Scientific Reasons to Believe in Vampires, Werewolves & Zombies

To celebrate our new "Team Edvard" shirt, we're re-running some of our favorite vampire stories this week.

Vampires

vampiresOne dark and stormy evening, Spanish neurologist Juan Gomez-Alonso was watching a vampire movie when he realized something strange; he noticed that vampires behave an awful lot like people with rabies. The virus attacks the central nervous system, altering the moods and behaviors of those infected. Sufferers become agitated and demented, and, much like vampires, their moods can turn violent.

Rabies has several more vampire-like symptoms. It can cause insomnia, which explains the nocturnal portion of the legend. People with rabies also suffer from muscular spasms, which can lead them to spit up blood. What's stunning is the fact that these spasms are triggered by bright lights, water, mirrors, and strong smells, such as the scent of garlic. (Sound familiar?) After watching the Dracula movies a few more times, Dr. Gomez-Alonso felt compelled to continue studying vampire folklore and the medical history of rabies. Eventually, he discovered an even more profound connection between the two phenomena: Vampire stories became prominent in Europe at exactly the same time certain areas were experiencing rabies outbreaks. This was particularly true in Hungary between 1721 and 1728, when an epidemic plagued dogs, wolves, and humans and left the country in ruins. Gomez-Alonso theorized that rabies actually inspired the vampire legend, and his research was published by the distinguished medical journal Neurology in 1998.

The Madness of King George

Dr. Gomez-Alonso wasn't the first scientist who tried to pin vampirism to a real illness. In 1985, Canadian biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between vampires and porphyria—a rare, chronic blood disorder characterized by the irregular production of heme, an iron-rich pigment found in blood. The disorder can cause seizures, trances, and hallucinations that last for days or weeks.

As a result, people with porphyria often go insane. (Britain's King George III, the one who inspired our founding fathers to start their own country, is thought to have suffered from it.) Porphyria sufferers also experience extreme sensitivity to light, suffering blisters and burns when their skin is exposed to the sun. Another symptom of porphyria is an intolerance to sulfur in foods. Which food contains
a lot of sulfur? That's right, garlic.

Werewolves

teen-wolf-300In addition to explaining away vampires, medicine also has some answers for werewolves. In The Werewolf Delusion (1979), Ian Woodward explains that rabies may have also inspired the werewolf myth.

Rabies is transmitted through biting, and the dementia and aggression of late-stage rabies can make people behave like wild animals. Now, imagine that you are living in a village in medieval Europe and you see your friend get bitten by a wolf. A few weeks later, he starts foaming at the mouth, howling at the moon, and biting other villagers. Suddenly, that story your grandmother told you about the Wolfman sounds like a decent explanation for what's going on.

Zombies

thriller.jpgZombies may also be creatures of science, at least according to Costas J. Efthimiou, a physicist at the University of Central Florida. In 2006, he attempted to explain the mysterious case of Wilfred Doricent, a teenager who died and was buried in Haiti, only to reappear in his village more than a year later, looking and behaving like a zombie. Efthimiou concluded that Wilfred was not the victim of a curse, but of poisoning. In the waters of Haiti, there is a species of puffer fish whose liver can be made into a powder, which has the ability to make a person appear dead without actually killing him. Wilfred may have been poisoned with the powder and then buried alive.

According to one of Dr. Efthimiou's theories, once underground, Wilfred suffered from oxygen deprivation that damaged his brain. When the poison wore off and Wilfred woke up, he clawed his way out of the grave. (Graves tend to be shallow in Haiti.) Brain-damaged, he wandered the countryside for months until he ended up back in his village.

After Dr. Efthimiou published his explanation of the case, Dr. Roger Mallory, a neurologist at the Haitian Medical Society did an MRI scan of Wilfred's brain. Although the results were nonconclusive, he found that Wilfred's brain was damaged in a way that was consistent with oxygen deprivation. It would seem that zombification is nothing more than skillful poisoning.

How can you get a "Team Edvard" shirt of your own, you ask? If you shop now, you can pick one up for just $14.90 with the coupon code "edvard." If you're not into emo vampires or modern art, the coupon code works for all our 60+ t-shirt designs. (Offer ends Tuesday, June 29 at 11:59pm EST.)

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Tolkien Trust 1992
Rare J.R.R. Tolkien Sketches Reveal Another Side of the Fantasy Author
The Gardens of the Merking’s Palace, from the story Roverandom
The Gardens of the Merking’s Palace, from the story Roverandom
Tolkien Trust 1992

In addition to inventing languages and writing a trilogy of fantasy novels that spawned a multi-billion-dollar movie franchise, J.R.R. Tolkien was also a talented illustrator. His drawings of Middle-earth and other imagined lands often found their way into his books, including a cover and accompanying imagery he created for The Hobbit.

Now, over 300 illustrations, handwritten letters, and personal photographs that have never appeared in print before are featured in a new book published by the University of Oxford’s Bodleian Libraries. Titled Tolkien: Maker of Middle-earth, the book’s release coincides with an ongoing exhibition of the same name that's running at Bodleian Libraries until October 28.

The book's cover
The Tolkien Estate Limited 1937, Bodleian Libraries

The watercolor illustration featured on the book's cover, titled Bilbo Comes to the Huts of the Raft-elves, was Tolkien’s personal favorite, and he was disappointed when it wasn’t included in the first American edition of The Hobbit, published in 1937. In vibrant hues of blue and green, it depicts Bilbo floating down a river atop a wooden wine barrel after saving the dwarves from the dungeons of the Elvenking.

Another Hobbit illustration, also made in 1937, depicts an invisible Bilbo outwitting Smaug the dragon. Other images in the book are a little more obscure, like The Shores of Faery, a watercolor illustration of Kôr, the city of the Elves, that had been painted for The Silmarillion. Despite being Tolkien's earliest work, the book wasn’t published until after his death. Similarly, a story called Roverandom that Tolkien wrote as a bedtime story for his children in 1925 wasn’t published until 1998. An accompanying illustration depicts lush underwater gardens.

An illustration of Smaug and Bilbo
The Tolkien Estate Limited 1937

An illustration depicting the legend of the elves
The Tolkien Trust 1995

To see more illustrations like these, check out Tolkien: Maker of Middle-earth, which can be purchased on Amazon for about $48.

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John P. Johnson, HBO
10 Killer Facts About Barry
John P. Johnson, HBO
John P. Johnson, HBO

When Bill Hader told TV dynamo Alec Berg (Seinfeld, Silicon Valley) that he wanted to make a show about a hitman, Berg thought the genre was glib and played out, but they got to work. When Hader told HBO he wanted to play the hitman, they responded with, "You?"

Yes, him. Hader has delivered another indelible comic character into our lives through Barry. This time it’s someone who kills for a living but seeks an escape from all the low-drama, high-violence world in the high-drama, low-violence world of acting class. The show is an incredible feat of tonal balance that’s equally comfortable going for humor and heartache; it's something truly fresh and original, even by prestige TV standards.

Here are 10 facts about the humane hitman show, which just earned six Emmy nominations, including nods for Outstanding Comedy Series and Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series for Hader.

1. BILL HADER PITCHED IT AS TAXI DRIVER MEETS WAITING FOR GUFFMAN.

Barry Berkman isn’t exactly as terrifyingly manic as Taxi Driver's Travis Bickle, but the classic Robert De Niro character was one of their launch points for the show as they sold it to HBO. Hader asked them to consider Barry as the story of Bickle or William Munny from Unforgiven meeting the awkwardly uproarious local acting troupe in Waiting for Guffman. After bringing it to life, the comparison is spot-on. Barry’s job is intense and filled with blood, and his hobby is filled with the pathetic dreamers of his acting class.

2. THEY ALSO DREW INSPIRATION FROM FARGO and BOOGIE NIGHTS.

Barry’s tone is a tough magic trick to pull off. Few TV shows and movies have so flawlessly bounced between morbid gut punches and silly comedic escapades. While the Coen brothers are legendary for diving between tones, particularly with the bleakly comic Fargo, and Paul Thomas Anderson’s '70s porn narrative Boogie Nights is a bit more abstract and dreamlike in its shifts between the two drama masks, Hader and Berg looked to those two movies to understand how to make us drop our jaws right before (or after) making us laugh.

3. THEY COMPLETELY RESHOT EVERY SCENE WITH FUCHES IN THE PILOT.

Stephen Root and Bill Hader star in 'Barry'
Jordin Althaus, HBO

Barry’s exploitative father figure Fuches (Stephen Root) was originally an antagonistic bruiser who yelled at Barry a lot. HBO suggested they should instead be friends, which clicked with Hader, and they reshot all of Fuches’s scenes to play off the new dynamic. They also rewrote and reshot Barry’s monologue to Gene Cousineau (Henry Winkler) about his life as a killer, so Hader’s speech was shot almost a year after Winkler’s reaction shots to it.

4. BARRY’S ANXIETY ABOUT KILLING PEOPLE MIRRORS HADER’S FEARS ABOUT SATURDAY NIGHT LIVE.

The key to Barry is that he’s very good at something that’s bad for him. The same went for Hader, who experienced intense anguish and stage fright. “I had very bad anxiety about being onstage. I also didn’t like the live aspect of the show,” Hader told Vulture. Not exactly the best situation for a guy on a show with “Live” right there in the title. He was one of the best on SNL, but it was hurting him.

5. BUT SNL PREPARED HADER TO MAKE HIS OWN SHOW WITHOUT HIM KNOWING IT.

After shooting Barry, it dawned on Hader that his time at the sketch comedy mainstay had quietly prepared him for every aspect of production. He’d already learned how to collaborate with costume designers, set designers, directors of photography, and other crew members by doing it every week for eight seasons on Saturday Night Live. “You don’t realize how much you’ve learned until you’re done,” Hader said.

6. HADER’S TIME ON INSIDE OUT AFFECTED HOW HE APPROACHED THE STORY.

Tyler Jacob Moore, Bill Hader, and Rightor Doyle in 'Barry'
John P. Johnson, HBO

The flipside to Barry’s unhealthy skillset is his escapist desire to dive deep into a world he doesn’t have much talent for. That’s an existential collision that brings about massive change, so naturally Hader turned to a movie about the personified emotions in a little girl’s head for inspiration. Hader voiced Fear for Pixar's Inside Out, and Pete Docter’s original pitch—how his daughter transformed from a joyful child to a sullen teenager—really stuck with Hader, who approached writing Barry not by starting from the joke, but by considering each character’s emotion.

7. THEY DON’T WANT TO GLAMORIZE VIOLENCE.

“[Berg and I] like action movies, but people getting murdered is terrible,” Hader told GQ. That’s a core ethos for the way they shoot and edit the necessary violence for a story about a guy who kills for a living. Those scenes don’t feature slow motion or swelling scores or intense looks. They’re usually hauntingly matter-of-fact, leaving audiences with an uneasy, gruesome feeling, and even the villains of the show are depicted as human beings with children’s toys scattered across their living rooms while the only character who loves violence (Dale Pavinski’s cocaine-fueled Taylor) is portrayed as a profoundly idiotic buffoon.

8. BARRY’S NOT THE ONLY CHARACTER LIVING A DOUBLE LIFE.

One of the show’s slyest tricks is making us focus on whether one of Barry’s lives will ruin the other while quietly filling the cast with characters who all have double lives. Sarah Goldberg, who plays wannabe actor Sally, wisely pointed this out: “Everybody in the show is pretty desperate for something, desperate for change, desperate to get out of their situation, and everyone’s living these double lives.” Gene is king while teaching his acting class, but a schmo crossing his fingers at a hopeless commercial audition. Sally and the other students live partially in a dream world of stardom but then return to their real jobs. Detective Moss (Paula Newsome) is a principled cop willing to sacrifice it for happiness with Gene.

9. ONE SCENE ACTUALLY DISTURBED THE GUY WHO CRAFTED GAME OF THRONES'S RED WEDDING.

Game of Thrones co-creator David Benioff is friends with Berg, so they screened the episode “Make the Unsafe Choice” for him. The episode includes Barry slowly strangling a man who gasps and flops and says, “You don’t have to do this,” in Spanish. Barry says, “Yeah, I guess not,” then kills him anyway. The scene’s intensity caused Benioff to respond with a single curse word because he found it so dark. When you’ve shocked the guy who wrote the Red Wedding episode of Game of Thrones, you know you’ve got something.

10. SARAH GOLDBERG INITIALLY THOUGHT THE SEXUAL HARASSMENT SCENE WAS A BIT TOO OVER-THE-TOP.

Sarah Goldberg and Henry Winkler in 'Barry'
John P. Johnson, HBO

Sally’s dream of stardom is spoiled in a late episode when the manager who has taken her on provisionally tells her that he wants to have sex with her. It’s a slimy moment, and Sally is taken so off-guard that she ends up apologizing to him for making the situation awkward. “When I first read it, I thought, ‘Is it a little much that he says he wants to f**k her?’” Goldberg recalled. “And now it’s like, 'Jesus, we could’ve gone further. That’s the PG-13 version compared to the horrible stories we’ve all read.'"

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