CLOSE
Original image

A Brief History of Bulletproof Vests

Original image

When a 16th century European blacksmith finished making armor that was impervious to firearms, he fired a shot at the breastplate, denting it. As the story goes, this dent was proof to his customer that the armor would stand up to a bullet, so it became known as "the bullet proof." Since then, the history of bulletproof vests has been anything but a straight shot.

The Bulletproof Priest

In the late 1800s, both Japan and Korea developed some of the first modern bulletproof vests when they discovered that 30 layers of silk fabric could stop the black powder bullets of the day. This "soft armor" laid the foundation for numerous inventors who tried to improve upon the idea as firearms became more powerful.

A priest from Chicago named Casimir Zeglen, with the help of fellow inventor Jan Szczepanik, devised a special way to weave a 1.6mm steel plate between four layers of silk. Zeglen claimed his 1/8" thick, 1/2 lb. vest could stop a .44 caliber—and he proved it when he volunteered to be shot before a live audience in New York City. When he was struck by the bullet at only 10 paces, he said he felt just "a tap." Zeglen and his "bullet proof cloth" became an overnight sensation. Egged on by the positive publicity, Zeglen left the priesthood in order to pursue his new business venture.

Sadly, he never made his fortune, in part due to bad timing and bad luck. When the U.S. Military tested his invention, they found that it was too hot and too expensive thanks to the amount of silk required. Undaunted, Zeglen then offered one to President McKinley in the hopes it might spur interest. After contacting the White House, Zeglen was told he could meet the President in a month, as McKinley was going to be too busy traveling. Two weeks later in Buffalo, McKinley was shot and killed by an assassin's bullet that ripped through his abdomen. Zeglen's vest would have easily stopped the .32 caliber round.

Zeglen did manage to get Archduke Franz Ferdinand to accept one of his vests.

Unfortunately, Ferdinand was killed while wearing it. The kill shot hit him in the neck, well above the vest itself, but it didn't matter—the bad publicity didn't help and Zeglen was soon out of business.

For the rest of his life, Zeglen continued to invent and improve existing products, but he never came as close to fame as he did with his bullet proof cloth.

Bulletproof Materials

Presently, there is no such thing as a bulletproof vest. Vests are only considered "bullet resistant," simply because there is always some type of firearm that can penetrate even the latest advancements in protective technology. For over 30 years, the synthetic fiber Kevlar has been the go-to material for making bullet-resistant vests. But researchers are constantly looking for new ideas and new materials to make a truly bulletproof vest. And they've looked in some unusual places.

A bulletproof vest has to have the ability to stop a bullet from penetrating, but must also spread out the kinetic energy of the projectile. One possible answer to this problem might be borrowed from the abalone. This mighty mollusk's shell is made up of layer upon layer of microscopic, rock hard calcium tiles. The layers of tiles are held together on the top and bottom by a sticky protein, but the sides are simply butting up against one another. Should an abalone's shell take a sharp blow, it's tough enough to keep the projectile from getting through. But the tiles also have enough give to slide back and forth, absorbing much of the impact by spreading it out to neighboring tiles. Researchers believe if a vest were made using these same concepts, it could stop just about anything you threw at it.

Spider silk is one of the strongest, most flexible materials in nature, and has also been called the next big thing in bulletproofing. It's not quite as strong as Kevlar, but it's 10 times more elastic, meaning it can bounce back and absorb the energy of a bullet much better. However, getting spider silk on a large scale is not easy. So inventors are mixing spider DNA with goats (yes, goats), who then secrete the web protein in their milk. After milking, the protein is extracted and processed to create a fiber known as BioSteel. If you made a vest using both BioSteel and Kevlar, you could have one very tough, but very flexible bulletproof solution.

Another idea is "liquid armor"—Kevlar coated in a non-toxic fluid made up of nano-particles of silica. When under low stress conditions, these nano-particles are completely flexible, allowing the wearer to move freely. But within a millisecond of receiving a high-impact blow, the silica in the immediate target zone would become rigid, preventing further penetration. Best of all, the armor would protect against threats that a normal bulletproof jacket can't—namely puncture wounds from knives and shrapnel from explosions. It could very well be the "silver bullet" to bulletproofing.

