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The Story Behind Man's Best Friend

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There are around 400 million dogs in the world, the majority of which are pets. While the animals know a surprisingly large amount about their human companions, there’s plenty we still don’t know about them. In celebration of National Dog Week, here’s all kinds of information that you probably never knew about your best friend.

A Brief History of Inter-Species Love

While the exact time that humans and dogs started to socialize together is unknown, most researchers agree that the pairing occurred at least 15,000 years ago. There is evidence dogs were domesticated by 12,000 BC, as archaeologists have discovered an Israeli grave site from this time period where an old man had been buried with a puppy.


While early researchers argued whether dogs were most closely related to coyotes, dingoes or wolves, DNA evidence has proven conclusively that our four-legged friends are most closely related to gray wolves. The means that the animals became domesticated is contested, but one common theory says that wolves started to scavenge around human campsites where they could get meals with minimal effort and that wolves that were less frightened by humans soon saw an advantage in aligning themselves with paleolithic man.

Image courtesy of Sometimesong's Flickr stream.

In the beginning, both species would gain significant benefits from one another.

Dogs would be safer, have a more reliable food source and benefit from humans' ability to see predators and prey from a long distance. Humans would benefit as dogs increased sanitation by cleaning waste and food scraps; dogs also would have used their excellent hearing to warn humans of approaching animals. On the hunt, dogs would be able to use their strong sense of smell to track prey, as man used his tools to bring down large animals with less effort. Both species would also benefit from the increased body warmth during cold nights. It is very likely that humans not only shaped the future of dogs, but that dogs changed our evolutionary course as well.

As the years wore on, dogs continued to play an important role in human history. Many people believe that humans could not have successfully traveled across the Bering Straight without the help of sled dogs. After crossing, dogs continued to be important to Native Americans and served as their only domesticated animal until the Spanish introduced the horse. Many cultures even continued to use dogs as pack animals long after horses were introduced to the continent.


Selective breeding allowed certain dogs to excel at certain tasks, such as herding, ratting, hunting or carrying weight. The idea of pets solely for the sake of companionship wasn’t such a major part of the average person’s life until the suburbanization of Western culture after World War II. While dog training existed long before this, the idea of breaking the animals of their natural digging, barking and jumping instincts only really took off after this point and it seems we may be on the cusp of a new evolutionary mark for dogs as they are increasingly bred for companionship skills rather than working skills.

Image courtesy of nyominx's Flickr stream.

Cross-Species Benefits

Most people can immediately see the benefit modern dogs get from humans (food, shelter, water and affection), but the benefits our pets bring to us is equally impressive. Modern service dogs can be trained to not only help those with external physical disabilities, but also to help warn epileptics and diabetics about upcoming attacks while they still have time to do something about it. The animals can also be useful in treating anxiety, depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.


Dogs can even be used to detect oncoming conditions such as cancer. When a control group of dogs were trained to smell out lung or breast cancer in the breath of test subjects, their accuracy stayed between 88 and 97 percent. It sure is a whole lot less invasive than a biopsy.


People who own pets, whether dogs or cats, have been shown to be healthier and happier than those who do not own an animal. In fact, one study showed pet owners had a major reduction in minor health problems during their first month of ownership and dog owners continued to show these improvements through the duration of the study.

Image courtesy of Martin Kuo's Flickr stream.

What’s Breed Got To Do With It?

Dogs have more variations in size, appearance and behavior than any other animal on earth because they have been targets of artificial selection through human interference, rather than natural selection. Scientists have even recognized 155 distinct genetic locations that account for all of these differences.

Dog sizes vary from the world’s smallest dog, a 2.5 inch tall Yorkshire Terrier that weighed 4 ounces, to the world’s tallest dog, a Great Dane that stands at 43 inches (that's him above), to the 343 pound English Mastif that was named the world’s largest dog. Similarly, dog lifespans, which are around 11 years on average, vary greatly by breed. In fact, the Dogue de Bordeaux has a notably short lifespan that averages just over five years. Many other breeds, including Toy Poodles, Japanese Spitz and others have an average lifespan of fourteen and a half years. Strikingly, the world’s oldest dog, an Australian Cattle Dog named Bluey, lived to be almost 30.

Breeding can also affect the level of energy and muscle a particular dog has. Some of the best athletic dogs are the Siberian Huskies used in the Iditarod sled race. Scientists fount that these animals burned 11,000 calories the day, which is eight times the proportional calories burned by a Tour de France cyclist. They also take in three times the oxygen of human athletes.

Another famed animal athlete is the Greyhound, which is one of the fastest accelerating animals in the world, second only to the cheetah. Greyhounds have an incredible heart, the same size as a human, but that beats at twice the speed of a human when exercising.

Startling K-9 Psychology


Image courtesy of PKMousie's Flickr stream.

While people like to think we have more in common with our primate ancestors than any other animal, when it comes to communication and social dynamics, we actually have more in common with dogs. Researchers have said that while dogs are only as smart as two-year old humans, they have the social skills of teenagers. In fact, dogs are the only animals that understand pointing. They understand human languages better than other primates and the average dog can be taught as many as 165 words, more than an ape can learn. Particularly smart dogs have even been taught over 300 words.

