The Origins of 10 Nicknames

AMC
AMC

1. Why is Dick from Richard?

The name Richard is very old and was popular during the Middle Ages. In the 12th and 13th centuries everything was written by hand and Richard nicknames like Rich and Rick were common just to save time. Rhyming nicknames were also common and eventually Rick gave way to Dick and Hick, while Rich became Hitch. Dick, of course, is the only rhyming nickname that stuck over time. And boy did it stick. At one point in England, the name Dick was so popular that the phrase "every Tom, Dick, or Harry" was used to describe Everyman.

2. Why is Bill from William?

There are many theories on why Bill became a nickname for William; the most obvious is that it was part of the Middle Ages trend of letter swapping. Much how Dick is a rhyming nickname for Rick, the same is true of Bill and Will. Because hard consonants are easier to pronounce than soft ones, some believe Will morphed into Bill for phonetic reasons. Interestingly, when William III ruled over in England in the late 17th century, his subjects mockingly referred to him as "King Billy."

3. Why is Hank from Henry?

The name Henry dates back to medieval England. (Curiously, at that time, Hank was a diminutive for John.) So how do we get Hank from Henry? Well, one theory says that Hendrick is the Dutch form of the English name Henry. Henk is the diminutive form of Hendrick, ergo, Hank from Henk. Hanks were hugely popular here in the States for many decades, though by the early 90s it no longer appeared in the top 1,000 names for baby boys. But Hank is making a comeback! In 2010, it cracked the top 1,000, settling at 806. By 2013 it was up to 626.

4. Why is Jack from John?

The name Jack dates back to about 1,200 and was originally used as a generic name for peasants. Over time, Jack worked his way into words such as lumberjack and steeplejack. Even jackass, the commonly used term for a donkey, retains its generic essence in the word Jack. Of course, John was once used as a generic name for English commoners and peasants, (John Doe) which could be why Jack came became his nickname. But the more likely explanation is that Normans added -kin when they wanted to make a diminutive. And Jen was their way of saying John. So little John became Jenkin and time turned that into Jakin, which ultimately became Jack.

5. Why is Chuck from Charles?

"Dear Chuck" was an English term of endearment and Shakespeare, in Macbeth, used the phrase to refer to Lady Macbeth. What's this have to do with Charles? Not much, but it's interesting. However, Charles in Middle English was Chukken and that's probably where the nickname was born. 

6. Why is Peggy from Margaret?

The name Margaret has a variety of different nicknames. Some are obvious, as in Meg, Mog and Maggie, while others are downright strange, like Daisy. But it's the Mog/Meg we want to concentrate on here as those nicknames later morphed into the rhymed forms Pog(gy) and Peg(gy).

7. Why is Ted from Edward?

The name Ted is yet another result of the Old English tradition of letter swapping. Since there were a limited number of first names in the Middle Ages, letter swapping allowed people to differentiate between people with the same name. It was common to replace the first letter of a name that began with a vowel, as in Edward, with an easier to pronounce consonant, such as T. Of course, Ted was already a popular nickname for Theodore, which makes it one of the only nicknames derived from two different first names. Can you name the others?

8. Why is Harry from Henry?

Since Medieval times, Harry has been a consistently popular nickname for boys named Henry in England. Henry was also very popular among British monarchs, most of whom preferred to be called Harry by their subjects. This is a tradition that continues today as Prince Henry of Wales , as he was Christened, goes by Prince Harry. Of course, Harry is now used as a given name for boys. In 2006, it was the 593rd most popular name for boys in the United States. One reason for its upsurge in popularity is the huge success of those amazing Harry Potter books.

9. Why is Jim from James?

There are no definitive theories on how Jim became the commonly used nickname for James, but the name dates back to at least the 1820s. For decades, Jims were pretty unpopular due to the "Jim Crow Law," which was attributed to an early 19th century song and dance called "Jump Jim Crow," performed by white actors in blackface. The name "Jim Crow" soon became associated with African Americans and by 1904, Jim Crow aimed to promote segregation in the South. Jim has since shed its racial past, and is once again a popular first name for boys all by itself, sans James.

