The Origins of 12 Supermarket Chains

From the days of home delivery to streamlined self-service stores, here are the stories behind 12 supermarket chains.

1. Albertsons

After 12 years as a clerk and manager for Safeway stores, Joe Albertson decided to open his own business. In 1939 Albertson formed a partnership with two other men, including fellow Safeway employee L.S. Skaggs, and used his life savings and a $7,500 loan from his aunt to open the first Albertsons Food Center in Boise, Idaho. According to the Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurs, the store featured a fresh bakery, an automatic doughnut machine, one of the first magazine racks in the country, and double-dipped ice cream cones called “Big Joe” that cost a nickel. Albertson, who made a $10,000 profit in his first year, opened two more stores in 1940 and surpassed $1 million in sales. 

2. ALDI

One of the world's largest discount grocery chains was founded as a modest shop in Germany in 1913 by the mother of Theo and Karl Albrecht. The brothers took over their mother’s small business after World War II and began shaping the company into what it is today. By choosing not to spend money on advertising and opening small, no-frills stores with a limited selection of goods, the Albrecht brothers were able to offer lower prices than their competitors. ALDI opened its first store in the United States in southeastern Iowa in 1976 and initially carried only 500 products. Today, the company boasts more than 1,000 stores with a greater selection of products in over 30 states.

3. Food Lion

Ildar Sagdejev, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

In 1957, former Winn-Dixie employees Ralph Ketner, Brown Ketner, and Wilson Smith opened the first Food Town supermarket in Salisbury, North Carolina. A decade later, the trio's empire had only grown to seven stores, so the company began using giveaways and promotions to lure customers. That year, Ralph Ketner reportedly spent three days in a Charlotte motel analyzing Food Town’s sales. After crunching the numbers, Ketner determined that the company could slash prices on 3,000 items and still turn a profit if sales increased by 50%. The strategy sparked rapid growth and prompted the introduction of a new slogan: LFPINC—Lowest Food Prices in North Carolina. “Our bumper stickers, highway signs, everything zeroed in on LFPINC, and each year we continued to cut prices, and it just fed on itself,” Ketner told Fortune in 1988. When Belgian supermarket chain Delhaize purchased a majority stake in Food Town in 1974, the company prepared to open stores in Tennessee and other neighboring states. During this expansion, Delhaize decided to rebrand the store for several reasons, not the least of which was that Tennessee already had an established chain called Food Town. Ketner lobbied for Food Lion since Delhaize’s logo featured a lion, and the change would only require switching two letters in the name. From 1977 to 1987, the chain opened more than 400 new stores.

4. Kroger

Barney Kroger used his life’s savings of $372 to open his first store, The Great Western Tea Company, in downtown Cincinnati in 1883. By 1902, Kroger had opened 40 stores and incorporated his chain as the Kroger Grocery and Baking Company. Less than 20 years later, the company had grown to more than 5,000 stores nationwide. Kroger’s stores featured bakeries and were among the first to combine meat markets and grocery stores under one roof. He advertised regularly in newspapers and started a private-label line of goods, including sauerkraut and pickles made by his mother. Kroger retired in 1928, but the company continued to grow and remained a pioneer in the industry. In 1972, Kroger was reportedly the first grocery retailer to test an electronic scanner. Today, Kroger boasts more than 2,500 stores in 31 states and sales of more than $100 billion.

5. Piggly Wiggly

Clarence Saunders changed the way that people shopped for groceries when he opened the first Piggly Wiggly in 1916 in Memphis, Tennessee. Traditionally, a customer would present a list of groceries to a store clerk, who would gather the goods off the shelves while the customer waited. Saunders’ first store featured shopping baskets and open shelves that enabled customers to shop on their own. Time described the stores as cafeteria-groceries. The origin of the Piggly Wiggly name is unknown. When asked why he chose the name, Saunders once replied, “So people will ask that very question.” Saunders lost more than $3 million after attempting to corner the market on Piggly Wiggly stock and left the company in 1923. In 1937, he opened Keedoozle, the first fully automated grocery store. 

