Original image

9 Copyrights That Were Donated to Charity

Original image

A lucrative patent or a popular copyright can provide a creator's heirs with solid streams of revenue for decades. Some great artists and inventors decided that they'd rather give the rights to their best creations to charity, though. Here are a few well-known bits of intellectual property that have found their way into charities' portfolios.

1. Peter Pan

Some generous souls even give away their biggest cash cows while they're still alive. In 1929 author J.M. Barrie gave the rights to Peter Pan to the Great Ormond Street children's hospital in London. While the play had been a success, newspapers figured that the gift was worth a few thousand pounds a year. Once film took off, though, the rights became much more valuable; over 10 feature films were made from the book before the copyright expired in 2007.

The copyright's expiration in 2007 wasn't totally bad news for the hospital, though; Former prime Minister Jim Callagahn worked out a special bill that allowed the hospital to continue collecting royalties from stage performances of Peter Pan within the U.K.

2. "God Bless America"

In 1918 Irving Berlin was serving the military by writing a musical for his fellow soldiers to perform. The musical Yip Yip Yaphank eventually made it to Broadway, but Berlin ended up cutting one song from the piece and forgetting all about it—a little ditty called "God Bless America." Berlin decided "God Bless America" wasn't rousing enough to be the show's finale, so he scrapped the tune. It went unperformed for 20 years until singer Kate Smith's manager asked Berlin if the composer had a patriotic song that Smith could belt out. Berlin dusted off his forgotten gem, and it quickly became a sort of second national anthem during World War II.

Good news for Berlin and Smith, but even better news for the Scouts. Berlin gave all of the royalties from the song to the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts, and over the years the groups have made millions from the song.

3. The Drunk-O-Meter

Sure, as a product name, "Drunk-O-Meter" doesn't have quite the same understated seriousness of "breathalyzer," but the Drunk-O-Meter did the same job. In 1931 Indiana University professor Rolla N. Harger created the Drunk-O-Meter as a device to test the sobriety of drivers. Suspected tipplers breathed into a special balloon, and Harger's device got a reading on how much they'd had to drink. By 1936 Harger had patented his creation, and he eventually signed the invention over to Indiana University. The school's website describes the gift as a "surprise moneymaker."

4. The Clintons' Literary Output

Bill and Hillary Clinton have been fairly prolific as authors, and they've been pretty generous with the royalties. In 1998 Hillary wrote a children's book called Dear Socks, Dear Buddy: Kids' Letters to the First Pets that collected fan mail sent to the Clintons' dog and cat. She gave the copyright to the National Park Service, which used the royalties to maintain various parks and the White House.

As of their 1998 tax return, the Clintons had given nearly $920,000 in various book royalties to children's charities, including children's hospitals. In some years Hillary gave every penny of the royalties from her book It Takes a Village to various charities.

5. A Ventriloquist's Heart

Audiences probably remember ventriloquist and voice actor Paul Winchell for his performances as Tigger in Disney's Winnie the Pooh movies. Winchell wasn't just a funny voice, though; he was also an amateur inventor who developed and patented an early version of the artificial heart. Researchers at the University of Utah were working on an artificial heart of their own at the same time, and when they went to patent their design, they found that Winchell had actually scooped them on several features.

Instead of fighting Winchell's patent, the scientists asked him to donate the patent to the university, which he did. In exchange for his cooperation, the school let Winchell conduct research in its labs and assist with transplants.

6. The Terrible Towel

In 1975 Pittsburgh Steelers announcer Myron Cope wanted to come up with a gimmick for fans to bring to games to make home crowds more intimidating. He came up with a beautifully simplistic idea: getting the sea of Steelers fans to all wave gold towels. He named his innovation the Terrible Towel because "it implied wondrous, strange things." Cope eventually trademarked his Terrible Towel idea, and it became quite a moneymaker.

In 1996 Cope assigned the trademark to the Allegheny Valley School for the disabled. Cope's son, Daniel, was born with brain damage and lived at the school. The school must have been delighted to get such a hot trademark in the Pittsburgh area; through the beginning of the 2009 NFL season the school had raked in over $3 million in royalties from Terrible Towel sales.

7. Dorothy Parker's Body of Work

When writer Dorothy Parker died in 1967, she left her entire literary estate to Martin Luther King, Jr. While Parker had never met King, she intensely admired him, and she further stipulated that when King died her estate should become property of the NAACP.

There was a problem, though. Parker appointed her playwright friend Lillian Hellman to be her executor, and Hellman didn't share Parker's admiration of King and the NAACP. Hellman went out of her way to nix any efforts to reprint Parker's work and allegedly did everything she could to hinder Parker's biographers. Some critics have speculated that Hellman felt jilted that Parker, like Hellman's longtime lover Dashiell Hammett, didn't leave her literary estate to Hellman. In any event, a 1972 court ruling gave total control to the NAACP, but Hellman was still ticked off. She told the New York Times Book Review that Parker's gift indicated "she must have been drunk when she did it."

8. Man and Nature

In 1864 environmentalist and diplomat George Perkins Marsh donated the copyright from his landmark ecology text Man and Nature to the United States Sanitary Commission. Marsh's nephew and brother quickly realized that the environmentalist would live to regret this decision, so they arranged to buy the copyright back for $500 and return it to Marsh.

9. The Telegraph

In 1838 Samuel Morse wrote a letter to the Republic of Texas offering to give the fledgling republic the rights to his telegraph invention. Texas never took Morse up on his offer, and the inventor apparently never even got a response. Eventually, Morse wrote a second letter to Sam Houston letting him know that the deal was off the table; he then assigned the rights over the United States.

Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

Original image
One Bite From This Tick Can Make You Allergic to Meat
Original image

We like to believe that there’s no such thing as a bad organism, that every creature must have its place in the world. But ticks are really making that difficult. As if Lyme disease wasn't bad enough, scientists say some ticks carry a pathogen that causes a sudden and dangerous allergy to meat. Yes, meat.

The Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum) mostly looks like your average tick, with a tiny head and a big fat behind, except the adult female has a Texas-shaped spot on its back—thus the name.

Unlike other American ticks, the Lone Star feeds on humans at every stage of its life cycle. Even the larvae want our blood. You can’t get Lyme disease from the Lone Star tick, but you can get something even more mysterious: the inability to safely consume a bacon cheeseburger.

"The weird thing about [this reaction] is it can occur within three to 10 or 12 hours, so patients have no idea what prompted their allergic reactions," allergist Ronald Saff, of the Florida State University College of Medicine, told Business Insider.

What prompted them was STARI, or southern tick-associated rash illness. People with STARI may develop a circular rash like the one commonly seen in Lyme disease. They may feel achy, fatigued, and fevered. And their next meal could make them very, very sick.

Saff now sees at least one patient per week with STARI and a sensitivity to galactose-alpha-1, 3-galactose—more commonly known as alpha-gal—a sugar molecule found in mammal tissue like pork, beef, and lamb. Several hours after eating, patients’ immune systems overreact to alpha-gal, with symptoms ranging from an itchy rash to throat swelling.

Even worse, the more times a person is bitten, the more likely it becomes that they will develop this dangerous allergy.

The tick’s range currently covers the southern, eastern, and south-central U.S., but even that is changing. "We expect with warming temperatures, the tick is going to slowly make its way northward and westward and cause more problems than they're already causing," Saff said. We've already seen that occur with the deer ticks that cause Lyme disease, and 2017 is projected to be an especially bad year.

There’s so much we don’t understand about alpha-gal sensitivity. Scientists don’t know why it happens, how to treat it, or if it's permanent. All they can do is advise us to be vigilant and follow basic tick-avoidance practices.

[h/t Business Insider]