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The Lost Boys Give Back

The Lost Boys of Sudan are a group of thousands of young men from Sudan who fled the violence of their villages and lived in refugee camps for years before they were relocated to the United States, Australia, and other nations. After the cease-fire in 2005, many of them are looking homeward, and using the education and skills they've learned to help those who remain in Sudan.

After government troops destroyed his village in 1987, John Bul Dau walked for five years to reach the Kukuma refugee camp in Kenya. Nine years later, he was selected to come to Syracuse, New York with a group of Lost Boys. There, he worked as a security guard, attended college, sponsored the immigration of his surviving family members, married, and had two children. Dau was featured in the 2006 documentary God Grew Tired of Us about his journey, and wrote a book about it, called God Grew Tired of Us: A Memoir. He organized the the Sudanese Lost Boys of New York Foundation to help with the educational expenses of other Sudanese refugees. In 2007, Dau established the John Dau Foundation working to provide healthcare to southern Sudan in the form of clinics and training for health care workers.

Salva Dut fled his village of Tonj in southwestern Sudan in 1985, when he was eleven years old. In 1990 he led a group of younger refugees to the Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya, where he lived for six years. Dut came to Rochester, New York in 1996. When he learned that his father was alive in 2002, Dut went back to Sudan. He found his father ill from disease and water-borne parasites. After resettling his father in a healthier town, Dut confronted the lack of clean water in Sudan and founded Water for Sudan in 2004. He now spends half his time overseeing the organization's efforts to drill safe wells in southern Sudan and the other half of his time working on a degree in international business in the US.

Valentino Achak Deng spent nine years in refugee camps in Ethiopia and Kenya both as a refugee and as a health care educator before traveling to the US in 2001. He settled in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2003 he met author Dave Eggers who collaborated with him to write the semi-fictionalized autobiography, What is the What. Deng decided that all proceeds from the book go to help rebuild his hometown of Marial Bai in Sudan. Thus was born the Valentino Achek Deng Foundation to builds schools, librarys, community centers, and teacher training institutes in Sudan.

Jok Kuol Wel, Ajang Bol, Duot Aguer, and Chau Thon are a group of Lost Boys who banded together to found HELPSudan International in 2005. The group's first project in 2006 was to establish a school in the community of Bor to serve 400 students. They are in the process of raising funds for a permanent building for the school. See an interview with founders Bol and Wel at YouTube.

Emmanuel Jal doesn't know his exact age, but he knows he became a soldier at around seven or eight years old. His family fled their village when it was destroyed. After his mother died, he was rounded up and taken to Ethiopia, where he was schooled for a while then conscripted into the Sudan People's Liberation Army. After months of fighting, Jal ran off with some other children. British aid worker Emma McCune took Jal under her protection and sent him to Nairobi, Kenya where he could attend school. Jal was around eleven years old when she smuggled him aboard a plane out of Sudan. McCune adopted Jal in 1993, but was killed in an auto accident not long after. Jal began singing while a student in Kenya and became nationally known for his music. International fame came after Jal performed at Live 8: Africa Calling in 2005. His life is the subject of the book War Child: A Child Soldier's Story, and a documentary film called War Child. Now living in England, Jal went on to establish the organization GUA Africa which works to open schools in Sudan and Kenya. You can sponsor a child's education through GUA Africa. Image by David Shankbone.


Abraham Deng Ater also traveled with the huge group of refugees to Kakuma refugee camp beginning in 1987. In 2001, he was brought to Tucson, Arizona. He achieved a B.S. in Health Sciences at the University of Arizona, became a US citizen in 2006, and went on to pursue a masters in Public Health. Ater returned to Sudan in 2007 to search for his family. His mother and two sisters survived the war, but his father and brother did not. The trip home inspired Ater and two friends to found the Lost Boys Schools for Sudan organization to build schools and provide books, computers, and supplies for students in Sudan. The organization also brings mosquito nets and other health supplies to and teaches health care basics in Sudanese communities. See an interview with Ater at YouTube.

Gabriel Bol Deng was ten years old in 1987 when his village was destroyed. He walked for four months to reach Ethiopia, where he studied English until the 1991 civil war forced him to travel with other refugees to Kenya. Deng arrived in Syracuse, New York with other refugees in 2001. He achieved a bachelor's degree in Mathematics Education and Philosophy in 2007 and was named Student Teacher of the Year. He then returned to Sudan with Garang Mayuol and Koor Garang, a trip that became the subject of the documentary Rebuilding Hope. Deng then founded Hope for Ariang to build schools, first for 700 children in the village of Ariang, then elsewhere in Sudan.

Samuel Garang Mayuol was five years old in 1987 when he fled along with his father to Ethiopia. His father died in the refugee camp there the next year. Mayuol made it to Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya in 1992, where he became friends with Koor Garang and Gabriel Deng. He survived malaria and was brought to Elgin, Illinois in 2001. Mayuol discovered his mother to be alive in 2004, but couldn't travel to see her until the 2007 trip featured in the movie Rebuilding Hope. He was greeted as a hero in his village of Lang. He then began the Lang Water Project in collaboration with Deng's organization and worked with Salva Dut's organization to bring clean water to Lang and Ariang and to combat drought during the dry season and disease during the rainy season.

Christopher Koor Garang left his village in the Akon area of Sudan at the age of seven. After living in refugee camps in Ethiopia and Kenya, he settled in Tucson, Arizona in 2001. Garang became a licensed practical nurse and is working on a nursing degree. He returned to Sudan with Samuel Garang Mayuol and Gabriel Bol Deng for the 2007 Rebuilding Hope trip, bringing with him mosquito nets and other supplies that he had spent years raising money for. Garang founded Ubuntu in Arizona to raises funds for healthcare work in Sudan. He also works with the organization Jumpstart Sudan. See an interview with Garang at YouTube.

James Lubo Mijak came the US in 2001 and settled in Charlotte, North Carolina. He received his degree in international studies from UNC Charlotte in 2008. He wants to build a school in his hometown of Nyarweng in southern Sudan through a project called Raising Sudan. Ngor Kur Mayol is another Lost Boy from Atlanta, Georgia who co-founded the project with Mijak in order to build a school in his native home of Aliap. Mayol also founded Sudan Rowan in collaboration with St. John's Lutheran Church in Salisbury, North Carolina. Sudan Rowan is an organization in North Carolina pledged to fund Mayol's dream of helping his village to rebuild.

Michael Kuany ran away from his village, Jalle, when government forces attacked. He was around six years old. Kuany walked, along with other refugees, a thousand miles to Ethiopia. He lived in a refugee camp there until civil war forced the refugees back in Sudan in 1991. Kuany walked again with other refugees to Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya, where he lived for the next ten years. He jumped at the chance to go the the US in 2001, where he got his GED and then studied political science and international studies in college. Kuany founded Rebuild Sudan in 2005. The organization is in the process of building a school for around 400 children in Jalle.

This article was inspired by a post at Metafilter.

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History
84 Years Ago Today: Goodbye Prohibition!
A huge queue outside the Board of Health offices in Centre Street, New York, for licenses to sell alcohol shortly after the repeal of prohibition. The repeal of prohibition was a key policy of Franklin Roosevelt's government as it allowed the government an opportunity to raise tax revenues at a time of economic hardship.
A huge queue outside the Board of Health offices in Centre Street, New York, for licenses to sell alcohol shortly after the repeal of prohibition. The repeal of prohibition was a key policy of Franklin Roosevelt's government as it allowed the government an opportunity to raise tax revenues at a time of economic hardship.
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It was 84 years ago today that the Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, repealing the earlier Amendment that declared the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol illegal in the United States. Prohibition was over! Booze that had been illegal for 13 years was suddenly legal again, and our long national nightmare was finally over.


A giant barrel of beer, part of a demonstration against prohibition in America.
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Prohibition of alcohol was not a popular doctrine. It turned formerly law-abiding citizens into criminals. It overwhelmed police with enforcement duties and gave rise to organized crime. In cities like Milwaukee and St. Louis, the dismantling of breweries left thousands of people unemployed.


Photograph courtesy of the Boston Public Library

Homemade alcohol was often dangerous and some people died from drinking it. Some turned to Sterno or industrial alcohol, which was dangerous and sometimes poisoned by the government to discourage drinking. State and federal governments were spending a lot of money on enforcement, while missing out on taxes from alcohol.


New York City Deputy Police Commissioner John A. Leach (right) watches agents pour liquor into sewer following a raid during the height of Prohibition.

The midterm elections of 1930 saw the majority in Congress switch from Republican to Democratic, signaling a shift in public opinion about Prohibition as well as concerns about the depressed economy. Franklin Roosevelt, who urged repeal, was elected president in 1932. The Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution was proposed by Congress in February of 1933, the sole purpose of which was to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment establishing Prohibition.


American men guarding their private beer brewing hide-out, during Prohibition.
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With passage of the Constitutional Amendment to repeal Prohibition a foregone conclusion, a huge number of businessmen lined up at the Board of Health offices in New York in April of 1933 to apply for liquor licenses to be issued as soon as the repeal was ratified.

The Amendment was ratified by the states by the mechanism of special state ratifying conventions instead of state legislatures. Many states ratified the repeal as soon as conventions could be organized. The ratifications by the required two-thirds of the states was achieved on December 5, 1933, when conventions in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Utah agreed to repeal Prohibition through the Amendment.


Workmen unloading crates of beer stacked at a New York brewery shortly after the repeal of Prohibition.
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A brewery warehouse in New York stacked crates past the ceiling to satisfy a thirsty nation after the repeal of Prohibition.


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Liquor wouldn't officially be legal until December 15th, but Americans celebrated openly anyway, and in most places, law enforcement officials let them.

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Miss Cellania
10 Famous Birthdays in May
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Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Some of our favorite historical figures were born in May. We couldn't possibly name them all, so here are just a few of the notable people we'll be celebrating.

1. SIGMUND FREUD: MAY 6, 1856


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Sigmund Freud is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis. The Vienna psychiatrist developed a theory of the unconscious mind, where the id, ego, and superego struggle to balance each other out in the human psyche. Freud attributed his patients' neuroses to childhood trauma, often cloaked in a sexual conflict. His work was at first deemed perverted, but his ideas started to spread after a series of lectures in the U.S. in 1909. After Freud's death in 1939, Freudian theory was hailed as genius in mainstream culture. But beginning in the 1960s, Freud's theories started to fall out of favor in academia and are largely discredited today. However, his attempts to map the psyche gave us the language we still use to discuss personality and mental health.

2. FRED ASTAIRE: MAY 10, 1899


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Fred Astaire began dancing when he was just four years old. Soon he and his sister Adele were in a performing arts school and started dancing professionally. First came vaudeville, then Broadway, and when Adele married, Fred headed to Hollywood. Producers were at first reluctant to cast Astaire as a leading man because of his looks, but his dancing soon won them over. Astaire appeared in dozens of films between 1933 and 1981, 10 of them with with dance partner Ginger Rogers. Although his later films did not revolve around dance numbers, Astaire was seen dancing in an episode of Battlestar Galactica as late as 1979, when he was 80 years old.

3. MARTHA GRAHAM: MAY 11, 1894


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Martha Graham wanted to dance from an early age, but her parents disapproved, so she didn't study dance until college. Her wildly emotional dancing led her to performances in New York, and in 1926 she established the Martha Graham Dance Company. Through the company, Graham promoted modern dance as a spiritual and emotional outlet. Over time, she came to be seen as a genius of the genre. Graham danced until she was in her '70s, and continued to choreograph dances until her death at age 91.

4. KATHARINE HEPBURN: MAY 12, 1907


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Katharine Hepburn caught the acting bug in college and headed to the stages of New York upon graduation. She was spotted in a Broadway production and was offered the lead in RKO's 1932 film A Bill of Divorcement. That kicked off a movie career of more than 60 years, in which she was nominated for 12 Academy Awards and won four. Hepburn was a certified box office draw, but off screen she refused to behave like a Hollywood star. She spoke her mind, wore pants, and even appeared in public without makeup occasionally. Hepburn was also known for her devotion to the love of her life, actor Spencer Tracy, who was separated from his wife but refused to divorce her. The last of nine films they made together was Guess Who's Coming to Dinner in 1967, just before Tracy died. Hepburn continued making movies through 1994, when she was 87 years old.

5. PIERRE CURIE: MAY 15, 1859


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French physicist Pierre Curie is often overlooked in favor of Marie Curie, his brilliant student and later wife. Together they discovered radium and polonium, and did extensive research into radioactivity. Pierre, Marie, and Henri Becquerel jointly won the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics for their research. Curie might have gone onto many further discoveries, but he was killed in 1906 when a horse-drawn cart ran over him in Paris. If he had lived longer, Curie might have also succumbed to illness caused by radiation, as did his wife, daughter, and son-in-law—all Nobel Prize winners.

