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Our Adorable Relatives: 9 Tiny Primates

The biological order of primates includes humans, apes, and monkeys. It also includes prosimians, which are smaller, more primitive animals that we recognize as cute enough to be our relatives.

1. Potto

The potto (Perodicticus potto) is only found in the tropical forests of equatorial Africa. They live in trees and eat ants and other insects. The potto is distinguished from the loris by its neck bones, which form a sort of shield over its back. These nocturnal animals have a brush of cartilage under their tongues, which they use to clean their teeth.

2. Galago

Primates of the family Galagidae are called bush babies or galagos. Bush babies, native to sub-Saharan Africa, will eat anything from tree sap to snakes. They can turn their heads 180 degrees, completely to their backs! The name bush baby comes from the cry of the galago which sounds like a human baby. They are so cute that some people keep them as pets, which is not recommended as they are nocturnal animals and need a large territory. Image by Flickr user Joachim S. Müller.

3. Lemurs

The many species of lemurs consist of several families of primates native to Madagascar. The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is the species we are most familiar with, as it is one of the few prosimian species that is active during daylight hours, and because they will readily reproduce in zoos. However, the species is classified as vulnerable due to habitat destruction. Sifaka lemurs (Propithecus candidus) gave us the term "leapin' lemurs", as you can see in this video. Image by Flickr user Adrian Stewart (Chortler).

"They're gentle, well mannered, and pretty and yet great fun . . . I should have married one." -John Cleese

4. Slender Loris

The gray slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus) and the red slender loris (Loris tardigradus) are two of several species of slender loris found in tropical Asia, particularly in India and Sri Lanka. They eat mostly insects, but will also eat leaves, eggs, and slugs. Slender lorises have traditionally been considered to have magic or medicinal powers, which has contributed to their decline. Although the number of slender lorises is hard to pin down, they are considered endangered.

5. Slow Loris

There are three species of slow loris (Nycticebus) and all are native to south Asia, from India to the Philippines. Slow lorises are carnivores that eat birds, eggs, shellfish, insects, and reptiles. Although slow lorises are unbelievably cute, as many found out by watching this video, they do not make good pets. They exude a toxin from their elbows which they deliver by biting, and are illegal to import in most countries.

6. Aye-aye

You may be familiar with the Aye-aye (Daubentonia Madagascariensis) from pictures that are presented as a "what is it?" It is hard to recognize as a primate, but has opposable thumbs and is a type of lemur. Aye-ayes are found in Madagascar, where they are considered a bad omen by natives and often killed on sight, which contributes to their status as near-threatened. Aye-ayes are omnivores and will steal food from villages, which may have contributed to their reputation. Of course, it may be because of the way they look, which can be hideous or adorable depending on who is looking. Pictured is Kintana, an aye-aye born at the Bristol Zoo Gardens in 2005.

7. Tarsier

Tarsiers (Tarsiidae) were once found in Europe, North America, and Africa according to fossil records, but are now restricted to the islands of Southeast Asia, such as Borneo and the Philippines. It stands out among prosimians for its large eyes, which can each weigh as much as its brain. Tarsiers are nocturnal, live in trees, and eat insects, birds, and reptiles. If an owl were a mammal, it would be a tarsier. All tarsier species are threatened, and two are classified as endangered. Image by Flickr user chaosandcreations.

8. Marmoset

Marmosets (Callitrichidae) are classified as New World monkeys, but are so small I had to include them in this list. There are 25 species of marmosets that average around eight inches long, not including the tail. The pygmy marmoset is the world's smallest monkey at about six inches, with a tail twice as long as its body. Marmosets almost always give birth to fraternal twins, and are the only animal known to display germline chimerism, meaning they can carry the sperm or ovum of their fraternal twin, which has different DNA from their own. Image by Flickr user CzechR.

9. Berthe's Mouse Lemur

With a body only about four inches long, Berthe's Mouse Lemur (Microcebus berthae) is thought to be the world's smallest existing primate. This lemur is found only in Madagascar, and only in a small (900 square km) area south of the Tsiribihina River in Kirindy Mitea National Park. It resembles a mouse except for its forward-facing eyes. It will eat insects, fruit, and small reptiles, but prefers a sweet secretion exuded by a native insect during its larval stage. With an estimated population of only 8,000, efforts are being made to turn Berthe's Mouse Lemur's native habitat into a strict conservation zone.