Bulletproof Fashion

In case you're not up on your fashion trends, bulletproof is "in." Many clothing manufacturers have released lines inspired by the look of ballistic vests and other tactical equipment, while others are producing the real deal for high-end clientele.

miguel-caballero-1

Colombian fashion designer Miguel Caballero, AKA "The Armani of Armor," specializes in making bulletproof clothes for men and women that look like everyday business suits, raincoats, and even polo shirts. His clients include action star Steven Seagal, and dignitaries like President Alvaro Uribe of Colombia, King Abdullah of Jordan, and President Barack Obama, who wore Caballero's clothes on inauguration day. The style doesn't come cheap, of course. For a polo shirt with the lowest level of protection, which can stop a 9mm round, you're looking at $7,500; for the medium protection, to stop automatic weapons fire, expect to spend close to $10,000.

But what if you want to look like Jack Bauer or 50 Cent? You can always just buy a bulletproof vest, though if you're a convicted felon, most states have laws against it. However, if dropping $400-$2,000 for an outfit accessory isn't your thing, you can now buy "fashion" bulletproof vests for less than $100. They look just like the real thing, but would barely stop a shot from a Red Rider BB Gun. If you're hoping for something a little more subtle, maybe Dynomighty Design's bulletproof t-shirt would be a better fit. The stylish tee features a screen printed image of a bulletproof vest and uses special ink that gives it a slight metallic shine. It's not bulletproof, but it looks like it wants to be.

bulletproof_fashion

If you're a woman who's ready for action, check out Tactical Corsets—lingerie that uses real military materials to mimic the look and functionality of military vests. With numerous hooks, loops, and pouches, you can carry whatever you need—all while being properly supported. As of right now, Tactical Corsets are not bulletproof, but they're working on it.

Save the Children

And let's not forget the kids. Introduced in 2007, the $265 Bullet Blocker Backpack looks just like any other bag from a department store. But inside it features a protection panel that can stop .44 Magnum rounds. If a gun is pulled, a kid with a Bullet Blocker can either run away and still be protected, or he can swing the bag around to cover his chest and face. If he has a bulletproof notebook inside ($145, sold separately) and he's wearing a bulletproof denim jacket ($979, sold separately), he should be very well protected.
* * * * *
Are you a cop, in the military, or part of an elite, covert, anti-terrorist team? Tell us your bulletproof vest stories in the comments section below!

Original image
Michael Campanella/Getty Images
arrow
Lists
10 Memorable Neil deGrasse Tyson Quotes
Original image
Michael Campanella/Getty Images

Neil deGrasse Tyson is America's preeminent badass astrophysicist. He's a passionate advocate for science, NASA, and education. He's also well-known for a little incident involving Pluto. And the man holds nearly 20 honorary doctorates (in addition to his real one). In honor of his 59th birthday, here are 10 of our favorite Neil deGrasse Tyson quotes.

1. ON SCIENCE

"The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it."
—From Real Time with Bill Maher.

2. ON NASA FUNDING

"As a fraction of your tax dollar today, what is the total cost of all spaceborne telescopes, planetary probes, the rovers on Mars, the International Space Station, the space shuttle, telescopes yet to orbit, and missions yet to fly?' Answer: one-half of one percent of each tax dollar. Half a penny. I’d prefer it were more: perhaps two cents on the dollar. Even during the storied Apollo era, peak NASA spending amounted to little more than four cents on the tax dollar." 
—From Space Chronicles

3. ON GOD AND HURRICANES

"Once upon a time, people identified the god Neptune as the source of storms at sea. Today we call these storms hurricanes ... The only people who still call hurricanes acts of God are the people who write insurance forms."
—From Death by Black Hole