10. Why is Sally from Sarah?

Sally was primarily used as a nickname for Sarah in England and France. Like some English nicknames, Sally was derived by replacing the R in Sarah with an L. Same is true for Molly, a common nickname for Mary. Though Sally from the Peanuts never ages, the name itself does and has declined in popularity in recent years. Today, most girls prefer the original Hebrew name Sarah.

6 Explosive Fart Controversies

iStock/MaryValery
iStock/MaryValery

Last week, the world of professional darts became embroiled in controversy after a player competing in the quarter finals of a major tournament partly blamed his loss on his opponent’s noxious flatulence. The loser, Wesley Harms, told the Dutch television station RTL7, "It’ll take me two nights to lose this smell from my nose." (Harms’s rival Gary Anderson denied being the fart’s founder, saying, "It was bad. It was a stink. It thought it was him, and he started playing better, I went, 'He must needed to get some wind out.'") Now that the niche world of competitive darts is clouded in Fartgate, it seems like an appropriate time to step outside and dutifully reminisce on a few other gassy controversies.

1. German police fine man over $1000 for letting it rip

In 2016, police in Berlin detained a man at a party and asked for his ID. Instead of offering his name, the man gave the police a whiff of his unique perfume, sending two rocketing farts in the direction of the officers. The police summarily fined the offender €900 (just over $1000) for disrespecting law enforcement. The ensuing "Crazy Toot Trial" would involve 23 officials and prompt a public outcry over wasteful public spending.

2. Fart sparks regime-change in Ancient Egypt

Around 570 BCE, the Egyptian Pharaoh King Apries had a problem: Invaders had slaughtered some of his soldiers and people's morale was low. So Apries sent his best general, Amasis, to quell the troops' discontent. Instead, the troops rallied around Amasis and declared him their personal king. When King Apries sent a messenger to accost Amasis, Amasis let out a fart and effectively said, "You can send that message back to the king!" Hearing this, King Apries unwisely decided to punish his messenger. That decision made King Apries even more unpopular and gave the gassy Amasis a chance to stage a revolt and successfully oust his old boss.

3. Cargo plane makes emergency stop because of reported goat gas

In 2015, a Singapore Airlines cargo flight was forced to make an emergency stop in Bali after more than 2000 goats reportedly filled the cargo hold with too many toots, setting off the fire alarm. "The smoke indication was identified to be the result of exhaust gases and manure produced by the sheep," The Aviation Herald reported. Despite this initial report, Singapore Airlines refused to acknowledge that the cause of the stopover was fart-related.

4. Fart fuels mid-flight fight

On a 2018 flight from Dubai to Amsterdam, a Transavia Airlines plane had to make an unscheduled stop in Vienna after an elderly man refused to stop cutting the cheese—even after receiving instructions from the pilot to cease firing. The man's stinkers fueled so much consternation among the surrounding passengers that a fight broke out, prompting police to remove four people from the flight.

5. Canada's Parliament debates the appropriateness of saying "fart"

In November 2016, Canada’s parliament began to spontaneously debate whether it was appropriate for members to use the word fart on the chamber floor. The discussion rose after Conservative MP Michelle Rempel asked, “Why does the government treat Alberta like a fart in the room that nobody wants to talk about or acknowledge?” Eventually, the rules regarding “unparliamentary language” had to be read aloud and the offense was taken under advisement. (You can read a transcript of the exchange here.)

6. Secret Service takes the blame for Presidential retarade

The Secret Service will not only take a bullet for the president, they’ll also take the blame for the Commander-in-Chief’s errant cheek squeaks: Gerald Ford, the 38th President of the United States, would often fart and blame it on his Secret Service agents, loudly saying, "Jesus, was that you? Show some class." (This must have come as a shock to Lyndon B. Johnson, who once said, “Jerry Ford is so dumb he can’t fart and chew gum at the same time.")