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Wolfgang via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0
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holidays
8 Legendary Monsters of Christmas
Wolfgang via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0
Wolfgang via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

The customs of the holiday season, which include St. Nicholas Day, New Years Day, and Epiphany, as well as Christmas, often incorporate earlier pagan traditions that have been appropriated and adapted for contemporary use. Customs that encourage little children to be good so as to deserve their Christmas gifts often come with a dark side: the punishment you'll receive from a monster or evil being of some sort if you aren't good! These nefarious characters vary from place to place, and they go by many different names and images.

1. KRAMPUS

As a tool to encourage good behavior in children, Santa serves as the carrot, and Krampus is the stick. Krampus is the evil demon anti-Santa, or maybe his evil twin. Krampus Night is celebrated on December 5, the eve of St. Nicholas Day in Austria and other parts of Europe. Public celebrations that night have many Krampuses walking the streets, looking for people to beat. Alcohol is also involved. Injuries in recent years have led to some reforms, such as requiring all Krampuses to wear numbers so they may identified in case of overly violent behavior.

Krampus may look like a devil, or like a wild alpine beast, depending on what materials are available to make a Krampus costume. In modern times, people can spend as much as they like to become the best Krampus around—and the tradition is spreading beyond Europe. Many cities in America have their own Krampus Nights now.

2. JÓLAKÖTTURINN

Jólakötturinn is the Icelandic Yule Cat or Christmas Cat. He is not a nice cat. In fact, he might eat you. This character is tied to an Icelandic tradition in which those who finished all their work on time received new clothes for Christmas, while those who were lazy did not (although this is mainly a threat). To encourage children to work hard, parents told the tale of the Yule Cat, saying that Jólakötturinn could tell who the lazy children were because they did not have at least one new item of clothing for Christmas—and these children would be sacrificed to the Yule Cat. This reminder tends to spur children into doing their chores! A poem written about the cat ends with a suggestion that children help out the needy, so they, too, can have the protection of new clothing. It's no wonder that Icelanders put in more overtime at work than most Europeans.

3. FRAU PERCHTA


Flickr // Markus Ortner

Tales told in Germany and Austria sometimes feature a witch named Frau Perchta who hands out both rewards and punishments during the 12 days of Christmas (December 25 through Epiphany on January 6). She is best known for her gruesome punishment of the sinful: She will rip out your internal organs and replace them with garbage. The ugly image of Perchta may show up in Christmas processions in Austria, somewhat like Krampus.

Perchta's story is thought to have descended from a legendary Alpine goddess of nature, who tends the forest most of the year and deals with humans only during Christmas. In modern celebrations, Perchta or a close relation may show up in processions during Fastnacht, the Alpine festival just before Lent. There may be some connection between Frau Perchta and the Italian witch La Befana, but La Befana isn't really a monster: she's an ugly but good witch who leaves presents.

4. BELSNICKEL

A drawing of Belsnickel.
Lucas, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Belsnickel is a male character from southwestern German lore who traveled to the United States and survives in Pennsylvania Dutch customs. He comes to children sometime before Christmas, wearing tattered old clothing and raggedy fur. Belsnickel carries a switch to frighten children and candy to reward them for good behavior. In modern visits, the switch is only used for noise, and to warn children they still have time to be good before Christmas. Then all the children get candy, if they are polite about it. The name Belsnickel is a portmanteau of the German belzen (meaning to wallop) and nickel for St. Nicholas. See a video of a Belsnickel visit here.

Knecht Ruprecht and Ru Klaas are similar characters from German folklore who dole out beatings to bad children, leaving St. Nicholas to reward good children with gifts.

5. HANS TRAPP

Hans Trapp is another "anti-Santa" who hands out punishment to bad children in the Alsace and Lorraine regions of France. The legend says that Trapp was a real man, a rich, greedy, and evil man, who worshiped Satan and was excommunicated from the Catholic Church. He was exiled into the forest where he preyed upon children, disguised as a scarecrow with straw jutting out from his clothing. He was about to eat one boy he captured when he was struck by lightning and killed—a punishment of his own from God. Still, he visits young children before Christmas, dressed as a scarecrow, to scare them into good behavior.