4. ON THE BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY INVENTED FOR USE IN SPACE

"Countless women are alive today because of ideas stimulated by a design flaw in the Hubble Space Telescope." (Editor's note: technology used to repair the Hubble Space Telescope's optical problems led to improved technology for breast cancer detection.)
—From Space Chronicles

5. ON THE DEMOTION OF PLUTO FROM PLANET STATUS 


PBS

"I knew Pluto was popular among elementary schoolkids, but I had no idea they would mobilize into a 'Save Pluto' campaign. I now have a drawer full of hate letters from hundreds of elementary schoolchildren (with supportive cover letters from their science teachers) pleading with me to reverse my stance on Pluto. The file includes a photograph of the entire third grade of a school posing on their front steps and holding up a banner proclaiming, 'Dr. Tyson—Pluto is a Planet!'"
—From The Sky Is Not the Limit

6. ON JAMES CAMERON'S TITANIC

"In [Titanic], the stars above the ship bear no correspondence to any constellations in a real sky. Worse yet, while the heroine bobs ... we are treated to her view of this Hollywood sky—one where the stars on the right half of the scene trace the mirror image of the stars in the left half. How lazy can you get?"
—From Death by Black Hole

7. ON DEATH BY ASTEROID

"On Friday the 13th, April 2029, an asteroid large enough to fill the Rose Bowl as though it were an egg cup will fly so close to Earth that it will dip below the altitude of our communication satellites. We did not name this asteroid Bambi. Instead, we named it Apophis, after the Egyptian god of darkness and death."
—From Space Chronicles

8. ON THE MOTIVATIONS BEHIND AMERICA'S MOONSHOT

"[L]et us not fool ourselves into thinking we went to the Moon because we are pioneers, or discoverers, or adventurers. We went to the Moon because it was the militaristically expedient thing to do."
—From The Sky Is Not the Limit

9. ON INTELLIGENT LIFE (OR THE LACK THEREOF)

Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/neildegras615117.html
Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/neildegras615117.html

"Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life."

10. PRACTICAL ADVICE IN THE EVENT OF ALIEN CONTACT 

A still from Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
Universal Studios

"[I]f an alien lands on your front lawn and extends an appendage as a gesture of greeting, before you get friendly, toss it an eightball. If the appendage explodes, then the alien was probably made of antimatter. If not, then you can proceed to take it to your leader."
—From Death by Black Hole

How Apple's '1984' Super Bowl Ad Was Almost Canceled

More than 30 years ago, Apple defined the Super Bowl commercial as a cultural phenomenon. Prior to Super Bowl XVIII, nobody watched the game "just for the commercials"—but one epic TV spot, directed by sci-fi legend Ridley Scott, changed all that. Read on for the inside story of the commercial that rocked the world of advertising, even though Apple's Board of Directors didn't want to run it at all.

THE AD

If you haven't seen it, here's a fuzzy YouTube version:

"WHY 1984 WON'T BE LIKE 1984"

The tagline "Why 1984 Won't Be Like '1984'" references George Orwell's 1949 novel 1984, which envisioned a dystopian future, controlled by a televised "Big Brother." The tagline was written by Brent Thomas and Steve Hayden of the ad firm Chiat\Day in 1982, and the pair tried to sell it to various companies (including Apple, for the Apple II computer) but were turned down repeatedly. When Steve Jobs heard the pitch in 1983, he was sold—he saw the Macintosh as a "revolutionary" product, and wanted advertising to match. Jobs saw IBM as Big Brother, and wanted to position Apple as the world's last chance to escape IBM's domination of the personal computer industry. The Mac was scheduled to launch in late January of 1984, a week after the Super Bowl. IBM already held the nickname "Big Blue," so the parallels, at least to Jobs, were too delicious to miss.

