Baseball's Best (and Weirdest) Ballpark Promotions

In the 1960s, Major League Baseball teams began giving away bats, balls, caps, and helmets to lure fans to the ballpark. As Mets vice president James K. Thomson told the New York Times in 1968, “People like something for nothing. Everybody comes to the fair.” More than 40 years later, that philosophy still holds true. Here’s a look at this season’s most interesting giveaways at stadiums throughout the league, and a look back at some infamous promotions of the past.

Tampa Bay Rays

The Rays, who struggle to draw fans to Tropicana Field, have long offered some of the most creative promotions in the league. Last year, the team gave away Carlos Pena toothbrush holders. (After Pena hit a woeful .196 in 2010 and signed as a free agent with the Chicago Cubs, you can bet there aren’t a lot of Tampa Bay players clamoring to replace the slugger as the team’s promoter of dental hygiene.) This year, the first 10,000 fans age 14 and under at the Rays’ September 4 game will receive an Evan Longoria cereal bowl and spoon set. [Image credit: Brooke Reviews.]

New York Yankees

The first 18,000 fans through the Yankee Stadium gates on April 28 will receive a packet of flower seeds, compliments of the non-profit organization Keep America Beautiful, which was founded in New York City in 1953. If nothing else, the packets may be less attractive to would-be thieves than some other potential giveaways. In 2005, 47,000 Yankees giveaway hats were stolen from a New Jersey warehouse.

Boston Red Sox

The Red Sox rarely give away items these days—they don’t even have a 2011 promotional schedule on their website—but that wasn’t always the case. In 1982, the team gave out seat cushions for a September game against the Indians. After the Red Sox broke open a close game and hit two home runs in the sixth inning en route to a 12-1 win, many of the 15,000 fans in attendance tossed their cushions onto the field. “It was an awesome sight,” Boston pitcher John Tudor said. Umpires warned the Red Sox that the game would have to be forfeited if the cushions continued to be thrown, leading Fenway Park public address announcer Sherm Feller to tell fans, “Try sitting on the cushions, it’s more comfortable that way.”

Baltimore Orioles

On July 22, the Orioles will offer floppy hats to the first 25,000 fans age 21 and older. Baltimore, which hasn’t made the playoffs since 1997, hopes it never has another reason to host a “Fantastic Fans Night” like the one it did in May of 1988. More than 50,000 people came out to Memorial Stadium to support the struggling Orioles, who were returning home after a dreadful road trip that dropped the team’s record to 1-23. The stadium was decked out in orange and black bunting, there were giveaways throughout the night, Morganna the Kissing Bandit was in attendance, and the team announced that it had agreed on a 15-year lease with the city of Baltimore that included a new downtown ballpark. To top it all off, the Orioles won.

Toronto Blue Jays

The first 15,000 fans to enter the Rogers Centre on July 31 will receive a Roberto Alomar Hall of Fame bobblehead. Ten years ago, the Blue Jays offered a fairly unconventional promotion when they honored a division rival, Orioles legend Cal Ripken, with a bobblehead during the future Hall of Famer’s final road trip to Toronto.

Chicago White Sox

The White Sox are raking new ground with their Roger Bossard bobblehead giveaway this season. Bossard, who is known as the Sodfather, is the head groundskeeper at U.S. Cellular Field and a consultant for more than a dozen MLB teams. He joined the White Sox as an assistant groundskeeper in 1967 and worked under his father until 1983, when he assumed the lead role.

The White Sox have a great tradition of unique promotions, thanks to the mark that former owner Bill Veeck and one of his protégés, Rudy Schaffer, left on the team. Disco Demolition Night on July 12, 1979, which featured a crate of exploding records and a near-riot, was Bill Veeck’s son Mike’s idea.

Cleveland Indians

On August 13, the Indians will give away Mike Hargrove “Human Rain Delay” bobbleheads. Hargrove, who played for and later managed the Indians, earned his nickname for the inordinate amount of time he took to settle into the batter’s box.

Hargrove was an unwilling participant in another Indians promotion in 1974, when he was managing the Texas Rangers. Hargrove was pelted with hot dogs and spit on during 10-Cent Beer Night at Cleveland’s Municipal Stadium, which drew a crowd of about 25,000, or 17,000 more than what the Indians had been averaging. A riot erupted in the ninth inning after an Indians fan tried to steal Rangers outfielder Jeff Burroughs’ cap and his teammates stormed out of the dugout wielding bats. When Hargrove returned to Cleveland as manager in 1991, he reportedly hung a photo from the crazy night on the wall in his office.