Dogs understand deception, which chimps cannot grasp as clearly. Researchers tested this by placing two covered buckets, one with a treat and one without, in front of the dog. Half of the dogs would be directed to the wrong bucket by a person in the room, while the others would be given correct signals. While all of the dogs would start out listening to the human, those that were being lied to soon started going to the opposite bucket.

Dogs also know how to deceive humans without getting caught. To test this, dogs were left in a room with two containers with bells, one of which was muted and one of which was not. Researchers observed that when the animals were being watched, they would go to either of the containers, but when the observer looked away, the animals would always go for the quiet container.

If you’ve ever had a dog get in trouble, you probably know that dogs can show guilt, but it is worth noting that researcher Frans de Waal has proven that their expression of guilt applies whenever the dog thinks he or she will get in trouble, regardless of whether or not he or she actually did something bad. So if you have more than one dog, you might not want to blame the one who looks guilty automatically; he or she might just be worried they’ll get in trouble for the actions of their co-habitant.

Image courtesy of srte's Flickr stream.

I learned my dog is the jealous type when I came home and greeted my roommate’s dog before him. He immediately tried to fight her. Apparently, I was on to something here, because Vienna researchers studied whether dogs can get jealous of one another a little while ago by rewarding one dog with a treat for doing a trick and then asking the other to do the trick without a reward. The unrewarded dog soon got annoyed and stopped performing the trick, which did not happen when the same animal went unrewarded without another dog around. Up until that time, primates were the only animals known to show signs of jealousy.

Do you have a dog? Share your favorite stories about his or her behavior in the comments.

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Design
How Cambodian Refugees Started the Pink Doughnut Box Trend
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Like the red-and-green cardboard pizza boxes or white Chinese takeout containers, many doughnut boxes share a certain look regardless of where you buy them. This is especially true in Southern California: Order a dozen crullers from one of the region's many independently-run doughnut shops and you’ll likely receive them in a glossy pink box. According to Great Big Story, this trend can be traced back to an influential immigrant business owner.

In the 1970s, Ted Ngoy moved to Southern California as a refugee from Cambodia. Much of Los Angeles's current doughnut scene is thanks to him: He opened dozens of doughnut shops of his own and helped fellow Cambodian refugees in the area get started in the business. Along with passing down entrepreneurial advice, he also inspired them to choose the light pink boxes that he used in his stores. As Ngoy recalled years later, either he or his business partner, Ning Yen, started the trend after asking their supplier for a cheaper alternative to the traditional white boxes. The company was able to offer them pink boxes at a discount. Because red is considered a lucky color in many Asian cultures, the distinctive shade stuck.

Today, many doughnut places in L.A. County are still owned by Cambodian-American immigrants and their families, and they still use the same old-school packaging Ngoy and his partner popularized 40 years ago.

You can get the full origin story in the video below.

[h/t Great Big Story]

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Pop Culture
Fumbled: The Story of the United States Football League
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There were supposed to be 44 players marching to the field when the visiting Los Angeles Express played their final regular season game against the Orlando Renegades in June 1985.

Thirty-six of them showed up. The team couldn’t afford more.

“We didn’t even have money for tape,” Express quarterback Steve Young said in 1986. “Or ice.” The squad was so poor that Young played fullback during the game. They only had one, and he was injured.

Other teams had ridden school buses to practice, driven three hours for “home games,” or shared dressing room space with the local rodeo. In August 1986, the cash-strapped United States Football League called off the coming season. The league itself would soon vaporize entirely after gambling its future on an antitrust lawsuit against the National Football League. The USFL argued the NFL was monopolizing television time; the NFL countered that the USFL—once seen as a promising upstart—was being victimized by its own reckless expansion and the wild spending of team owners like Donald Trump.

They were both right.

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Spring football. That was David Dixon’s pitch. The New Orleans businessman and football advocate—he helped get the Saints in his state—was a fan of college ball and noticed that spring scrimmages at Tulane University led to a little more excitement in the air. With a fiscally responsible salary cap in place and a 12-team roster, he figured his idea could be profitable. Market research agreed: a hired broadcast research firm asserted 76 percent of fans would watch what Dixon had planned.

He had no intention of grappling with the NFL for viewers. That league’s season aired from September through January, leaving a football drought March through July. And in 1982, a players’ strike led to a shortened NFL season, making the idea of an alternative even more appealing to networks. Along with investors for each team region, Dixon got ABC and the recently-formed ESPN signed to broadcast deals worth a combined $35 million over two years.

When the Chicago Blitz faced the Washington Federals on the USFL’s opening day March 6, 1983, over 39,000 fans braved rain at RFK Stadium in Washington to see it. The Federals lost 28-7, foreshadowing their overall performance as one of the league’s worst. Owner Berl Bernhard would later complain the team played like “untrained gerbils.”

