did Oscar explain the color change? He said he went on vacation to the very damp Swamp Mushy Muddy and turned green overnight.

3. During a 2004 episode, Cookie Monster said that before he started eating cookies, his name was Sid.

4. In 1980, C-3PO and R2-D2 visited Sesame Street. They played games, sang songs, and R2-D2 fell in love with a fire hydrant.

5. Mr. Snuffleupagus has a first name—Aloysius

6. Ralph Nader stopped by in 1988 and sang "a consumer advocate is a person in your neighborhood."

7. Caroll Spinney said he based Oscar's voice on a cab driver from the Bronx who brought him to the audition.

8. In 1970, Ernie reached #16 on the Billboard Hot 100 with the timeless hit "Rubber Duckie."

9. One of Count von Count's lady friends is Countess von Backwards, who's also obsessed with counting but likes to do it backwards.

10. Sesame Street made its Afghanistan debut in 2011 with Baghch-e-Simsim (Sesame Garden). Big Bird, Grover and Elmo are involved.

11. According to Muppet Wiki, Oscar the Grouch and Count von Count were minimized on Baghch-e-Simsim "due to cultural taboos against trash and vampirism."

12. Before Giancarlo Esposito was Breaking Bad's super intense Gus Fring, he played Big Bird's camp counselor Mickey in 1982.

13. Thankfully, those episodes are available on YouTube.

14. How big is Big Bird? 8'2". (Pictured with First Lady Pat Nixon.)

15. In 2002, the South African version (Takalani Sesame) added an HIV-positive Muppet named Kami.

16. Six Republicans on the House Commerce Committee wrote a letter to PBS president Pat Mitchell warning that Kami was not appropriate for American children, and reminded Mitchell that their committee controlled PBS' funding.

17. Sesame Street's resident game show host Guy Smiley was using a pseudonym. His real name was Bernie Liederkrantz.

18. Bert and Ernie have been getting questioned about their sexuality for years. Ernie himself, as performed by Steve Whitmere, has weighed in: “All that stuff about me and Bert? It’s not true. We’re both very happy, but we’re not gay,”

19. A few years later, Bert (as performed by Eric Jacobson) answered the same question by saying, “No, no. In fact, sometimes we are not even friends; he can be a pain in the neck.”

20. In the first season, both Superman and Batman appeared in short cartoons produced by Filmation. In one clip, Batman told Bert and Ernie to stop arguing and take turns choosing what’s on TV.

21. In another segment, Superman battled a giant chimp.

22. Telly was originally "Television Monster," a TV-obsessed Muppet whose eyes whirled around as he watched.

23. According to Sesame Workshop, Elmo is the only non-human to testify before Congress.

24. He lobbied for more funding for music education, so that "when Elmo goes to school, there will be the instruments to play."

25. In the early 1990s, soon after Jim Henson’s passing, a rumor circulated that Ernie would be killed off in order to teach children about death, as they'd done with Mr. Hooper.

26. According to Snopes, the rumor may have spread thanks to New Hampshire college student, Michael Tabor, who convinced his graduating class to wear “Save Ernie” beanies and sign a petition to persuade Sesame Workshop to let Ernie live.

27. By the time Tabor was corrected, the newspapers had already picked up the story.

28. Sesame Street’s Executive Producer Carol-Lynn Parente joined Sesame Workshop as a production assistant and has worked her way to the top.

29. Originally, Count von Count was more sinister. He could hypnotize and stun people.

30. According to Sesame Workshop, all Sesame Street's main Muppets have four fingers except Cookie Monster, who has five.

31. The episode with Mr. Hooper's funeral aired on Thanksgiving Day in 1983. That date was chosen because families were more likely to be together at that time, in case kids had questions or needed emotional support.

32. Mr. Hooper’s first name was Harold.

33. Big Bird sang "Bein' Green" at Jim Henson's memorial service.

34. As Chris Higgins put it, the performance was "devastating."

35. Oscar's Israeli counterpart is Moishe Oofnik, whose last name means “grouch” in Hebrew.

36. Nigeria's version of Cookie Monster eats yams. His catchphrase: "ME WANT YAM!"

37. Sesame's Roosevelt Franklin ran a school, where he spoke in scat and taught about Africa. Some parents hated him, so in 1975 he got the boot, only to inspire Gob Bluth’s racist puppet Franklin on Arrested Development 28 years later.

38. Our good friend and contributor Eddie Deezen was the voice of Donnie Dodo in the 1985 classic Follow That Bird.

39. Cookie Monster evolved from The Wheel-Stealer—a snack-pilfering puppet Jim Henson created to promote Wheels, Crowns and Flutes in the 1960s.

40. This puppet later was seen eating a computer in an IBM training film and on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Thanks to Stacy Conradt, Joe Hennes, Drew Toal, and Chris Higgins for their previous Sesame coverage!

An earlier version of this article appeared in 2012.

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