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Livin’ on the Wedge: The Long, Strange History of a Disputed Border

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The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, my home sweet home, is home to its fair share of oddities (see exhibits A, B, C and D). But one of the strangest stories involves our southern border and the controversy that surrounded it for more than a century.

The Wedge, also known as the Delaware Wedge is a 1.068 square-mile, roughly triangular chunk of land that sits at the point where Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland all bump up against each other. Born of the shortcomings of a survey to settle another border dispute, the Wedge was disputed territory almost as soon as the colonies were established, and Delaware and Pennsylvania’s battle over the land wasn’t completely resolved until 1921.

Here’s a timeline of the birth of—and battle for—one of the country's weirdest little plots of land.

1632: The charter for the colony of Maryland gives the Calvert family the entire Delmarva Peninsula between the 40th parallel to the north and Watkin’s Point to the south (basically, everything between Pennsylvania and Virgina). Several Dutch and Swedish settlements sit within this territory along the Delaware Bay and River. While the Calverts want them removed, the Crown refuses because of the foreign relations row it would create for England. By 1655, the Dutch, led by Peter Stuyvesant, took over the New Swedish colony and incorporated it into their New Netherland.

1664: The Dutch are driven from the area by British forces led by Sir Robert Carr and under the direction of The Duke of York. The Duke, figuring he had won the land in battle, added it to his proprietorship of New York.

But Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore and Proprietor of Maryland claimed ownership of the land, but since the Duke was the brother of King Charles II, he did not press the matter.

1681: William Penn receives his charter for Pennsylvania, which grants him a chunk of land west of the Delaware River with a southern border identical to Marlyland’s northern border, the 40th parallel. Excluded from Penn’s grant was any land that fell within a 12-mile circle radiating from New Castle, land that belonged to the Duke of York. The grant demonstrates how poorly the area was charted and how little the men involved knew of the area. The land grant indicates that Charles II and Penn thought that 40th parallel would intersect the Twelve-Mile Circle, but New Castle actually lies about 25 miles south of the 40th parallel. Additionally, the site that Penn had already chosen for his colony's capital city, Philadelphia, was also a little south of the parallel.

1682: The inconsistencies of the Pennsylvania grant stop being problems when Penn receives an additional grant for the New Castle lands from the Duke of York, referred to as the '”The Lower Counties on the Delaware,” and to be administered as a separate entity from Pennsylvania While this land had been part of Maryland’s original grant, the Calverts had failed to confirm their hold on it by surveying it or establishing loyal settlements. Penn’s claim on the Lower Counties begins almost 100 years worth of litigation between the Penns and Calverts, and their heirs.

1763: The fixing of the borders and settlement of the legal battles begins when the Penns and Calverts agree on some demarcations of their lands.

- The Twelve-Mile Circle around New Castle as the northern and (somewhat) western boundary of Delaware.

- The Transpeninsular Line (approximately 38°27? N) as Delaware’s southern border.

- The Tangent Line connecting the middle of the Transpeninsular Line with the western side of the Twelve Mile Circle marking the border between Delaware and Maryland.

- An east-west line sitting about 15 miles south of Philadelphia, running along 39°43’ N (a compromise on the 40th parallel) as the border between Maryland and Pennsylvania, which meets the…

- North Line running from tangent point north to 39°43’ N, marking the eastern border of Maryland.

- Any land west of the North Line that still falls within the Twelve-Mile Circle remains part of Delaware (a segment is known as the Arc Line).

The complexities of determining these borders required outside help, and so astronomer Charles Mason and surveyor Jeremiah Dixon were hired. While establishing the borders in the Penn-Clavery dispute, they also surveyed what became known as the Mason-Dixon Line—the division between the American North and South.

When these borders were agreed upon, apparently no one had a clear idea of what the shapes of the territories would be, because when the dust settled and surveying was complete, there was wedge of land tucked between 39° 43' N, the Twelve-Mile Circle and the North Line that didn’t clearly belong to anyone. Maryland had no claim to it, because it was east of the Tangent, North and Arc lines. While the land is below the PA-MD border, its place in between Maryland’s eastern edge and the Twelve-Mile Circle gives Pennsylvania a pretty strong claim to it (see image, from a United States Geological Survey map, via Wikimedia Commons).


Because Pennsylvania and Delaware were both owned by the Penns, though, there was no rush to figure out which one owned this wedge. The Wedge became a lawless no-man’s land, providing shelter for illegal bootlegging and gambling operations.


1776: America gains its independence and Delaware is separated from Pennsylvania. The two states immediately begin fighting over the Wedge. Pennsylvania claims the land because it is beyond the Twelve-Mile Circle, but past Maryland’s side of the North Line. It’s neither part of Maryland nor Delaware, and so should be part of Pennsylvania by default. Delaware, meanwhile, claims it because it is below Pennsylvania’s southern border with Maryland—and while the border is not officially established there, Pennsylvania should not be allowed to dip below that line at any point. Because the wedge is also east of the North Line, it's not part of Maryland and it defaults to Delaware.

The argument over the land continued for decades, with Delaware exercising jurisdiction over the area for most of that time, if only because the Wedge is a better geometric fit for it.