6. Ralphs

In 1872, 22-year-old bricklayer George Albert Ralphs lost an arm in a hunting accident and was forced to find a new occupation. Ralphs took a job at a grocery store in downtown Los Angeles and saved enough money to open his own store with his brother two years later. Ralphs Bros. Grocery provided lodging for farmers who came to Los Angeles to sell their crops, enabling its founders to establish a good relationship with some of their main suppliers. By 1928, Ralphs, had 10 cash-and-carry stores. As Ralphs grew over the next several decades, it opened bakeries, creameries, and floral departments in its stores. In 1978, Ralphs introduced a line of Plain Wrap products, an alternative to name-brand items. Today, Ralphs is the largest subsidiary of Kroger.

7. Safeway

In 1912, Sam Seelig opened the first grocery store bearing his name in Los Angeles. By 1922, the Seelig’s chain had grown to 71 stores. When Seelig decided to leave the company to enter the real estate business two years later, a contest was held to rename his stores. "Safeway" - a reference to the chain’s cash-and-carry policy - was the winning submission. While many grocery stores at the time offered credit, Seelig’s did not, making it the “safe way” to shop and avoid falling into debt. Safeway’s 322 stores merged with M.B. Skaggs’ chain of 428 stores in 1926 and was first listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1928. 

8. Shaw’s

Shaw’s traces its roots to Portland, Maine, where George C. Shaw opened a tea shop in 1862. In 1919, Maynard A. Davis, who owned a small chain of grocery stores in Massachusetts called Brockton Public Market (BPM), purchased the George C. Shaw Company. The two entities continued to grow over the next several decades, opening stores throughout New England. In 1978, BPM stores changed their name to Shaw’s Supermarkets to streamline the marketing and advertising efforts of the two companies, which formally merged one year later.

9. Trader Joe’s

Trader Joe’s began in 1958 as a small chain of convenience stores called Pronto Markets. In 1967, owner Joe Coulombe decided his stores were too similar to 7-Elevens, changed the name of his company, and opened the first Trader Joe’s in Pasadena, California. Coulombe stocked his stores with unique food items and attracted a strong base of environmentally conscious consumers by publishing the Trader Joe’s Insider Report, which included commentary on conservation issues and stories about the various wines the store sold. (The newsletter is still published today as the Fearless Flyer.) In 1977, Trader Joe’s introduced the first “Save-A-Tree” brown canvas bag, and in 1993, the company opened its first store outside of California. The first bottles of Charles Shaw, better known as “Two Buck Chuck,” debuted in 2002.

10. Vons

Charles Von der Ahe, who grew up in the grocery business as a delivery boy and clerk, opened his first store in downtown Los Angeles in 1906. Von der Ahe leased his storefronts to produce sellers and butchers, an idea that would lay the foundation for the first supermarket. By 1928, Vons had grown to more than 80 stores. Von der Ahe sold the chain in 1929, but his sons re-launched the business four years later and opened a supermarket that offered self-service produce, meat, and deli departments in 1948. The business expanded to 159 stores during the 1970s and experienced additional growth during the 1980s after being designated the official supermarket of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. Today, Vons remains prominent in Southern California as a division of Safeway.

11. Wegmans

Wegmans was founded in 1916 by John and Walter Wegman as the Rochester Fruit and Vegetable Company. Wegmans stores were incorporated as Wegmans Food Markets, Inc., in 1931 after the brothers opened a 20,000-square-foot store in Rochester that featured a cafeteria, meats, produce, groceries, dairy products, and baked goods. Over the next few years, Wegmans introduced refrigerated display windows, vaporized water sprays in the produce section, and homemade candy. Wegmans launched a line of private-label products in 1979 and opened its first store outside of New York in 1993. 

12. Whole Foods

David Shankbone, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

University of Texas dropout John Mackey and his girlfriend, Renee Lawson Hardy, opened SaferWay Natural Foods in Austin, Texas, in 1978. Mackey and Hardy lived in the store and bathed using the water hose from the Hobart dishwasher. Two years later, with some help from his dad, Mackey raised about $200,000 to expand his business. He and Hardy partnered with Craig Weller and Mark Skiles, owners of the nearby Clarksville Natural Grocery, to open the first Whole Foods Market. The store was an instant success and attracted a loyal following. While it carried a huge line of natural and organic products, Whole Foods differentiated itself from the handful of other natural food stores of the time by catering to vegetarians and carnivores alike and carrying refined sugar and eggs. The Whole Foods chain expanded to 10 locations, including Dallas, Houston, New Orleans, and Palo Alto, by 1990.

