CLOSE
Original image

How the SEC Schools Got Their Nicknames

Original image

Top-ranked Alabama visits Arkansas on Saturday for a heated Southeastern Conference football battle between two schools with a couple of the more unique nicknames in college sports—Crimson Tide and Razorbacks. Here are the origins of the nicknames for all 12 teams in the conference, including Commodores, Volunteers, and pairs of Bulldogs and Tigers.

Alabama Crimson Tide

Hugh Roberts, sports editor for the Birmingham Age-Herald, is widely credited as being the first to use "Crimson Tide" to refer to Alabama's football team. Roberts used the term to describe crimson-and-white-clad Alabama's surprising performance during a rain-soaked 6-6 tie with heavily favored Auburn in 1907. Henry "Zipp" Newman, who became the sports editor of the Birmingham News at the age of 25, helped popularize the nickname. Sportswriters are also to thank for the elephant that serves as Alabama's mascot. The elephant reference dates back to the school's 10-0 season in 1930, when sportswriters began referring to Alabama head coach Wallace Wade's hulking linemen as the Red Elephants.

Arkansas Razorbacks

Arkansas's athletic teams weren't always known as the Razorbacks. From 1894 until 1910, the football team was known as the Cardinals, a reference to the deep shade of red that the student body voted the school's official color—over heliotrope—in 1895. Upon returning to Little Rock after Arkansas's 1909 team capped off an undefeated season with a 1609 win at rival LSU, head coach Hugo Bezdek announced to the crowd of cheering students that his team had played "like a wild band of Razorback hogs." The Razorback, a wild boar known for its fighting ability, was adopted as the school's mascot the following year. "Wooo, Pig, Sooie" was incorporated as the school yell, or "Hog Call," during the 1920s, while the Razorbacks debuted a live mascot in the 1960s.

Auburn Tigers

According to Auburn's website, the school traces its name and its nickname to a 1770 Oliver Goldsmith poem, which includes the line, "where crouching tigers await their hapless prey." Newspapers occasionally referred to Auburn's athletic teams as the Plainsmen, another nod to the poem, but after Auburn shut out rival Alabama in 1901, the Birmingham News headline read, "A Tiger Claws Alabama." The Tigers nickname stuck, and while it may be plain, Auburn's battle cry is not. There are several accounts of how the school's "War Eagle" cry began, but at least one dates back to a 10-0 win over Georgia in 1892. According to legend, a Civil War veteran stood in the crowd that day with an eagle he had rescued from the battlefield some 30 years earlier. The eagle broke free and soared around the stadium until the end of the game, when it crashed to the turf and died. The eagle had given its all for the Orange and Blue. Today, Auburn home games at Jordan-Hare Stadium are preceded by an open-air flight by a live eagle.

Florida Gators

In 1911, Florida's student monthly, The Pennant, nicknamed Everglades native and UF center Neal Storter "Bo Gator." According to The Pennant, the Alligator nickname was extended to the whole team during Florida's trip to South Carolina that same year. Florida would finish undefeated that season and a local vendor ordered banners that featured and alligator. The nickname stuck.

Georgia Bulldogs

When Herman J. Stegeman took over as head coach in 1920, Georgia's football team, which had previously been referred to as the Red and Black, became known as the Wildcats. Atlanta Journal sportswriter Morgan Blake took issue with the unoriginal moniker, pointing out that it was already shared by at least two other teams in the south—Kentucky State and Davidson. "I had hoped that Georgia would adopt some original nickname that would stand out," Blake wrote. "...The 'Georgia Bulldogs' would sound good, because there is a certain dignity about a bulldog as well as ferocity, and the name is not common as 'Wildcats' and 'Tigers.' Yale is about the only team I recall right now that has the name." One week after Blake's story ran, Cliff Wheatley of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution referred to Georgia as the Bulldogs several times in his recap of the team's tie at Virginia. The new nickname quickly caught on.

Kentucky Wildcats

According to the school website, Kentucky's athletic teams acquired the nicknamed Wildcats shortly after the football team scored a 6-2 victory at Illinois in 1909. Commandant Carbusier, who was head of the military department at what was then known as State University, told a group of students in a chapel service after the game that Kentucky's players had "fought like Wildcats." The nickname caught on with the media and was soon officially adopted by the school, which became known as the University of Kentucky in 1916.