Detroit Tigers

Outfielder Austin Jackson made an incredible catch in the ninth inning of Armando Galarraga’s imperfect perfect game last season, but it was unfortunately overshadowed by umpire Jim Joyce’s blown call on what should have been the final out of the game. The Tigers will commemorate Jackson’s grab with a figurine for the first 10,000 fans on April 22. As recently as 2006, the Tigers offered 16 free car giveaways, sponsored by GM, during the course of the season.

Kansas City Royals

The Royals will give away team snow globes as part of their Christmas Eve in July celebration on July 24. A more traditional giveaway in 1987 almost cost Kansas City a win. From the AP’s account: “The white caps given to almost 36,000 fans Sunday looked like a frothing, rolling sea in Royals Stadium. Several times, they nearly blinded outfielders to fly balls.” Royals manager Billy Gardner commented on the promotion after the game. “Maybe next time we give away hats we can make them blue,” he said.

Minnesota Twins

On April 24, the first 5,000 adult fans at Minnesota’s Target Field will receive a Matt Capps fishing lure. The promotion is guaranteed to garner less criticism than the Twins’ halter top giveaways to female fans in the late ‘70s. The team eventually did away with the promotion, which a handful of other teams also used, after the daughter of former Twins owner Calvin Griffith convinced team officials that it was in poor taste.

Los Angeles Angels

Fans have the Angels to curse for introducing Thundersticks to the sports world. The plastic balloons, which produce a deafening noise when smacked together, became popular during the team’s run to the World Series in 2002, and have since been banned by many stadiums and arenas. On May 7, the Angels will offer a quieter blast from the past in the form of an Angels Troll doll to all children ages 2-18. Three days later, the team will give away Angels wrestling masks.

Oakland Athletics

On July 17, the A’s will issue 15,000 MC Hammer bobbleheads to fans as part of their 80s Day celebration. (Growing up, Hammer was an A's batboy.) Former Athletics owner Charlie O. Finley probably wouldn’t know what to make of that promotion. When the A’s were located in Kansas City, Finley once had his players ride to their positions on mules.

Seattle Mariners

The Mariners are offering some unique promotions this season, including an Ichiro hit counter bobblehead (May 6) and a Franklin Gutierrez fly swatter (May 19). During the ‘90s, Jay Buhner Buzz Cut Night was one of the biggest draws of the year. Every fan that showed up to the Kingdome with a buzzed or bald head was given a free ticket in right field. Buhner even shaved some fans’ heads himself.

Texas Rangers

The Rangers have been using giveaways to attract fans since 1972, when the tactic helped the team draw “several thousand more fans” than the relocated franchise did in Washington the previous year. Sunday, May 29, is Rangers swimming pool float giveaway day for the first 10,000 kids age 13 and under.

Atlanta Braves

The Braves will give away replica Atlanta Black Crackers caps to the first 20,000 fans on May 14. The Black Crackers were founded in 1919 and played in the Negro League until 1952. That promotion should go over a whole lot better than one the Braves held in June of 1974, when the team gave away 10,000 Frisbees for a doubleheader against the Reds. The umpires threatened to forfeit the first game after fans littered the field with Frisbees on three separate occasions.

Florida Marlins

The first 5,000 kids on August 14 will receive a Hanley Ramirez and Josh Johnson back-to-school lunch cooler. The Marlins drew the ire of their own players and the opposing team’s manager when they gave away air-horns last summer. “That was the worst handout or giveaway I’ve ever been a part of in baseball,” Marlins second baseman Dan Uggla said. “This isn’t soccer.” Tampa Bay manager Joe Maddon also disapproved. “There are cool things and noncool things,” he said. “That’s noncool. I would put it under the column of it didn’t quite work.” Marlins president David Samson defended the promotion, which was scheduled to coincide with the World Cup.