Every New Movie, Series, Documentary, and Special That's Coming to Netflix in December

Alfonso Cuarón directs Roma (2018)
Alfonso Cuarón directs Roma (2018)
Carlos Somonte, Netflix

Netflix has made no secret of its desire to bring top-tier entertainment to streaming devices around the world. After successfully testing the waters with a range of critically acclaimed series, from Stranger Things to The Crown, the streaming giant is now making a major push into the feature film market—which we’ll see play out in December with the release of Alfonso Cuarón’s Roma and Susanne Bier’s Bird Box.

Much has already been made about how these films, along with the Coen Brothers’ recently-recently The Ballad of Buster Scruggs, are disrupting the line between streaming and cinemas. How will it all play out come Oscar time? We’ll just have to wait to see.

In the meantime, here’s every new movie, television series, documentary, and comedy special making its way to Netflix in December.

DECEMBER 1

8 Mile
Astro Boy
Battle
Bride of Chucky
Christine
Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs
Crossroads: One Two Jaga
Friday
Friday After Next
Hellboy
Man vs Wild with Sunny Leone: Season 1
Meet Joe Black
Memories of the Alhambra
My Bloody Valentine
Next Friday
Reindeer Games
Seven Pounds
Shaun of the Dead
Terminator Salvation
The Big Lebowski
The Last Dragon
The Man Who Knew Too Little

DECEMBER 2

The Lobster

DECEMBER 3

Blue Planet II: Season 1
Hero Mask
The Sound of Your Heart: Reboot Season 2

DECEMBER 4

District 9

DECEMBER 6

Happy!: Season 1

DECEMBER 7

5 Star Christmas
Bad Blood
Dogs of Berlin
Dumplin'
Free Rein: The Twelve Neighs of Christmas
Mowgli: Legend of the Jungle
Nailed It! Holiday!
Pine Gap
ReMastered: Who Killed Jam Master Jay?
Super Monsters and the Wish Star
The American Meme
The Hook Up Plan (Plan Coeur)
The Ranch: Part 6

DECEMBER 9

Sin senos sí hay paraíso: Season 3

DECEMBER 10

Michael Jackson's This Is It

DECEMBER 11

Vir Das: Losing It

DECEMBER 12

Back Street Girls: Gokudols
Out of Many, One

DECEMBER 13

Wanted: Season 3

DECEMBER 14

Chilling Adventures of Sabrina: "A Midwinter's Tale"
Cuckoo: Season 4
Dance & Sing with True: Songs
Fuller House: Season 4
Inside the Real Narcos: Series 1
Inside the World’s Toughest Prisons: Season 3
Prince of Peoria: A Christmas Moose Miracle
Roma
Sunderland Til I Die
The Fix
The Innocent Man
The Protector
Tidelands
Travelers: Season 3
Voltron: Legendary Defender: Season 8

DECEMBER 16

Baby Mama
Kill the Messenger
One Day
Springsteen on Broadway
The Theory of Everything

DECEMBER 18

Baki
Ellen DeGeneres: Relatable
Terrace House: Opening New Doors: Part 5

DECEMBER 21

3Below: Tales of Arcadia
7 Days Out
Back With the Ex
Bad Seeds
Bird Box
Wolf (Boru)
Derry Girls
Diablero
Greenleaf: Season 3
Last Hope: Part 2
Perfume
Sirius the Jaeger
Struggle: The Life and Lost Art of Szukalski
Tales by Light: Season 3
The Casketeers

DECEMBER 24

Hi Score Girl
The Magicians: Season 3

DECEMBER 25

Watership Down: Limited Series
Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown: Season 11
Marvel Studios' Avengers: Infinity War

DECEMBER 26

Alexa & Katie: Season 2
You

DECEMBER 28

Instant Hotel
La noche de 12 anos
Selection Day
When Angels Sleep
Yummy Mummies

DECEMBER 30

The Autopsy of Jane Doe

DECEMBER 31

The Bill Murray Stories: Life Lessons Learned From a Mythical Man

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