Thomas and Hayden wrote up the story of the ad: we see a world of mind-controlled, shuffling men all in gray, staring at a video screen showing the face of Big Brother droning on about "information purification directives." A lone woman clad in vibrant red shorts and a white tank-top (bearing a Mac logo) runs from riot police, dashing up an aisle towards Big Brother. Just before being snatched by the police, she flings a sledgehammer at Big Brother's screen, smashing him just after he intones "We shall prevail!" Big Brother's destruction frees the minds of the throng, who quite literally see the light, flooding their faces now that the screen is gone. A mere eight seconds before the one-minute ad concludes, a narrator briefly mentions the word "Macintosh," in a restatement of that original tagline: "On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 won't be like '1984.'" An Apple logo is shown, and then we're out—back to the game.

In 1983, in a presentation about the Mac, Jobs introduced the ad to a cheering audience of Apple employees:

"... It is now 1984. It appears IBM wants it all. Apple is perceived to be the only hope to offer IBM a run for its money. Dealers, initially welcoming IBM with open arms, now fear an IBM-dominated and -controlled future. They are increasingly turning back to Apple as the only force that can ensure their future freedom. IBM wants it all and is aiming its guns on its last obstacle to industry control: Apple. Will Big Blue dominate the entire computer industry? The entire information age? Was George Orwell right about 1984?"

After seeing the ad for the first time, the Apple audience totally freaked out (jump to about the 5-minute mark to witness the riotous cheering).

SKINHEADS, A DISCUS THROWER, AND A SCI-FI DIRECTOR

Chiat\Day hired Ridley Scott, whose 1982 sci-fi film Blade Runner had the dystopian tone they were looking for (and Alien wasn't so bad either). Scott filmed the ad in London, using actual skinheads playing the mute bald men—they were paid $125 a day to sit and stare at Big Brother; those who still had hair were paid to shave their heads for the shoot. Anya Major, a discus thrower and actress, was cast as the woman with the sledgehammer largely because she was actually capable of wielding the thing.

Mac programmer Andy Hertzfeld wrote an Apple II program "to flash impressive looking numbers and graphs on [Big Brother's] screen," but it's unclear whether his program was used for the final film. The ad cost a shocking $900,000 to film, plus Apple booked two premium slots during the Super Bowl to air it—carrying an airtime cost of more than $1 million.

WHAT EXECUTIVES AT APPLE THOUGHT

Although Jobs and his marketing team (plus the assembled throng at his 1983 internal presentation) loved the ad, Apple's Board of Directors hated it. After seeing the ad for the first time, board member Mike Markkula suggested that Chiat\Day be fired, and the remainder of the board were similarly unimpressed. Then-CEO John Sculley recalled the reaction after the ad was screened for the group: "The others just looked at each other, dazed expressions on their faces ... Most of them felt it was the worst commercial they had ever seen. Not a single outside board member liked it." Sculley instructed Chiat\Day to sell off the Super Bowl airtime they had purchased, but Chiat\Day principal Jay Chiat quietly resisted. Chiat had purchased two slots—a 60-second slot in the third quarter to show the full ad, plus a 30-second slot later on to repeat an edited-down version. Chiat sold only the 30-second slot and claimed it was too late to sell the longer one. By disobeying his client's instructions, Chiat cemented Apple's place in advertising history.

When Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak heard that the ad was in trouble, he offered to pony up half the airtime costs himself, saying, "I asked how much it was going to cost, and [Steve Jobs] told me $800,000. I said, 'Well, I'll pay half of it if you will.' I figured it was a problem with the company justifying the expenditure. I thought an ad that was so great a piece of science fiction should have its chance to be seen."

But Woz didn't have to shell out the money; the executive team finally decided to run a 100-day advertising extravaganza for the Mac's launch, starting with the Super Bowl ad—after all, they had already paid to shoot it and were stuck with the airtime.

1984 - Big Brother

WHAT EVERYBODY ELSE THOUGHT

When the ad aired, controversy erupted—viewers either loved or hated the ad, and it spurred a wave of media coverage that involved news shows replaying the ad as part of covering it, leading to estimates of an additional $5 million in "free" airtime for the ad. All three national networks, plus countless local markets, ran news stories about the ad. "1984" become a cultural event, and served as a blueprint for future Apple product launches. The marketing logic was brilliantly simple: create an ad campaign that sparked controversy (for example, by insinuating that IBM was like Big Brother), and the media will cover your launch for free, amplifying the message.