New York Mets

On June 23, the Mets will host a Senior Stroll, which is a nod to the older generation in a world dominated by 'Kids Run the Bases' days. In 2000, the team gave away a 24-page comic book featuring a villain named Larcenous Vein, who planned to blow up a No. 7 subway train, but was defeated by Mets players. It just so happened that during the previous offseason, Atlanta Braves reliever John Rocker made headlines with derogatory remarks about the diversity in New York City, referencing the different people a visitor might encounter on the No. 7 train. “It’s a coincidence,” Mets spokesman Jay Horwitz said when asked whether Larcenous Vein was Rocker’s alter ego. “The idea was conceived a long time ago.”

Philadelphia Phillies

May 3 is $1 Hot Dog Night at Citizens Bank Park, which has the potential to be interesting. In 2007, the Phillies gave away Shane Victorino bobblehead dolls featuring the Flyin’ Hawaiian in a hula skirt and playing a ukulele.

Washington Nationals

On September 10, the first 15,000 fans through the gates at Nationals Park will receive a Fan’s Choice bobblehead. The Nationals introduced the idea last season, with Ivan Rodriguez beating out John Lannan, Teddy Roosevelt, and manager Jim Riggleman for the honor via an online vote.

When the Nationals were still the Montreal Expos, the team held an Oh Henry! candy bar promotion in honor of slugger Henry Rodriguez. All fans who brought a proof of purchase of the candy bar received a discounted ticket and a T-shirt. Fans often threw the candy bars on the field following home runs by Rodriguez, who belted a career-high 36 in 1996.

Chicago Cubs

On September 2, the first 4,000 kids age 14 and under will receive American Girl Doll-sized Cubs apparel. Former Cubs executive John McDonough is credited with bringing the Beanie Babies craze to ballparks for the first time in 1997.

Cincinnati Reds

The Reds are giving away Dusty Baker bobbleheads that double as toothpick holders on July 2. In 1991, the team gave away replica World Series rings to celebrate its 1990 title. In 2007, the Reds hosted Ryan Freel Dirty T-Shirt Night and gave away Freel jersey T-shirts with dirt stains printed on the front to honor their always-hustling utility player.

Houston Astros

The Astros will give away Cuddle Pups to the first 10,000 kids on August 7. In 1976, the team gave away free beer after Phillies slugger Mike Schmidt struck out when the clock was on an even minute. “I guess it was good for baseball,” Schmidt said. “Everybody got a beer.” Everybody got a ticket in 1995, when Astros owner Drayton McClane Jr. gave away 54,350 tickets to a game against the Phillies.

Milwaukee Brewers

The first 15,000 fans 21 and older on July 30 will receive a Miller Lite Beer Vendor bobblehead, which is appropriate for a team nicknamed the Brewers that plays its home games in Miller Park. The Brewers nearly forfeited a game in 1997 when fans threw giveaway baseballs on the field in a 5-3 win against the Texas Rangers.

Pittsburgh Pirates

On July 10, kids 14 and under will receive wind-up Pierogi racers, which the Pirates also offered last season. The team sparked a minor controversy in 2008 after giving away Tom Gorzelanny bobbleheads. Some fans complained that Gorzelanny’s plastic middle finger—as opposed to his index finger—was poking out of his glove. A Pirates spokesman said the bobblehead was modeled after a photo provided to the manufacturer.

St. Louis Cardinals

Twenty-five thousand fans on August 9 will receive Adam Wainwright photo baseballs, which is a nice way to remember the NL Cy Young runner-up, who will miss the entire season after undergoing Tommy John surgery. Like the Red Sox, the Cardinals have also witnessed the spectacle of flying seat cushions. After Tom Herr beat the Mets with a grand slam in April of 1987, the giveaways rained down on Busch Stadium’s artificial turf.

Arizona Diamondbacks

The Diamondbacks will give away a BBQ set to the first 5,000 fans for its Father’s Day promotion on June 19. In 2007, the team started giving away items at every Saturday and Sunday home game, including six different bobbleheads and a Stephen Drew growth chart poster.

Colorado Rockies

The Rockies haven’t announced their 2011 promotional schedule, but the team has traditionally been generous with their giveaways. In 2008, the team offered National League Championship replica trophies in April. The game was snowed out and rescheduled for June.

Los Angeles Dodgers

On April 19, fans will receive a Fernando Valenzuela fleece blanket. It’s pretty difficult to throw a fleece blanket on the field from the upper deck—not that anyone would want to part with their Fernandomania schwag—and that’s a good thing. The Dodgers forfeited the first National League game in 41 years in 1995 after fans threw promotional baseballs on the field in the seventh and ninth innings of an August game against the Cardinals. The second wave of balls was sparked by the ejection of Dodgers manager Tommy Lasorda with Los Angeles trailing St. Louis 2-1. Speaking at a luncheon honoring Lasorda later that week, Pirates manager Jim Leyland deadpanned, “We’ve been struggling to get a win, so we’ve declared tonight ‘Dodger Paperweight Night.’”