6. MARY CASSATT: MAY 22, 1844


Mary Cassatt via Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Renowned American painter Mary Cassatt wanted to become an artist, but her parents objected and her Philadelphia art school didn't take women students seriously. So she went to Paris and studied privately under teachers from Ecole des Beaux-Arts, as the school did not admit women. Gradually, Cassatt's works sold and her reputation grew. She drew the attention of Impressionist Edgar Degas, and worked with him for years. By 1886, she left the Impressionist movement behind, and afterward refused to be defined by any art genre. Cassatt's body of work often featured women and children in their everyday lives. Her most memorable painting, Little Girl in a Blue Armchair, broke with tradition by portraying a child in a naturalistic, casual pose instead of a formal portrait.

7. SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE: MAY 22, 1859


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Arthur Conan Doyle is best remembered for his many short stories and novels featuring the detective Sherlock Holmes. But Conan Doyle worked full time as a medical doctor until an illness convinced him he had to choose between writing and medicine. Years later, Conan Doyle volunteered with the British army to fight in the Second Boer War, but because of his age (40), he was only allowed to serve as a medical doctor. Upon his return from South Africa, he entered politics in Scotland, but he lost his only race. In 1907, Conan Doyle became involved in a real criminal case in which he helped George Edalji, a solicitor of Indian heritage, beat an animal cruelty conviction by employing the observational technique that Sherlock Holmes used. The fallout from that case led to the establishment of the appeals system in Britain. Conan Doyle also wrote a science fiction novel The Lost World, published in 1912. It was so successful that he wrote four sequels.

8. MARGARET FULLER: MAY 23, 1810


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Born in Massachusetts in 1810, Margaret Fuller was a precocious child who learned several languages but was not welcome at college because of her sex. She became friends with both Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, who admired her philosophical thinking. Fuller became a literary critic for the New-York Tribune and a well-known intellectual.

In 1845, Fuller made history with Woman in the Nineteenth Century, often considered the first major feminist work published in the United States. This groundbreaking book began as an essay in Emerson's transcendentalist journal The Dial called "The Great Lawsuit. Man versus Men. Woman versus Women," in which Fuller argued that men and women must see each other as equals before they can transcend to divine love. Fuller reasoned that ignoring our commonality was the base of much of America's sins, from the slaughter of Native Americans to the slavery of African Americans.

Fuller went on to become a foreign correspondent and the first American female war correspondent, covering the Italian revolution. She also fell in love with an Italian man and had a child with him. On their return trip to the U.S. in 1850 aboard a merchant ship, a hurricane struck the ship near Fire Island, killing all three. Only Fuller's 20-month-old son was found.

9. SALLY RIDE: MAY 26, 1951

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In 1983, Sally Ride became the first American woman to travel into space, aboard the space shuttle Challenger. Ride was a nationally ranked tennis player when she was a teenager. Billie Jean King urged her to turn pro, but Ride went to Stanford University instead. She earned both a bachelor of arts in English and a bachelor of science in physics in 1973, and a PhD in physics in 1978. Ride then immediately applied for NASA's astronaut program. She flew two shuttle missions, in 1983 and '84, and was scheduled for a third, but that mission was canceled after the Challenger explosion in 1986. After leaving NASA in 1987, Ride devoted her life to encouraging students to study science—especially girls. She founded the organization Sally Ride Science for just that purpose, and wrote five children's books encouraging interest in science. Ride died of cancer at age 61 in 2012.

10. "WILD BILL" HICKOK: MAY 27, 1837


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James Butler Hickok was a farmer, soldier, stagecoach driver, spy, lawman, scout, sharpshooter, gambler, and Wild West showman. Many of those occupations came after "Wild Bill" Hickok gained publicity for killing three men in an 1861 shootout. The newspapers followed his exploits from that time on, often embellishing the details until Hickok was more of a legend than the adventurer he was. His various occupations took him to different parts of Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Wyoming, and South Dakota. Hickok was playing poker in Deadwood, South Dakota, when Jack McCall shot him in the back of the head and killed him in 1876. The hand Hickok was holding at the time—a pair of black aces and a pair of black eights—became known as the "dead man's hand."

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