Anything more coordinated might have been too expensive. The USFL had instituted a strict $1.8 million salary cap that first year to avoid franchise overspending, but there were allowances made so each team could grab one or two standout rookies. In 1983, the big acquisition was Heisman Trophy winner Herschel Walker, who opted out of his senior year at Georgia to turn pro. Walker signed with the New Jersey Generals in a three-year, $5 million deal.

Jim Kelly and Steve Young followed. Stan White left the Detroit Lions. Marcus Dupree left college. The rosters were built up from scratch using NFL cast-offs or prospects from nearby colleges, where teams had rights to “territorial” drafts.

To draw a line in the sand, the USFL had advertising play up the differences between the NFL’s product and their own. Their slogan, “When Football Was Fun,” was a swipe at the NFL’s increasingly draconian rules regarding players having any personality. They also advised teams to run a series of marketable halftime attractions. The Denver Gold once offered a money-back guarantee for attendees who weren’t satisfied. During one Houston Gamblers game, boxer George Foreman officiated a wedding. Cars were given away at Tampa Bay Bandits games. The NFL, the upstart argued, stood for the No Fun League.

For a while, it appeared to be working. The Panthers, which had invaded the city occupied by the Detroit Lions, averaged 60,000 fans per game, higher than their NFL counterparts. ABC was pleased with steady ratings. The league was still conservative in their spending.

That would change—many would argue for the worse—with the arrival of Donald Trump.

Despite Walker’s abilities on the field, his New Jersey Generals ended the inaugural 1983 season at 6-12, one of the worst records in the league. The excitement having worn off, owner J. Walter Duncan decided to sell the team to real estate investor Trump for a reported $5-9 million.

A fixture of New York media who was putting the finishing touches on Trump Tower, Trump introduced two extremes to the USFL. His presence gave the league far more press attention than it had ever received, but his bombastic approach to business guaranteed he wouldn’t be satisfied with an informal salary cap. Trump spent and spent some more, recruiting players to improve the Generals. Another Heisman winner, quarterback Doug Flutie, was signed to a five-year, $7 million contract, the largest in pro football at the time. Trump even pursued Lawrence Taylor, then a player for the New York Giants, who signed a contract saying that, after his Giants contract expired, he’d join Trump’s team. The Giants wound up buying out the Taylor/Trump contract for $750,000 and quadrupled Taylor’s salary, and Trump wound up with pages of publicity.

Trump’s approach was effective: the Generals improved to 14-4 in their sophomore season. But it also had a domino effect. In order to compete with the elevated bar of talent, other team owners began spending more, too. In a race to defray costs, the USFL approved six expansion teams that paid a buy-in of $6 million each to the league.

It did little to patch the seams. Teams were so cash-strapped that simple amenities became luxuries. The Michigan Panthers dined on burnt spaghetti and took yellow school buses to training camp; players would race to cash checks knowing the last in line stood a chance of having one bounce. When losses became too great, teams began to merge with one another: The Washington Federals became the Orlando Renegades. By the 1985 season, the USFL was down to 14 teams. And because the ABC contract required the league to have teams in certain top TV markets, ABC started withholding checks.

Trump was unmoved. Since taking over the Generals, he had been petitioning behind the scenes for the other owners to pursue a shift to a fall season, where they would compete with the NFL head on. A few owners countered that fans had already voiced their preference for a spring schedule. Some thought it would be tantamount to league suicide.

Trump continued to push. By the end of the 1984 season, he had swayed opinion enough for the USFL to plan on one final spring block in 1985 before making the move to fall in 1986.

In order to make that transition, they would have to win a massive lawsuit against the NFL.

In the mid-1980s, three major networks meant that three major broadcast contracts would be up for grabs—and the NFL owned all three. To Trump and the USFL, this constituted a monopoly. They filed suit in October 1984. By the time it went to trial in May 1986, the league had shrunk from 18 teams to 14, hadn’t hosted a game since July 1985, kept only threadbare rosters, and was losing what existing television deals it had by migrating to smaller markets (a major part of the NFL’s case was that the real reason for the lawsuit, and the moves to smaller markets, was to make the league an attractive takeover prospect for the NFL). The ruling—which could have forced the NFL to drop one of the three network deals—would effectively become the deciding factor of whether the USFL would continue operations.

They came close. A New York jury deliberated for 31 hours over five days. After the verdict, jurors told press that half believed the NFL was guilty of being a monopoly and were prepared to offer the USFL up to $300 million in damages; the other half thought the USFL had been crippled by its own irresponsible expansion efforts. Neither side would budge.

To avoid a hung jury, it was decided they would find in favor of the USFL but only award damages in the amount of $1. One juror told the Los Angeles Times that she thought it would be an indication for the judge to calculate proper damages.

He didn’t. The USFL was awarded treble damages for $3 in total, an amount that grew slightly with interest after time for appeal. The NFL sent them a payment of $3.76. (Less famously, the NFL was also ordered to pay $5.5 million in legal fees.)

Rudy Shiffer, vice-president of the Memphis Showboats, summed up the USFL's fate shortly after the ruling was handed down. “We’re dead,” he said.

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