1892: A survey by the Office of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey extends Mason and Dixon’s southern boundary of Pennsylvania east for about 0.79 miles until it intersects the Newcastle Circle, clearly cutting Pennsylvania off from the Wedge (see image, by Wikimedia Commons user Lasunncty).


1889: A joint committee appointed by the two states awards the Wedge to Delaware.


1897: Pennsylvania recognizes Delaware’s claim to the Wedge and ratifies the committee’s decision.


1921: Delaware and the United States Congress ratify the decision and the Wedge officially becomes part of Delaware.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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8 Common Dog Behaviors, Decoded
May 25, 2017
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iStock

Dogs are a lot more complicated than we give them credit for. As a result, sometimes things get lost in translation. We’ve yet to invent a dog-to-English translator, but there are certain behaviors you can learn to read in order to better understand what your dog is trying to tell you. The more tuned-in you are to your dog’s emotions, the better you’ll be able to respond—whether that means giving her some space or welcoming a wet, slobbery kiss. 

1. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with his legs and body relaxed and tail low. His ears are up, but not pointed forward. His mouth is slightly open, he’s panting lightly, and his tongue is loose. His eyes? Soft or maybe slightly squinty from getting his smile on.

What it means: “Hey there, friend!” Your pup is in a calm, relaxed state. He’s open to mingling, which means you can feel comfortable letting friends say hi.

2. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with her body leaning forward. Her ears are erect and angled forward—or have at least perked up if they’re floppy—and her mouth is closed. Her tail might be sticking out horizontally or sticking straight up and wagging slightly.

What it means: “Hark! Who goes there?!” Something caught your pup’s attention and now she’s on high alert, trying to discern whether or not the person, animal, or situation is a threat. She’ll likely stay on guard until she feels safe or becomes distracted.

3. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing, leaning slightly forward. His body and legs are tense, and his hackles—those hairs along his back and neck—are raised. His tail is stiff and twitching, not swooping playfully. His mouth is open, teeth are exposed, and he may be snarling, snapping, or barking excessively.

What it means: “Don’t mess with me!” This dog is asserting his social dominance and letting others know that he might attack if they don’t defer accordingly. A dog in this stance could be either offensively aggressive or defensively aggressive. If you encounter a dog in this state, play it safe and back away slowly without making eye contact.

4. What you’ll see: As another dog approaches, your dog lies down on his back with his tail tucked in between his legs. His paws are tucked in too, his ears are flat, and he isn’t making direct eye contact with the other dog standing over him.

What it means: “I come in peace!” Your pooch is displaying signs of submission to a more dominant dog, conveying total surrender to avoid physical confrontation. Other, less obvious, signs of submission include ears that are flattened back against the head, an avoidance of eye contact, a tongue flick, and bared teeth. Yup—a dog might bare his teeth while still being submissive, but they’ll likely be clenched together, the lips opened horizontally rather than curled up to show the front canines. A submissive dog will also slink backward or inward rather than forward, which would indicate more aggressive behavior.

5. What you’ll see: Your dog is crouching with her back hunched, tail tucked, and the corner of her mouth pulled back with lips slightly curled. Her shoulders, or hackles, are raised and her ears are flattened. She’s avoiding eye contact.

What it means: “I’m scared, but will fight you if I have to.” This dog’s fight or flight instincts have been activated. It’s best to keep your distance from a dog in this emotional state because she could attack if she feels cornered.

6. What you’ll see: You’re staring at your dog, holding eye contact. Your dog looks away from you, tentatively looks back, then looks away again. After some time, he licks his chops and yawns.

What it means: “I don’t know what’s going on and it’s weirding me out.” Your dog doesn’t know what to make of the situation, but rather than nipping or barking, he’ll stick to behaviors he knows are OK, like yawning, licking his chops, or shaking as if he’s wet. You’ll want to intervene by removing whatever it is causing him discomfort—such as an overly grabby child—and giving him some space to relax.

7. What you’ll see: Your dog has her front paws bent and lowered onto the ground with her rear in the air. Her body is relaxed, loose, and wiggly, and her tail is up and wagging from side to side. She might also let out a high-pitched or impatient bark.

What it means: “What’s the hold up? Let’s play!” This classic stance, known to dog trainers and behaviorists as “the play bow,” is a sign she’s ready to let the good times roll. Get ready for a round of fetch or tug of war, or for a good long outing at the dog park.

8. What you’ll see: You’ve just gotten home from work and your dog rushes over. He can’t stop wiggling his backside, and he may even lower himself into a giant stretch, like he’s doing yoga.

What it means: “OhmygoshImsohappytoseeyou I love you so much you’re my best friend foreverandeverandever!!!!” This one’s easy: Your pup is overjoyed his BFF is back. That big stretch is something dogs don’t pull out for just anyone; they save that for the people they truly love. Show him you feel the same way with a good belly rub and a handful of his favorite treats.

The best way to say “I love you” in dog? A monthly subscription to BarkBox. Your favorite pup will get a package filled with treats, toys, and other good stuff (and in return, you’ll probably get lots of sloppy kisses). Visit BarkBox to learn more.

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