Seasons Affect MS Symptoms

At the age of 45, Anne Rowling died from complications of multiple sclerosis (MS). Her daughter, J.K. Rowling, of Harry Potter fame, recently announced she was donating £10 million ($15.4 million) to form a MS and neurodegenerative disease research center at the University of Edinburgh. Scottish people suffer from the disease at a higher rate than others and the disease seems to impact more people living in northern regions. Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital discovered that the seasons impact MS symptoms, causing them to seriously consider the role environment plays in causing the disease.

MS is an autoimmune disease where the body destroys myelin sheaths, a fatty material that protects the nerve endings in the brain and the spine. This lessens the brain's ability to communicate and often causes scarring and lesions, leading to permanent disability. (The image at left, from Wikimedia user Marvin 101, is a photomicrograph of a demyelinating MS-Lesion.) There are no known cures for the disease but many physicians have been able to slow the disease's progression.

Researchers led by Dominik Meier examined MRI scans of 44 participants. The scientists asked participants, between ages 25 and 52, to undergo eight weekly scans, then eight scans every other week, followed by a six-month check-up. Each person averaged 22 scans. When each scan was taken, researchers recorded weather information such as temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation levels. The study took place from 1991 through 1993 before pharmaceuticals that regulate MS relapses entered the market.

Meier and his colleagues found that more brain lesions occurred from March to August. According to the paper, published in Neurology, 310 new T2 lesions were found in 31 patients and the researchers discovered more lesions during periods of higher levels of solar radiation.

What Pop Culture Gets Wrong About Dissociative Identity Disorder

From the characters in Fight Club to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, popular culture is filled with "split" personalities. These dramatic figures might be entertaining, but they're rarely (if ever) scientifically accurate, SciShow Psych's Hank Green explains in the channel's latest video. Most representations contribute to a collective misunderstanding of dissociative identity disorder, or DID, which was once known as multiple personality disorder.

Experts often disagree about DID's diagnostic criteria, what causes it, and in some cases, whether it exists at all. Many, however, agree that people with DID don't have multiple figures living inside their heads, all clamoring to take over their body at a moment's notice. Those with DID do have fragmented personalities, which can cause lapses of memory, psychological distress, and impaired daily function, among other side effects.

Learn more about DID (and what the media gets wrong about mental illness) by watching the video below.

Scientists Reveal Long-Hidden Text in Alexander Hamilton Letter

Age, deterioration, and water damage are just a few of the reasons historians can be short on information that was once readily available on paper. Sometimes, it’s simply a case of missing pages. Other times, researchers can see “lost” text right under their noses.

One example: a letter written by Alexander Hamilton to his future wife, Elizabeth Schuyler, on September 6, 1780. On the surface, it looked very much like a rant about a Revolutionary War skirmish in Camden, South Carolina. But Hamilton scholars were excited by the 14 lines of writing in the first paragraph that had been crossed out. If they could be read, they might reveal some new dimension to one of the better-known Founding Fathers.

Using the practice of multispectral imaging—sometimes called hyperspectral imaging—conservationists at the Library of Congress were recently able to shine a new light on what someone had attempted to scrub out. In multispectral imaging, different wavelengths of light are “bounced” off the paper to reveal (or hide) different ink pigments. By examining a document through these different wavelengths, investigators can tune in to faded or obscured handwriting and make it visible to the naked eye.

A hyperspectral image of Alexander Hamilton's handwriting
Hyperspectral imaging of Hamilton's handwriting, from being obscured (top) to isolated and revealed (bottom).
Library of Congress

The text revealed a more emotional and romantic side to Hamilton, who had used the lines to woo Elizabeth. Technicians uncovered most of what he had written, with words in brackets still obscured and inferred:

Do you know my sensations when I see the
sweet characters from your hand? Yes you do,
by comparing [them] with your [own]
for my Betsey [loves] me and is [acquainted]
with all the joys of fondness. [Would] you
[exchange] them my dear for any other worthy
blessings? Is there any thing you would put
in competition[,] with one glowing [kiss] of
[unreadable], anticipate the delights we [unreadable]
in the unrestrained intercourses of wedded love,
and bet your heart joins mine in [fervent]
[wishes] to heaven that [all obstacles] and [interruptions]
May [be] speedily [removed].

Hamilton and Elizabeth Schuyler married on December 14, 1780. So why did Hamilton try and hide such romantic words during or after their courtship? He probably didn’t. Historians believe that his son, John Church Hamilton, crossed them out before publishing the letter as a part of a book of his father’s correspondence. He may have considered the passage a little too sexy for mass consumption.

[h/t Library of Congress]


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