The full ad famously ran once during the Super Bowl XVIII (on January 22, 1984), but it also ran the month prior—on December 31, 1983, TV station operator Tom Frank ran the ad on KMVT at the last possible time slot before midnight, in order to qualify for 1983's advertising awards.* (Any awards the ad won would mean more media coverage.) Apple paid to screen the ad in movie theaters before movie trailers, further heightening anticipation for the Mac launch. In addition to all that, the 30-second version was aired across the country after its debut on the Super Bowl.

Chiat\Day adman Steve Hayden recalled: "We ran a 30- second version of '1984' in the top 10 U.S. markets, plus, in an admittedly childish move, in an 11th market—Boca Raton, Florida, headquarters for IBM's PC division." Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld ended his remembrance of the ad by saying:

"A week after the Macintosh launch, Apple held its January board meeting. The Macintosh executive staff was invited to attend, not knowing what to expect. When the Mac people entered the room, everyone on the board rose and gave them a standing ovation, acknowledging that they were wrong about the commercial and congratulating the team for pulling off a fantastic launch.

Chiat\Day wanted the commercial to qualify for upcoming advertising awards, so they ran it once at 1 AM at a small television station in Twin Falls, Idaho, KMVT, on December 15, 1983 [incorrect; see below for an update on this -ed]. And sure enough it won just about every possible award, including best commercial of the decade. Twenty years later it's considered one of the most memorable television commercials ever made."

THE AWFUL 1985 FOLLOW-UP

A year later, Apple again employed Chiat\Day to make a blockbuster ad for their Macintosh Office product line, which was basically a file server, networking gear, and a laser printer. Directed by Ridley Scott's brother Tony, the new ad was called "Lemmings," and featured blindfolded businesspeople whistling an out-of-tune version of Snow White's "Heigh-Ho" as they followed each other off a cliff (referencing the myth of lemming suicide).

Jobs and Sculley didn't like the ad, but Chiat\Day convinced them to run it, pointing out that the board hadn't liked the last ad either. But unlike the rousing, empowering message of the "1984" ad, "Lemmings" directly insulted business customers who had already bought IBM computers. It was also weirdly boring—when it was aired at the Super Bowl (with Jobs and Sculley in attendance), nobody really reacted. The ad was a flop, and Apple even proposed running a printed apology in The Wall Street Journal. Jay Chiat shot back, saying that if Apple apologized, Chiat would buy an ad on the next page, apologizing for the apology. It was a mess:

20-YEAR ANNIVERSARY

In 2004, the ad was updated for the launch of the iPod. The only change was that the woman with the hammer was now listening to an iPod, which remained clipped to her belt as she ran. You can watch that version too:

FURTHER READING

Chiat\Day adman Lee Clow gave an interview about the ad, covering some of this material.

Check out Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld's excellent first-person account of the ad. A similar account (but with more from Jobs's point of view) can found in the Steve Jobs biography, and an even more in-depth account is in The Mac Bathroom Reader. The Mac Bathroom Reader is out of print; you can read an excerpt online, including QuickTime movies of the two versions of the ad, plus a behind-the-scenes video. Finally, you might enjoy this 2004 USA Today article about the ad, pointing out that ads for other computers (including Atari, Radio Shack, and IBM's new PCjr) also ran during that Super Bowl.

* = A Note on the Airing in 1983

Update: Thanks to Tom Frank for writing in to correct my earlier mis-statement about the first air date of this commercial. As you can see in his comment below, Hertzfeld's comments above (and the dates cited in other accounts I've seen) are incorrect. Stay tuned for an upcoming interview with Frank, in which we discuss what it was like running both "1984" and "Lemmings" before they were on the Super Bowl!

Update 2: You can read the story behind this post in Chris's book The Blogger Abides.

This post originally appeared in 2012.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios