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At the Libraries: Your Weekly Round-Up

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Each week Miss Kathleen provides links to a variety of things happening at libraries across the country. If there's something fun going on in your local library this week, leave us a comment!

A while back we ran a profile of Bookmobiles. Here's a firsthand account of what an inspiring job it can be! Having been behind the wheel of one myself, I can tell you, they are certainly fun to drive, but they're not easy!
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A Bookmobile is just one kind of non-traditional library. What about a library in a mall? You can find one in Dallas, and it sounds like it's working pretty well. Would you be more likely to use a library if it were in a mall? What other non-traditional libraries have you stumbled across?

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Let's say you work in a library. What is the etiquette for interacting with patrons and colleagues? Situations can be tricky, but luckily, there's a blog for that! Here's what to do when a colleague is too enthusiastic about one genre.
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If you've ever thought about writing a book, especially a children's book, but aren't quite sure about the nitty-gritty of submitting to publishers or agents, well, luckily for you, there's a blog for that, too! Editorial Anonymous is a children's editor who has witty and information answers to all manner of questions. Here's a post that garnered this response: "The future is here for your SOULS!"
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Of course, you would only contact EA when your book is finished, or nearly so. What if you haven't written it yet? Need some help? Check out these pearls of wisdom from British author Philip Womack: "The vast majority of children have the literary sensibility of a dead snail and will read any old rubbish. Just look at the success of Stephenie Meyer and J.K Rowling." Wow, he's not pulling any punches there!
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In this wintry economic climate, libraries have to do all they can to stay relevant, including going to malls -- where the people are -- or risk further budget cuts. Libraries all across the country are reducing staff, hours, even closing some branches. You can see the grisly details at this website and get some tips on how to help stem the tide!
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But now on to more sartorial affairs. Need some new kicks? Here are two great sneakers inspired by children's literature. You can own Seuss Chucks or Percy Jackson Adidas and impress kids of all ages!
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Sneakers are great and all, but never forget: there is a dark side to literature. A Florida mom is blaming manga for her son's mental problems, and blaming the library for offering it! I feel for her and her family, but I think she's going a little too far.
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Aw, but who needs books, anyway? Not libraries! Or, engineering libraries, to be specific. Check out (ha! library pun!) this NPR piece about "bookless libraries." Is this the future of libraries?
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Our own Stacy Conradt ran a fun series of columns a while back, waxing nostalgic over the old kids' series that we all read. Now, from BuzzFeed, comes the ultimate smackdown: The Baby-sitters Club vs. Sweet Valley High. It's not even close, people, not even close.

Email Miss Kathleen to let her know what your library is up to—atthelibraries@gmail.com. See previous installments of At the Libraries here.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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iStock
Animals
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Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
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iStock

It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]

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