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Some Boxy Facts for Boxing Day!

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Happy Boxing Day to those Flossers who celebrate it! On a more generic box-ing note, we've packaged a few boxy facts for your consideration:

Crate Expectations

What's the difference between a wooden box and a wooden crate? Not very much to the average consumer, but the U.S. Government has a different take on the situation. There are no less than five different official standards that dictate the specific style and construction of the container to allow it to be called a "crate." To summarize all the legal mumbo-jumbo, it appears that a "crate" is sturdier and more intricately built than your average "box." A container may be constructed of wood and look like a crate, but if it doesn't have a secure lid and is not able to be stacked and sustain X amount of weight atop it, it's a box, not a crate.

The First Jack-in-the-Box

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We know you've long been wondering which came first: Jack in the Box the hamburger chain or jack-in-the-box the kid's toy. Well, you can stop scratching your head! The first jack-in-the-box toy was manufactured in the early 1500s by a German clock-maker. It consisted of a wooden box with a hinged metal lid and a hand crank on the side. The "jack" that popped out was based on the Punch character of the then-popular Punch and Judy shows. In fact, jack-in-the-box wasn't the toy's most common name. It originally went by such names as "Johnny Jump-Up" and the "Punch Box."

Box-fest at Tiffany's

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Tiffany & Company introduced its distinctive blue boxes in 1837. In fact, they commissioned a company to develop a unique shade of blue strictly for use in their packaging, brochures, and shopping bags in order to give their products a "signature." The company became so protective of the color that a rule was established in 1906 "“ no one could buy an empty box; indeed, no official Tiffany box could leave the store without an item purchased from the store enclosed. Their investment paid off, as any woman lucky enough to receive pricey jewelry as a gift will immediately recognize the "little blue box" as a genuine Tiffany product.

The Origin of the Juice Box

The modern juice box evolved from an invention produced by Swedish entrepreneur Ruben Rausing. In 1963 Rausing was experimenting with more efficient methods to ship milk to retail outlets and he came up with the Tetra-Brik, an aseptic rectangular carton. In 1980 Ocean Spray became the first U.S. company to use Rausing's technology to sell individual servings of juice in a box.

Gateway Cow Boxes

Screen shot 2009-12-26 at 12.10.46 PMTed Waitt started a business in 1985 using his parents' farm house in Sioux City, Iowa, as his base of operations. His original business model was selling peripheral equipment to Texas Instrument computer users, but he soon learned that he could make more money by building and selling whole computers rather than components. With a $10,000 loan from his grandmother he founded Gateway, Inc. The packaging for all of Gateway's products featured a Holstein cow motif in tribute to the cattle ranch that gave him his start.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
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It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]