San Diego Padres

The Padres will give away 6-pack tube coolers to fans at Petco Park on April 23. In 2007, the Padres were criticized by a Christian group for hosting Pride Night on the same night they gave away floppy hats to children age 14 and under. “The Padres are playing the part of the Pied Piper, leading unsuspecting children into the homosexual lifestyle as normal,” Richard Thompson, director of the Ann Arbor-based Christian law center, said.

San Francisco Giants

The Giants are giving wearable blankets (read: Snuggies) to the first 20,000 fans on May 20. The team gave away baseballs at Candlestick Park in 1993 and the game was delayed after fans showered the field following a home run. Giants manager Dusty Baker reportedly ordered his players into the dugout, but San Francisco’s outfielders stayed on the field to help remove the balls.

Live Smarter
Nervous About Asking for a Job Referral? LinkedIn Can Now Do It for You

For most people, asking for a job referral can be daunting. What if the person being approached shoots you down? What if you ask the "wrong" way? LinkedIn, which has been aggressively establishing itself as a catch-all hub for employment opportunities, has a solution, as Mashable reports.

The company recently launched "Ask for a Referral," an option that will appear to those browsing job listings. When you click on a job listed by a business that also employs one of your LinkedIn first-degree connections, you'll have the opportunity to solicit a referral from that individual.

The default message that LinkedIn creates is somewhat generic, but it hits the main topics—namely, prompting you to explain how you and your connection know one another and why you'd be a good fit for the position. If you're the one being asked for a referral, the site will direct you to the job posting and offer three prompts for a response, ranging from "Sure…" to "Sorry…".

LinkedIn says the referral option may not be available for all posts or all users, as the feature is still being rolled out. If you do see the option, it will likely pay to take advantage of it: LinkedIn reports that recruiters who receive both a referral and a job application from a prospective hire are four times more likely to contact that individual.

[h/t Mashable]

Dean Mouhtaropoulos/Getty Images
Essential Science
What Is a Scientific Theory?
Dean Mouhtaropoulos/Getty Images
Dean Mouhtaropoulos/Getty Images

In casual conversation, people often use the word theory to mean "hunch" or "guess": If you see the same man riding the northbound bus every morning, you might theorize that he has a job in the north end of the city; if you forget to put the bread in the breadbox and discover chunks have been taken out of it the next morning, you might theorize that you have mice in your kitchen.

In science, a theory is a stronger assertion. Typically, it's a claim about the relationship between various facts; a way of providing a concise explanation for what's been observed. The American Museum of Natural History puts it this way: "A theory is a well-substantiated explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can incorporate laws, hypotheses and facts."

For example, Newton's theory of gravity—also known as his law of universal gravitation—says that every object, anywhere in the universe, responds to the force of gravity in the same way. Observational data from the Moon's motion around the Earth, the motion of Jupiter's moons around Jupiter, and the downward fall of a dropped hammer are all consistent with Newton's theory. So Newton's theory provides a concise way of summarizing what we know about the motion of these objects—indeed, of any object responding to the force of gravity.

A scientific theory "organizes experience," James Robert Brown, a philosopher of science at the University of Toronto, tells Mental Floss. "It puts it into some kind of systematic form."


A theory's ability to account for already known facts lays a solid foundation for its acceptance. Let's take a closer look at Newton's theory of gravity as an example.

In the late 17th century, the planets were known to move in elliptical orbits around the Sun, but no one had a clear idea of why the orbits had to be shaped like ellipses. Similarly, the movement of falling objects had been well understood since the work of Galileo a half-century earlier; the Italian scientist had worked out a mathematical formula that describes how the speed of a falling object increases over time. Newton's great breakthrough was to tie all of this together. According to legend, his moment of insight came as he gazed upon a falling apple in his native Lincolnshire.