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Bad Moods Might Make You More Productive
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iStock

Being in a bad mood at work might not be such a bad thing. New research shows that foul moods can lead to better executive function—the mental processing that handles skills like focus, self-control, creative thinking, mental flexibility, and working memory. But the benefit might hinge on how you go through emotions.

As part of the study, published in Personality and Individual Differences, a pair of psychologists at the University of Waterloo in Canada subjected more than 90 undergraduate students to a battery of tests designed to measure their working memory and inhibition control, two areas of executive function. They also gave the students several questionnaires designed to measure their emotional reactivity and mood over the previous week.

They found that some people who were in slightly bad moods performed significantly better on the working memory and inhibition tasks, but the benefit depended on how the person experienced emotion. Specifically, being in a bit of a bad mood seemed to boost the performance of participants with high emotional reactivity, meaning that they’re sensitive, have intense reactions to situations, and hold on to their feelings for a long time. People with low emotional reactivity performed worse on the tasks when in a bad mood, though.

“Our results show that there are some people for whom a bad mood may actually hone the kind of thinking skills that are important for everyday life,” one of the study’s co-authors, psychology professor Tara McAuley, said in a press statement. Why people with bigger emotional responses experience this boost but people with less-intense emotions don’t is an open question. One hypothesis is that people who have high emotional reactivity are already used to experiencing intense emotions, so they aren’t as fazed by their bad moods. However, more research is necessary to tease out those factors.

[h/t Big Think]

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Universal Pictures Home Entertainment
The 10 Wildest Movie Plot Twists
Laura Harring in Mulholland Drive (2001)
Laura Harring in Mulholland Drive (2001)
Universal Pictures Home Entertainment

An ending often makes or breaks a movie. There’s nothing quite as satisfying as having the rug pulled out from under you, particularly in a thriller. But too many flicks that try to shock can’t stick the landing—they’re outlandish and illogical, or signal where the plot is headed. Not all of these films are entirely successful, but they have one important attribute in common: From the classic to the cultishly beloved, they involve hard-to-predict twists that really do blow viewers’ minds, then linger there for days, if not life. (Warning: Massive spoilers below.)

1. PSYCHO (1960)

Alfred Hitchcock often constructed his movies like neat games that manipulated the audience. The Master of Suspense delved headfirst into horror with Psycho, which follows a secretary (Janet Leigh) who sneaks off with $40,000 and hides in a motel. The ensuing jolt depends on Leigh’s fame at the time: No one expected the ostensible star and protagonist to die in a gory (for the time) shower butchering only a third of the way into the running time. Hitchcock outdid that feat with the last-act revelation that Anthony Perkins’s supremely creepy Norman Bates is embodying his dead mother.

2. PLANET OF THE APES (1968)

No, not the botched Tim Burton remake that tweaked the original movie’s famous reveal in a way that left everyone scratching their heads. The Charlton Heston-starring sci-fi gem continues to stupefy anyone who comes into its orbit. Heston, of course, plays an astronaut who travels to a strange land where advanced apes lord over human slaves. It becomes clear once he finds the decrepit remains of the Statue of Liberty that he’s in fact on a future Earth. The anti-violence message, especially during the political tumult of 1968, shook people up as much as the time warp.

3. DEEP RED (1975)

It’s not rare for a horror movie to flip the script when it comes to unmasking its killer, but it’s much rarer that such a film causes a viewer to question their own perception of the world around them. Such is the case for Deep Red, Italian director Dario Argento’s (Suspiria) slasher masterpiece. A pianist living in Rome (David Hemmings) comes upon the murder of a woman in her apartment and teams up with a female reporter to find the person responsible. Argento’s whodunit is filled to the brim with gorgeous photography, ghastly sights, and delirious twists. But best of all is the final sequence, in which the pianist retraces his steps to discover that the killer had been hiding in plain sight all along. Rewind to the beginning and you’ll discover that you caught an unknowing glimpse, too.