LSU Tigers

By most accounts, LSU took its nickname back in 1896 during a perfect 6-0 season under the leadership of coach A.W. Jeardeau. While Tigers was a popular nickname at the time, the moniker carried additional meaning for LSU, tracing its roots to the Civil War. The nickname was reportedly derived from a group of Confederate soldiers from New Orleans known as the Tiger Rifles, and was eventually applied to all of the Louisiana troops in General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. LSU's first logo—a snarling tiger head—was borrowed from the Washington Artillery militia unit in New Orleans.

Mississippi State Bulldogs

Mississippi State University was originally founded as Mississippi A&M and its teams were known as the Aggies. When the school became Mississippi State College in 1932, Maroons was adopted as the new nickname, a reference to the color of the school's athletic teams' uniforms. It wasn't until 1961 that Bulldogs was recognized as the official mascot. The nickname had been used interchangeably with Aggies and Maroons as early as 1905. After A&M shut out rival Mississippi that season, students staged a funeral march to mourn Mississippi's dead athletic spirit. The campus newspaper reported that the procession featured a coffin with a bulldog on top. A live bulldog named Ptolemy, which was picked out by head coach Major Ralph Sasse, first appeared on the sidelines in 1935. A litter-mate of Ptolemy became the first in a long line of bulldogs named Bully to represent the school after Sasse's team upset Army 13-7 later that season.

Ole Miss Rebels

The University of Mississippi's teams were originally known as The Flood. In 1936, the editor of the school's student newspaper proposed a contest to select a new name and Rebels was the most popular choice among five finalists. An illustration of Colonel Reb, the Rebels' controversial mascot, first appeared in the school yearbook a few years later. School officials retired Colonel Reb, a caricature of an antebellum Southern plantation owner, as an on-field mascot in 2003, responding to complaints of racial insensitivity. (Ole Miss historian David Sansing says that Colonel Reb may have been modeled after a black man, Blind Jim Ivy, who was a regular at campus sporting events until his death in 1955.) The school banned the sale of all merchandise featuring Colonel Reb's likeness this summer, and while supporters of the original mascot are petitioning to revive him, a student mascot committee is working to select a replacement. A suggestion made in jest, Admiral Ackbar, the leader of the Rebel Alliance in Star Wars VI, garnered so much support that it was featured in an ESPN commercial.

South Carolina Gamecocks

According to USC's website, the Gamecock nickname was adopted in 1902 after South Carolina upset Clemson, 12-6. USC students paraded through the streets carrying a transparency that depicted a gamecock standing over a fallen tiger. The transparency, which had been displayed in a storefront window, was reportedly drawn by USC professor F. Horton Colcock and prompted an angry response from the Clemson Cadets. The gamecock symbol on the transparency was likely derived from the nickname bestowed upon General Thomas Sumter, a South Carolina hero during the American Revolution. Sumter was often called the Carolina Game Cock for his fierce fighting tactics. In 1903, South Carolina's newspaper, The State, shortened the nickname to one word and began referring to USC's athletic teams as the Gamecocks.

Tennessee Volunteers

Like several schools, the University of Tennessee's athletic teams share a nickname with their home state. Tennessee became known as the Volunteer State during the War of 1812, when General Andrew Jackson received an outpouring of support from volunteer soldiers in Tennessee to fight in the Battle of New Orleans. This reputation was solidified during the Mexican War, when 30,000 Tennessee residents volunteered to battle Santa Ana.

Vanderbilt Commodores

Vanderbilt's athletic teams are named after the nickname given to Cornelius Vanderbilt, who built his fortune in the shipping and railroad business, and founded the Nashville university with a gift of $1 million in 1873. While Vanderbilt donated his largest steamship to Union forces during the Civil War, he was never in the Navy. Still, his nickname was inspired by a former rank in the U.S. Navy, which is why Vanderbilt's mascot has always been a naval officer from the late 19th century.

Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
arrow
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

Original image
iStock
Animals
arrow
Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
Original image
iStock

It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]

SECTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
WEATHER WATCH
BE THE CHANGE
JOB SECRETS
QUIZZES
WORLD WAR 1
SMART SHOPPING
STONES, BONES, & WRECKS
#TBT
THE PRESIDENTS
WORDS
RETROBITUARIES