In Newton's theory, every object is attracted to every other object with a force that’s proportional to the masses of the objects, but inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This is known as an “inverse square” law. For example, if the distance between the Sun and the Earth were doubled, the gravitational attraction between the Earth and the Sun would be cut to one-quarter of its current strength. Newton, using his theories and a bit of calculus, was able to show that the gravitational force between the Sun and the planets as they move through space meant that orbits had to be elliptical.

Newton's theory is powerful because it explains so much: the falling apple, the motion of the Moon around the Earth, and the motion of all of the planets—and even comets—around the Sun. All of it now made sense.


A theory gains even more support if it predicts new, observable phenomena. The English astronomer Edmond Halley used Newton's theory of gravity to calculate the orbit of the comet that now bears his name. Taking into account the gravitational pull of the Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn, in 1705, he predicted that the comet, which had last been seen in 1682, would return in 1758. Sure enough, it did, reappearing in December of that year. (Unfortunately, Halley didn't live to see it; he died in 1742.) The predicted return of Halley's Comet, Brown says, was "a spectacular triumph" of Newton's theory.

In the early 20th century, Newton's theory of gravity would itself be superseded—as physicists put it—by Einstein's, known as general relativity. (Where Newton envisioned gravity as a force acting between objects, Einstein described gravity as the result of a curving or warping of space itself.) General relativity was able to explain certain phenomena that Newton's theory couldn't account for, such as an anomaly in the orbit of Mercury, which slowly rotates—the technical term for this is "precession"—so that while each loop the planet takes around the Sun is an ellipse, over the years Mercury traces out a spiral path similar to one you may have made as a kid on a Spirograph.

Significantly, Einstein’s theory also made predictions that differed from Newton's. One was the idea that gravity can bend starlight, which was spectacularly confirmed during a solar eclipse in 1919 (and made Einstein an overnight celebrity). Nearly 100 years later, in 2016, the discovery of gravitational waves confirmed yet another prediction. In the century between, at least eight predictions of Einstein's theory have been confirmed.


And yet physicists believe that Einstein's theory will one day give way to a new, more complete theory. It already seems to conflict with quantum mechanics, the theory that provides our best description of the subatomic world. The way the two theories describe the world is very different. General relativity describes the universe as containing particles with definite positions and speeds, moving about in response to gravitational fields that permeate all of space. Quantum mechanics, in contrast, yields only the probability that each particle will be found in some particular location at some particular time.

What would a "unified theory of physics"—one that combines quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of gravity—look like? Presumably it would combine the explanatory power of both theories, allowing scientists to make sense of both the very large and the very small in the universe.


Let's shift from physics to biology for a moment. It is precisely because of its vast explanatory power that biologists hold Darwin's theory of evolution—which allows scientists to make sense of data from genetics, physiology, biochemistry, paleontology, biogeography, and many other fields—in such high esteem. As the biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky put it in an influential essay in 1973, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution."

Interestingly, the word evolution can be used to refer to both a theory and a fact—something Darwin himself realized. "Darwin, when he was talking about evolution, distinguished between the fact of evolution and the theory of evolution," Brown says. "The fact of evolution was that species had, in fact, evolved [i.e. changed over time]—and he had all sorts of evidence for this. The theory of evolution is an attempt to explain this evolutionary process." The explanation that Darwin eventually came up with was the idea of natural selection—roughly, the idea that an organism's offspring will vary, and that those offspring with more favorable traits will be more likely to survive, thus passing those traits on to the next generation.


Many theories are rock-solid: Scientists have just as much confidence in the theories of relativity, quantum mechanics, evolution, plate tectonics, and thermodynamics as they do in the statement that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

Other theories, closer to the cutting-edge of current research, are more tentative, like string theory (the idea that everything in the universe is made up of tiny, vibrating strings or loops of pure energy) or the various multiverse theories (the idea that our entire universe is just one of many). String theory and multiverse theories remain controversial because of the lack of direct experimental evidence for them, and some critics claim that multiverse theories aren't even testable in principle. They argue that there's no conceivable experiment that one could perform that would reveal the existence of these other universes.

Sometimes more than one theory is put forward to explain observations of natural phenomena; these theories might be said to "compete," with scientists judging which one provides the best explanation for the observations.

"That's how it should ideally work," Brown says. "You put forward your theory, I put forward my theory; we accumulate a lot of evidence. Eventually, one of our theories might prove to obviously be better than the other, over some period of time. At that point, the losing theory sort of falls away. And the winning theory will probably fight battles in the future."


More from mental floss studios