4. SLEEPAWAY CAMP (1983)

Sleepaway Camp is notorious among horror fans for a number of reasons: the bizarre, stilted acting and dialogue; hilariously amateurish special effects; and ‘80s-to-their-core fashions. But it’s best known for the mind-bending ending, which—full disclosure—reads as possibly transphobic today, though it’s really hard to say what writer-director Robert Hiltzik had in mind. Years after a boating accident that leaves one of two siblings dead, Angela is raised by her aunt and sent to a summer camp with her cousin, where a killer wreaks havoc. In the lurid climax, we see that moody Angela is not only the murderer—she’s actually a boy. Her aunt, who always wanted a daughter, raised her as if she were her late brother. The final animalistic shot prompts as many gasps as cackles.

5. THE USUAL SUSPECTS (1995)

The Usual Suspects has left everyone who watches it breathless by the time they get to the fakeout conclusion. Roger "Verbal" Kint (Kevin Spacey), a criminal with cerebral palsy, regales an interrogator in the stories of his exploits with a band of fellow crooks, seen in flashback. Hovering over this is the mysterious villainous figure Keyser Söze. It’s not until Verbal leaves and jumps into a car that customs agent David Kujan realizes that the man fabricated details, tricking the law and the viewer into his fake reality, and is in fact the fabled Söze.

6. PRIMAL FEAR (1996)

No courtroom movie can surpass Primal Fear’s discombobulating effect. Richard Gere’s defense attorney becomes strongly convinced that his altar boy client Aaron (Edward Norton) didn’t commit the murder of an archbishop with which he’s charged. The meek, stuttering Aaron has sudden violent outbursts in which he becomes "Roy" and is diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, leading to a not guilty ruling. Gere’s lawyer visits Aaron about the news, and as he’s leaving, a wonderfully maniacal Norton reveals that he faked the multiple personalities.

7. FIGHT CLUB (1999)

Edward Norton is no stranger to taking on extremely disparate personalities in his roles, from Primal Fear to American History X. The unassuming actor can quickly turn vicious, which led to ideal casting for Fight Club, director David Fincher’s adaptation of the Chuck Palahniuk novel. Fincher cleverly keeps the audience in the dark about the connections between Norton’s timid, unnamed narrator and Brad Pitt’s hunky, aggressive Tyler Durden. After the two start the titular bruising group, the plot significantly increases the stakes, with the club turning into a sort of anarchist terrorist organization. The narrator eventually comes to grips with the fact that he is Tyler and has caused all the destruction around him.

8. THE SIXTH SENSE (1999)

Early in his career, M. Night Shyamalan was frequently (perhaps a little too frequently) compared to Hitchcock for his ability to ratchet up tension while misdirecting his audience. He hasn’t always earned stellar reviews since, but The Sixth Sense remains deservedly legendary for its final twist. At the end of the ghost story, in which little Haley Joel Osment can see dead people, it turns out that the psychologist (Bruce Willis) who’s been working with the boy is no longer living himself, the result of a gunshot wound witnessed in the opening sequence.

9. THE OTHERS (2001)

The Sixth Sense’s climax was spooky, but not nearly as unnerving as Nicole Kidman’s similarly themed ghost movie The Others, released just a couple years later. Kidman gives a superb performance in the elegantly styled film from the Spanish writer-director Alejandro Amenábar, playing a mother in a country house after World War II protecting her photosensitive children from light and, eventually, dead spirits occupying the place. Only by the end does it become clear that she’s in denial about the fact that she’s a ghost, having killed her children in a psychotic break before committing suicide. It’s a bleak capper to a genuinely haunting yarn.

10. MULHOLLAND DRIVE (2001)

David Lynch’s surrealist movies may follow dream logic, but that doesn’t mean their plots can’t be readily discerned. Mulholland Drive is his most striking work precisely because, in spite of its more wacko moments, it adds up to a coherent, tragic story. The mystery starts innocently enough with the dark-haired Rita (Laura Elena Harring) waking up with amnesia from a car accident in Los Angeles and piecing together her identity alongside the plucky aspiring actress Betty (Naomi Watts). It takes a blue box to unlock the secret that Betty is in fact Diane, who is in love with and envious of Camilla (also played by Harring) and has concocted a fantasy version of their lives. The real Diane arranges for Camilla to be killed, leading to her intense guilt and suicide. Only Lynch can go from Nancy Drew to nihilism so swiftly and deftly.

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