The Quick 10: For Whom the Liberty Bell Tolls

Legend has it that on July 8, 1776, the Liberty Bell rang out to summon Philadelphians to hear the first official reading of the Declaration of Independence. As with a lot of stories that store with "legend has it," sadly, there's probably not any truth to it. But it's a nice thought, and to honor the legend, here are 10 quick facts about one of the most famous bells in the world.

1. There's a typo on it. The inscription on the bell reads,

"Proclaim LIBERTY throughout all the Land unto all the Inhabitants thereof Lev. XXV X
By Order of the ASSEMBLY of the Province of PENSYLVANIA for the State House in Philada
Pass and Stow

Well, actually, it's not a true typo. At the time, the double "N" wasn't set in stone - if you can find old enough maps you'll see that "Pensylvania" wasn't an uncommon spelling. But it sure looks funny today.

2. You might be wondering what the heck "Pass and Stow" means. Don't ponder too hard - it's not a cryptic message. They're actually just the last names of John Pass and John Stow, the two men who recast the bell after it cracked during testing shortly after its 1752 arrival.
3. Apparently recasting didn't do much good for long, because as everyone knows, it cracked again. On February 22, 1846, the bell tolled for George Washington's birthday. It rang for several hours, in fact, which was more than the bell could handle. That day, a small crack turned into a gigantic crack and the bell was retired forever when it was deemed unusable.

4. They did try to repair it one last time - in fact, the width of the crack is from the attempted repair job, not from the actual fracture.

5. You won't hear the actual Liberty Bell ring, but you can hear its replica in Liberty Square at the Magic Kingdom in Disney World in Orlando. It rings on holidays related to the Revolutionary War. And if you're worried about authenticity, you won't get much more authentic than this bell - it's the only bell ever cast from the molds of the real Liberty Bell. Just like the original Liberty Bell once did, the replica rings in E flat.

6. It's hard to imagine the magnificent Liberty Bell covered in manure, but it once was. After the American defeat at the Battle of Brandywine, people were worried the British would storm into town and melt down any metal they could get their hands on to make cannons. The solution? Eleven historic bells were hidden in carts and wagons and removed from the city under piles of hay and manure. Not very dignified, but it worked!

7. The British would have needed some serious muscle to steal the Liberty Bell anyway - at 2,000+ pounds, it's definitely not something you can just make off with. The clapper alone is nearly 45 pounds. The bell is made of 70 percent copper, 25 percent tin and small amounts of lead, zinc, arsenic, gold and silver.

8. For quite some time, the bell was just referred to as "the State House bell." It wasn't given its famous moniker until the 1830s, when abolitionists recalled the bell's inscription and decided it was a perfect symbol of their cause.

9. As far as we know, the bell hangs from its original yoke. It's made from, appropriately, American Elm.

10. In 1996, Taco Bell took out a full page ad in The New York Times saying that they had purchased the Liberty Bell and would be changed the name to the Taco Liberty Bell. The date? April 1. Although it was a joke, many people were not amused, finding the publicity stunt to be in poor taste.

A bonus #11: There's a replica of the Liberty Bell in every state. In 1950, the copies were made as part of a savings bond drive called "Save for Your Independence." Curious as to where your state's bell is? Wonder no more.

We lived in Philadelphia for a brief period of time and visited the bell just once. I remember being a bit surprised at how it's just there - not behind glass or anything. Then again, I suppose it's probably hard to do much damage to a 2,000 pound bell before someone catches you. Have you visited the bell? What did you think?

10 Sweet Facts About Candy Canes

The sweet and striped shepherd’s hooks can be found just about everywhere during the holiday season. It's time you learned a thing or two (or 10) about them.


While the origins of the candy cane are a bit murky, legend has it that they first appeared in hooked form around 1670. Candy sticks themselves were pretty common, but they really took shape when the choirmaster at the Cologne Cathedral in Germany got the bright idea of twisting them to look like shepherd’s hooks. He then handed them out to kids during church services to keep them quiet.


It’s no surprise, then, that it was a German immigrant who introduced the custom to America. The first reference we can find to the tradition stateside is 1847, when August Imgard of Wooster, Ohio, decked his home out with the sugary fare.


Candy canes without the red don’t seem nearly as cheery, do they? But that’s how they were once made: all white. We’re not really sure who or exactly when the scarlet stripe was added, but we do know that images on cards before the 1900s show snow white canes.


Most candy canes are around five inches long, containing only about 50 calories and no fat or cholesterol.


The world’s largest candy cane was built by Geneva, Illinois chef Alain Roby in 2012.  It was 51 feet long, required about 900 pounds of sugar, and was eventually smashed up with a hammer so people could take home a piece.


Fifty-four percent of kids suck on candy canes, compared to the 24 percent who just go right for the big crunch. As you may have been able to guess, of those surveyed, boys were nearly twice as likely to be crunchers.


According to the National Confectioners Association, about 1.2 billion candy canes are made annually, and 90 percent of those are sold between Thanksgiving and Christmas. Which honestly begs the question: Who’s buying the 10 percent in the off season?