6. PÈRE FOUETTARD

The French legend of Père Fouettard, whose name translates to "Father Whipper," begins with an evil butcher who craved children to eat. He (or his wife) lured three boys into his butcher shop, where he killed, chopped, and salted them. St. Nicholas came to the rescue, resurrected the boys, and took custody of the butcher. The captive butcher became Père Fouettard, St. Nicholas' servant whose job it is to dispense punishment to bad children on St. Nicholas Day.

7. THE YULE LADS

The Jólasveinar, or Yule Lads, are 13 Icelandic trolls, who each have a name and distinct personality. In ancient times, they stole things and caused trouble around Christmastime, so they were used to scare children into behaving, like the Yule Cat. However, the 20th century brought tales of the benevolent Norwegian figure Julenisse (Santa Claus), who brought gifts to good children. The traditions became mingled, until the formerly devilish Jólasveinar became kind enough to leave gifts in shoes that children leave out ... if they are good boys and girls. 

8. GRÝLA

All the Yule Lads answer to Grýla, their mother. She predates the Yule Lads in Icelandic legend as the ogress who kidnaps, cooks, and eats children who don't obey their parents. She only became associated with Christmas in the 17th century, when she was assigned to be the mother of the Yule Lads. According to legend, Grýla had three different husbands and 72 children, all who caused trouble ranging from harmless mischief to murder. As if the household wasn't crowded enough, the Yule Cat also lives with Grýla. This ogress is so much of a troublemaker that The Onion blamed her for the 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

A version of this post originally ran in 2013. See also: more Legendary Monsters

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History
84 Years Ago Today: Goodbye Prohibition!
A huge queue outside the Board of Health offices in Centre Street, New York, for licenses to sell alcohol shortly after the repeal of prohibition. The repeal of prohibition was a key policy of Franklin Roosevelt's government as it allowed the government an opportunity to raise tax revenues at a time of economic hardship.
A huge queue outside the Board of Health offices in Centre Street, New York, for licenses to sell alcohol shortly after the repeal of prohibition. The repeal of prohibition was a key policy of Franklin Roosevelt's government as it allowed the government an opportunity to raise tax revenues at a time of economic hardship.
Keystone/Getty Images

It was 84 years ago today that the Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, repealing the earlier Amendment that declared the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol illegal in the United States. Prohibition was over! Booze that had been illegal for 13 years was suddenly legal again, and our long national nightmare was finally over.


A giant barrel of beer, part of a demonstration against prohibition in America.
Henry Guttmann/Getty Images

Prohibition of alcohol was not a popular doctrine. It turned formerly law-abiding citizens into criminals. It overwhelmed police with enforcement duties and gave rise to organized crime. In cities like Milwaukee and St. Louis, the dismantling of breweries left thousands of people unemployed.


Photograph courtesy of the Boston Public Library

Homemade alcohol was often dangerous and some people died from drinking it. Some turned to Sterno or industrial alcohol, which was dangerous and sometimes poisoned by the government to discourage drinking. State and federal governments were spending a lot of money on enforcement, while missing out on taxes from alcohol.


New York City Deputy Police Commissioner John A. Leach (right) watches agents pour liquor into sewer following a raid during the height of Prohibition.

The midterm elections of 1930 saw the majority in Congress switch from Republican to Democratic, signaling a shift in public opinion about Prohibition as well as concerns about the depressed economy. Franklin Roosevelt, who urged repeal, was elected president in 1932. The Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution was proposed by Congress in February of 1933, the sole purpose of which was to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment establishing Prohibition.


American men guarding their private beer brewing hide-out, during Prohibition.
Keystone/Getty Images

With passage of the Constitutional Amendment to repeal Prohibition a foregone conclusion, a huge number of businessmen lined up at the Board of Health offices in New York in April of 1933 to apply for liquor licenses to be issued as soon as the repeal was ratified.

The Amendment was ratified by the states by the mechanism of special state ratifying conventions instead of state legislatures. Many states ratified the repeal as soon as conventions could be organized. The ratifications by the required two-thirds of the states was achieved on December 5, 1933, when conventions in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Utah agreed to repeal Prohibition through the Amendment.


Workmen unloading crates of beer stacked at a New York brewery shortly after the repeal of Prohibition.
Keystone/Getty Images

A brewery warehouse in New York stacked crates past the ceiling to satisfy a thirsty nation after the repeal of Prohibition.


Keystone/Getty Images

Liquor wouldn't officially be legal until December 15th, but Americans celebrated openly anyway, and in most places, law enforcement officials let them.

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