Bobs (that’s right; no apostrophe) Candies was the first company to really hang its hat on the sweet, striped hook. Lt. Bob McCormack began making candy canes for his kids in the 1920s, and they were such a hit he decided to start mass-producing them. With the help of his brother-in-law, a Catholic priest named Gregory Harding Keller (and his invention, the Keller Machine), McCormack was eventually able to churn out millions of candy canes a day.


December 26 is National Candy Cane Day. Go figure.


Here’s how they make candy canes at Disneyland—it’s a painstaking (and beautiful) technique.

10 Actors Who Hated Their Own Films

1. Sylvester Stallone, Stop! Or My Mom Will Shoot. Sly doesn’t pull any punches when it comes to his film career. Despite co-starring with the delightful Estelle Getty as the titular violence-prone mother, Stallone knows just how bad the film was:

"I made some truly awful movies. Stop! Or My Mom Will Shoot was the worst. If you ever want someone to confess to murder, just make him or her sit through that film. They will confess to anything after 15 minutes."

2. Alec Guinness, Star Wars.

By the time he played Obi-Wan Kenobi in 1977’s Star Wars: A New Hope, Guinness had already appeared in cinematic classics like The Bridge on the River Kwai, Great Expectations and Lawrence of Arabia. During production, Guinness is reported to have said the following:

"Apart from the money, I regret having embarked on the film. I like them well enough, but it's not an acting job, the dialogue - which is lamentable - keeps being changed and only slightly improved, and I find myself old and out of touch with the young."

The insane amount of fame he won for the role as the wise old Jedi master took him somewhat by surprise and, ultimately, annoyed him. In his autobiography A Positively Final Appearance: A Journal, Guinness recalls a time he encountered an autograph-seeking fan who boasted to him about having watched Star Wars more than 100 times. In response, Guinness agreed to provide the boy an autograph under the condition that he promise never to watch the film again.

3. Bob Hoskins, Super Mario Brothers. He was in Who Framed Roger Rabbit?. As far as I’m concerned, Bob Hoskins is forgiven for Super Mario Bros. Hoskins, though, doesn’t seem to be able to forgive himself. Last year the Guardian spoke with the veteran actor about his career and he summed up his feelings rather succinctly:

What is the worst job you've done?
Super Mario Brothers.

What has been your biggest disappointment?
Super Mario Brothers.

If you could edit your past, what would you change?
I wouldn't do Super Mario Brothers.

4. George Clooney, Batman & Robin. Sure, Batman & Robin made money. But by every other imaginable measure, the film was a complete failure, and a nightmare to the vast majority of the Caped Crusader’s most fervent fanatics. Star George Clooney recognized what a stinker he helped create and once plainly stated, “I think we might have killed the franchise.”

5. David Cross, Alvin and the Chipmunks: Chipwrecked. When actors have a movie out, it's customary that they publicize the film by saying nice things about it. Earlier this year David Cross took a different approach. When it came to describing his new film Alvin and the Chipmunks: Chipwrecked, the veteran comedian — better known for Mr. Show and Arrested Development — went on Conan and called the film a “big commercial for Carnival Cruise Lines” and told people not to go see it.

6. Katherine Heigl, Knocked Up. Judd Apatow’s unplanned pregnancy comedy was a huge hit and helped cement her status as a bankable film actress. After the film’s release, however, Heigl didn’t have all good things to say. In fact, what she specifically said about it was that the film was:

"…A little sexist. It paints the women as shrews, as humorless and uptight, and it paints the men as lovable, goofy, fun-loving guys.”

7. Charlize Theron, Reindeer Games. The 2000 action film Reindeer Games starred Ben Affleck, Gary Sinese and Charlize Theron and was directed by John Frankenheimer. But it all somehow failed to come together. In the end the film lost a lot of money and compiled a wealth of negative reviews – including one from its star actress who simply said, “Reindeer Games was not a good movie.”

8. Mark Wahlberg, The Happening. Mark Wahlberg doesn’t exactly seem like a guy who lives his life afraid of trees. But that is the odd position M. Night Shyamalan’s 2008 film The Happening put him in. Wahlberg, as it turns out, doesn’t look back too fondly on the film. He went on record during a press conference for The Fighter when he described a conversation with a fellow actor:

"We had actually had the luxury of having lunch before to talk about another movie and it was a bad movie that I did. She dodged the bullet. And then I was still able to … I don’t want to tell you what movie … alright “The Happening.” F*** it. It is what it is. F***ing trees, man. The plants. F*** it. You can’t blame me for not wanting to try to play a science teacher. At least I wasn’t playing a cop or a crook."

9. John Cusack, Better Off Dead. John Cusack reportedly hated his cult 80s comedy so much that he walked out of the screening and later told the film’s director Steve Holland that Better Off Dead was "the worst thing I have ever seen" and he would "never trust you as a director again."

10 Christopher Plummer, The Sound of Music. The Sound of Music is considered a classic and has delighted many generations of fans. But the film's own lead actor, Christopher Plummer, didn't always sing its praises. Mr. Von Trapp himself declined to participate in a 2005 film reunion and, according to one acquaintance, has referred to the film as The Sound of Mucus.



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